Mindoro is the seventh largest island in the Philippines by land area with a total of 10,571 km2 and with a total population of 1,331,473 as of 2015. It is located off northeast of Palawan. Mindoro is divided into Oriental Mindoro. San Jose is the largest settlement on the island with a total population of 143,430 inhabitants as of 2015; the southern coast of Mindoro forms the northeastern extremum of the Sulu Sea. Mount Halcon is the highest point on the island, standing at 8,484 feet above sea level located in Oriental Mindoro. Mount Baco is the island's second highest mountain with an elevation of 8,163 feet, located in the province of Occidental Mindoro. In past times, it has been called Ma-i or Mait by Han Chinese traders and by Spaniards, as Mina de Oro from where the island got its current name. According to the late historian William Henry Scott, an entry in the official history of the Sung Dynasty for the year 972 mentions Ma-i as a state which traded with China. Other Chinese records referring to Ma-i or Mindoro appear in the years.
The products that Mindoro traders exchanged with the Chinese included "beeswax, true pearls, tortoise shell, medicinal betelnuts and yu-ta cloth" for Chinese porcelain, trade gold, iron pots, copper, colored glass beads and iron needles. The island was invaded by the Sultanate of Brunei and housed Moro settlements before the Spanish invaded and Christianized the population. Afterwards, the area was depopulated due to wars between the Spaniards and the Moros from Mindanao who sought to enslave the hispanized people and to re-islamize the island. Most of the population fled to nearby Batangas and the once rich towns of Mindoro fell to ruin. In the seventeenth century, Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri visited the island. In 1898, Mindoro joined in the Philippine Revolution against Spain due to the influx of rebels settling into the island from Cavite and Bataan. Local patriotism died down however during the American occupation of the Philippines and the Japanese era; the island was the location of the Battle of Mindoro in World War II.
Upon Philippine independence, the area recovered and from 1920 to 1950, the island was a single province with Calapan City as the provincial capital. In 1950, it was partitioned into its two present-day provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro, following a referendum, pushed through by acting governor Romeo Venturanza; the economy of Mindoro is based on agriculture. Products consist of a wide variety of fruits, such as citrus, lanzones and coconuts, sugarcane, fish and poultry. Logging and the mining of marble and copper thrive. Tourism is a lucrative business as well, with locations such as Apo Reef National Park, Lubang Island, Puerto Galera, Sabang Beach and Mount Halcon. Puerto Galera's beaches are the island's most known tourist attraction and are visited; the principal language in Mindoro is Tagalog, although in some parts it has been influenced by the native Mangyan and Visayan languages. Visayan and Mangyan languages, are spoken on the island, as are Ilocano and some foreign languages — e.g. English, Hokkien and to a lesser extent, Spanish.
The following indigenous languages are spoken in Mindoro: Northern Mindoro languages - 16,000 speakers Iraya - 10,000 speakers Alangan - 2,150 speakers Tadyawan - 4,200 speakers Southern Mindoro languages - 30,000 speakers Buhid - 8,000 speakers Tawbuid - 8,000 speakers Hanuno'o - 14,000 speakers Visayan languages Ratagnon language - 2 speakersThe common religions on the island fall under Christianity. The religion of the indigenous Mangyan population is animism. Though they are into animism as a principal religion, the Roman Catholic Church in some of Mindoro's parts is active, so are a few independent subdivisions, like Iglesia Ni Cristo and Philippine Independent Church, as well as the Baptist Church. Mindoro is home to the tamaraw or Mindoro dwarf buffalo, endemic to the island; the tamaraw is an endangered species. C. Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulu Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P. Saundry & C. J. Cleveland. Washington DC Media related to Mindoro at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Mindoro at OpenStreetMap "Map of Mindoro" showing towns and major mountain tops
Soccsksargen known as Cotabato or Kota Bato, is an administrative region of the Philippines, located in south-central Mindanao. It is numerically designated as Region XII; the name is an acronym that stands for 1 city. The region used to be called Central Mindanao; the regional center is in Koronadal located in the province of South Cotabato, the center of commerce and industry is General Santos, the most populous city in the Region. The region is bounded on the north by Northern Mindanao, on the east by the Davao Region, on the southwest by the Celebes Sea; the province of Maguindanao is situated between Cotabato City, North Cotabato province, Sultan Kudarat. The region has extensive coastlines and mountain ranges. Known for its river system, the region is the drainage basin of Mindanao at the Cotabato Basin, a large depression surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides. Within the basin runs the Rio Grande de Mindanao, the longest river in Mindanao and the second longest in the Philippines.
The river empties into the Illana Bay of the larger Moro Gulf at the west of Cotabato City. At the south of the basin lie the Tiruray Highlands, a moderately high mountain range blocking the basin from the southern coastline. Southeast of the mountains lie the Sarangani Bay; the oldest civilization in the region is located in Maitum, where the Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery were found. The jars have been declared as National Cultural Treasures, are subject to the high protections ensured by Philippine and international laws; the region used to be named Central Mindanao. Prior to the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao it comprised the following provinces: Maguindanao North Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Lanao del Norte Lanao del SurWith the creation of ARMM, Lanao del Sur,and Maguindanao were removed from the region, leaving Lanao del Norte and Sultan Kudarat, Iligan and Cotabato City as constituent provinces and cities. Lanao del Norte and Iligan were transferred to Northern Mindanao, while Marawi became part of the ARMM.
On September 2001, Executive Order No. 36 was signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo transferring South Cotabato, General Santos, Koronadal from Southern Mindanao to Region XII, renaming the region, from Central Mindanao, to SOCCSKSARGEN. By virtue of Executive Order No. 304 signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Koronadal City was named as the Regional political and socio-economic center of SOCCSKSARGEN on March 30, 2004. Regional departments and offices were ordered to move from Cotabato City, the former Regional Center of the Region. Traditionally resisting efforts for inclusion to the autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao despite serving as the government center of the ARMM, the January 21, 2019 Bangsamoro Autonomous Region creation plebiscite resulted in the surprise ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law; this means Cotabato City may now formally serve as the capital of the region and the offices of the current ARMM will be retained for use by the Bangsamoro Regional Government and now formally exited to the Soccsksargen Region.
Soccsksargen comprises 4 provinces, 1 urbanized city, 3 component cities, 45 municipalities and 1,195 barangays. Kidapawan — the only city of Cotabato province Koronadal — the political regional center of Soccsksargen Tacurong — only city of Sultan Kudarat General Santos — a urbanized city, it serves as the center of the Metropolitan and Regional Center for trade and industry of Soccsksargen. Cotabato — Gov. Emmylou "Lala" J. Talino-Mendoza South Cotabato — Gov. Daisy Avance-Fuentes Sultan Kudarat — Gov. Datu Suharto "Teng" T. Mangudadatu Sarangani — Gov. Steve C. Solon General Santos City — Mayor Ronnel “Nel” Rivera The region contributes to the national GDP with 2.6% with 5% growth compared to 2016. 18.3% of Mindanao Gross Regional Domestic Product. The culture of native Maguindanaon and other native groups, both Muslim and non-Muslim, revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found in the SoCCSKSarGent. Media related to SOCCSKSARGEN at Wikimedia Commons National Statistical Coordination Board: REGION XII
Batangas known as the Province of Batangas is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is the city of Batangas and is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea. Poetically, Batangas is referred to by its ancient name Kumintáng. Batangas is one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila, it is home to the well-known Taal Volcano, one of the Decade Volcanoes, Taal Heritage town, a small town that has ancestral houses and structures dating back to the 19th century. The province has numerous beaches and diving spots including Anilao in Mabini, Sombrero Island in Tingloy, Ligpo Island and Sampaguita Beach in Bauan, Matabungkay in Lian, Punta Fuego in Nasugbu and Laiya in San Juan. All of the marine waters of the province are part of the Verde Island Passage, the center of the center of world's marine biodiversity.
Batangas City has the second largest international seaport in the Philippines after Metro Manila. The identification of the city as an industrial growth center in the region and being the focal point of the Calabarzon program is seen in the increasing number of business establishments in the city's Central Business District as well as numerous industries operating in the province's industrial parks; the first recorded name of the province was Kumintáng, whose political center was the present-day municipality of Balayan. Balayan was considered the most progressive town of the region. An eruption of Taal Volcano destroyed a significant portion of the town, causing residents to transfer to Bonbon, the name encompassing the bounds of the modern province; the term Batangan means a raft which the people used so that they could fish in the nearby Taal Lake. It meant the numerous logs found in the Calumpang River, the body of water that runs through the northeastern portion of the town and assumes the shape of a tuning fork.
Long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, large centers of population thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined a major waterway; the province had been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty until the first phase of Ming Dynasty in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were trading with Japan and India; the Philippines ancestors were Buddhists and Hindus, but far from India and intermixed with animistic beliefs. Archaeological findings show that before the settlement of the Spaniards in the country, the Tagalogs the Batangueños, had attained a semblance of high civilization; this was shown by certain jewelry, made from a chambered nautilus' shell, where tiny holes were created by a drill-like tool. The Ancient Batangueños were influenced by India as shown in the origin of most languages from Sanskrit and certain ancient potteries. A Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot resembles the iconographic portrayal of Buddha in Siam and Nepal.
The pot shows. Scholars noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was depicted. One of the major archaeological finds was in January 1941, where two crude stone figures were found in Palapat in the municipality of Calatagan, they were donated to the National Museum. One of them was destroyed during World War II. Eighteen years a grave was excavated in nearby Punta Buaya. Pieces of brain coral were carved behind the heads of the 12 remains; the site was named Likha. The remains were accompanied by furniture. Potteries, as well as bracelets and metal objects were found in the area, suggesting that the people who lived there had extensive contact with people from as far as China; the presence of dining utensils such as plates or "chalices" found with the remains suggest that prehistoric Batangueños believed in the idea of life-after-death. Thus, the Batangueños, like their neighbors in other parts of Asia, have similar customs of burying furniture with the dead.
Like the nearby tribes, the Batangan or the early Batangueños were a non-aggressive people. Because most of the tribes in their immediate environment were related to them by blood; some weapons Batangans used included the bakyang, the bangkaw, the suwan. Being superstitious, the use of agimat showed that these people believed in the presence of higher beings and other things unseen; the natives believed. The term'Tagalog' may have been derived from the word taga-ilog or "river dwellers" referring to the Pasig River located further up north of the region. However, Wang Teh-Ming in his writings on Sino-Filipino relations points out that Batangas was the real center of the Tagalog tribe, which he identified as Ma-yi or Ma-i. According to the Chinese Imperial Annals, Ma-yi had its center in the province and extends to as far as Cavite, Rizal, Bataan, Mindoro, Nueva Ecija, some parts of Zambales, Tarlac. However, many historians interchangeably use the term Batangueño. Henry Otley Beyer, an American archaeologist showed in his studies that the early Batangueños had a special affinity with the precious stone known as the jade.
He named the Late Paleolithic Period of the Philippines as the Batangas Period in reco
Davao Region called Southern Mindanao, is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI. It is situated at the southeastern portion of Mindanao, comprising five provinces: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental, the newly created province; the region encloses the Davao Gulf, its regional center is Davao City. Dávao is the Hispanicized pronunciation of daba-daba, the Bagobo word for "fire". Many historians believe that the name Davao is the mixture of the three names that three different tribes, the earliest settlers in the region, had for the Davao River; the Manobos, an aboriginal tribe, referred to the Davao Rivers as Davohoho. Another tribe, the Bagobos, referred to the river as Davohaha, which means "fire", while another tribe, the Guiangan tribe, called the river as Duhwow; the history of the region dates back to the times. It is believed that the Manobos, Kalagans and the Bagobos occupied the area; these are the same tribes that created the small settlements and communities that became Mindanao.
The Davao Gulf area is the first region in the country, in contact with the Europeans, with such contacts taking place as early as 16th century. The Portuguese are the ones who preceded the Spaniards, who are the ones to colonize the region albeit much in sighting and visiting the region. In 1512, Francisco Serrano was shipwrecked in the shallow waters and coral reefs of Cape of San Agustín, located in what is now the province of Davao Oriental. In 1538, Francisco de Castro, a Portuguese captain, was driven by strong winds to the southeastern coast of Mindanao, he baptized several chieftains in the area. Around January 1546, Francis Xavier, a Jesuit priest, left Malacca and went to Molucca Islands called the Spice Islands, where the Portuguese had some settlements, for a year and a half he preached the Gospel to the inhabitants of Amboyna, Ternate and other lesser islands, it is claimed by some that during this expedition he landed on the island of Mindanao, confirmed by some writers of the seventeenth century, in the Bull of canonization issued in 1623.
It is said that he is the one to have preached the Gospel in Mindanao. For centuries the tribes lived in relative peace until the Spanish, under the adventurous Spanish businessman Don Jose Oyanguren, arrived in the region in 1847. At that time, the Kalagan Moro chieftain Datu Bago was in control of the area in what is now Davao City. Don Oyanguren attempted to conquer the area; this is the time the town of Davao called Nueva Vergara by the Spaniards, was established in the year 1848. Don Oyanguren attempted to develop the region. Although the Spanish gained the upper hand when they controlled the ports of the region, the population of Davao grew slowly until the arrival of Christian missionaries in the area in 1890. After the Spanish–American War in 1898, Spanish rule in the region ended. Americans landed in the region and they subsequently developed the regions communications and transportation systems. During this period, private farm ownership grew in the region. Japanese migration in the region began as two Japanese entrepreneurs, Kyosaburo Ohta and Yoshizo Furokawa, were finding better agricultural lands for building abaca and coconut plantations in the region.
The Port of Davao was opened on 1900, becoming the first Philippine international port to be established in the south. In 1903 until 1914, the region was one of the districts of the former Moro Province in Mindanao. After 1914, the province was replaced by an American colonial agency called Department of Mindanao and Sulu, which spanned the entire Mindanao island except Lanao; the agency lasted from 1914 to 1920. In 1942, during World War II, as the Japanese occupation of the Philippines began, the region was one of the first among the Philippine regions to be subjected by Japanese occupation; the Japanese immigrants in Davao acted as a fifth column, welcoming the Japanese invaders during World War II. These Japanese disliked by the Chinese; the Moros were judged as "fully capable of dealing with Japanese fifth columnists and invaders alike." The Moros were to fight the Japanese invaders. The Japanese went back to their ships at night to sleep since the Moros struck so much fear into them though the Moros were outnumbered by the Japanese.
The longest battle of the Allied liberation campaign, the Battle of Davao, took place in 1945. After the war, the region passed to the American hands again for at least one year before the formal Philippine independence in July 4, 1946, most of the Japanese living in the region were now integrated in the Filipino population. Before the Philippine independence in 1946, the entire region was a single province called Davao Province, with Davao City serving as its capital; the province was one of the largest provinces in the Philippines during that time, spanning more than 20,000 square kilometres. It lasted from 1920 until 1967, when the province was split into three provinces in May 1967: Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental. After the division, Davao City was named its regional center. Region XI known as Southern Mindanao covered 6 provinces, the cities of Davao, Panabo, Samal, General Santos and Koronadal. Surigao del Sur was moved
Department of Social Welfare and Development
The Philippines' Department of Social Welfare and Development is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for the protection of the social welfare of rights of Filipinos and to promote social development. In 1915, the Public Welfare Board was created and was tasked to study and regulate all government and private entities engaged in social services. In 1921, the PWB was abolished and replaced by the Bureau of Public Welfare under the Department of Public Instruction. On November 1, 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 439 created the Department of Health and Public Welfare and in 1941, the Bureau of Public Welfare became a part of the Department of Health and Public Welfare. In addition to coordinating services of all public and private social welfare institutions, the Bureau managed all public child-caring institutions and the provision of child welfare services. In 1947, President Manuel Roxas abolished the Bureau of Public Welfare and created the Social Welfare Commission, under the Office of the President, in its place.
In 1968, Republic Act 5416, known as the Social Welfare Act of 1968, created the Department of Social Welfare, placing it under the executive branch of government. In 1976, the Department of Social Welfare was renamed Department of Social Services and Development through Presidential Decree No. 994. This was signed into law by President Ferdinand E. Marcos and gave the department an accurate institutional identity. On June 2, 1978, the DSSD was renamed Ministry of Social Services and Development in line with the change in the form of government. In 1987, the MSSD was reorganized and renamed Department of Social Welfare and Development through Executive Order 123, signed by President Corazon C. Aquino. Executive Order No. 292 known as the Revised Administration Code of 1987, established the name, organizational structure and functional areas of responsibility of DSWD and further defined its statutory authority. In 1991, the passage of Republic Act No. 7160 otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991 effected the devolution of DSWD basic services to local government units.
The Department is headed by the Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, with the following nine undersecretaries and eight assistant secretaries: Undersecretary for General Administration and Support Services Group Undersecretary for Special Concerns Group Undersecretary for Policy and Plans Group Undersecretary for Promotive Operations and Programs Group Undersecretary for Protective Operations and Program Group Undersecretary for Disaster Response Management Group Undersecretary for Support Programs Infrastructure Management Undersecretary for Luzon Affairs Undersecretary for Legislative Liaison Affairs and Special Presidential Directives in the Mindanao Region Assistant Secretary for General Administration and Support Services Group Assistant Secretary for the Office of the Secretary Assistant Secretary for Special Women’s and Children’s Concerns Assistant Secretary for Special Concerns Group Assistant Secretary for Promotive Programs Assistant Secretary for Finance and Legal Assistant Secretary for Policy and Plans Group in charge of National Household Targeting Office and Policy Development and Planning Bureau Assistant Secretary for Policy and Plans in charge of Standards Bureau and Unconditional Cash Transfer Project Management Office The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program or "4Ps" is a human development program that invests in the health and education of poor families those with children aged 0–18.
The Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan – Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services – National Community-Driven Development Program is the community-driven development program of the Philippine Government implemented through the Department of Social Welfare and Development. The Sustainable Livelihood Program is a community-based capacity building effort that seeks to improve the program participants’ socio-economic status through two tracks: Micro-enterprise Development and Employment Facilitation. An information management system that identifies who and where the poor are in the country, it is being operated by the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction. Provision of food in addition to the regular meals, to target children as part of the DSWD's ECCD program of the government. Life-saving emergency relief and long-term response. Recovery and Reintegration Program for Trafficked Persons is a comprehensive package of programs and services, enhancing the psychosocial and economic needs of the beneficiaries.
Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan aims to improve access of poor communities to basic social services and promote responsive governance. Provides a range of interventions to individuals and communities in crisis or difficult situations and vulnerable or disaster-affected communities. International Social Welfare Services for Filipino Nationals is a program for migrant Filipinos and other overseas Filipino nationals who are in crisis situation and in need of special protection are encouraged to seek assistance in the Philippine Embassies in their countries of destination. Services rendered in facilities 24-hour that provide alternative family care arrangement to poor and disadvantaged individuals or families in crisis; the act of adoption, of permanently placing a minor with a parent or parents other than the birth parents in the Philippines. Gender is about relations—between men and women and women between men and men and boys and girls; the GAD as perspective recognizes that gender concerns cut across all areas of development and therefore gende
Iloilo City the City of Iloilo, is a urbanized city on the southeastern tip of Panay island in the Philippines. It is the capital city of the province of Iloilo where it is geographically situated but, in terms of government and administration, it is politically independent. In addition, it is the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area, as well as the regional center and primate city of the Western Visayas region. In the 2015 census, Iloilo City had a population of 447,992 inhabitants, with a 1.02% population annual growth rate. For the metropolitan area, the total population is 946,146 inhabitants. Iloilo City is bordered by the towns of Oton in the west, Pavia in the north and Leganes in the northeast. Just across the Iloilo Strait in its eastern and southern coastlines, are the towns of Buenavista and Jordan in the island-province of Guimaras; the city was a conglomeration of former towns, which are now the geographical districts consisting of: Villa Arevalo, Iloilo City Proper, Jaro, La Paz and Molo.
The district of Lapuz, a former part of La Paz, was declared a separate district in 2008. The city's earliest establishment dates back in 1566 when a settlement in the borders present city's district of Arevalo and Ogtong was established when Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi moved his headquarters from the island of Cebu. Due to the frequent coastal raids by the Moro pirates and Dutch and English privateers, the Spanish Governor General Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa moved the colonial center in Panay island from the town of Ogtong eastward and formally founded the town of La Villa Rica de Arévalo in 1581, a present day district of Iloilo City. Iloilo City earned its title "La Muy Leal y Noble Ciudad" through a royal decree by Queen Regent Maria Cristina of Spain through the city's loyalty to the Spanish crown during the Philippine revolution thus it earned its moniker through that title as the Queen's City of the South or Queen Regent's City of the South, a title that through the years because of Iloilo's socio-economic importance and prominence next to Manila during Spanish colonial period has been colloquially referred to its form as Queen City of the South.
The city's Spanish inception and the royal decree further implies its status and reputation as one of the three Spanish Royal Cities in the Philippines after Manila and Naga. The City of Iloilo is the second Spanish royal city after Manila with a royal title given by a monarchy of Spain. Iloilo is known as the "Heart of the Philippines" and " City of Love" because of Iloilo and Panay Island's central most geographical location in the Philippine archipelago and the soft and gentle spoken Ilonggo people, as the "Emerging Museum City of the Philippines" and "City of Mansions" because of the collection of heritage structures and mansions clustered in the city built during the Spanish and American colonial eras; the city's district of the former city of Jaro is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Jaro with its venerated patron Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria enshrined at the National Shrine of Our Lady of Candles, is the official patron of Western Visayas and Romblon. The Marian statue of Candelaria perched atop the facade of Jaro Cathedral is the only Marian statue and image in the Philippines crowned by a pope and saint, John Paul II.
The United States colonization of the Philippine islands, with Iloilo as one of the firsts American colonial outposts and which they brought their faith the Protestantism, paved the way in founding of numerous institutions that made Iloilo pioneer with its important contribution in the history of American colonial era in the country which include the famous American titan John D. Rockefeller funded Central Philippine University, the first Baptist and second American and Protestant university in the Philippines and in Asia. During the decline of the Spanish Empire stronghold in the Visayan islands in the late 1890s, the revolutionaries established Iloilo City as the capital of the short-lived Federal State of the Visayas, with its jurisdiction, besides encompassing the islands of Panay and Guimaras encompasses the islands of Romblon and Bohol plus the Cantonal Republic of Negros. Iloilo is the last capital of the Spanish Empire in Asia and the Pacific before the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898.
Since 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, specially through the 10th to early 14th centuries, Philippines was within the scope of Greater India cultural influence. According to ancient legends, some of the inhabitants of Panay island were from other islands, including Borneo and Sumatra. Panay might be named after the kingdom of Pannai, located in Sumatra, since i and y are interchangeable in Spanish. Proof for this is corroborated by linguistic evidence. Local tradition refers to the name as a shortening of the Ati word, "Ananipay", it was what the Atis had come to use for the name given by the Malay settlers to their newly found home. Some historians affirm the Sumatran origin of the people of Panay, observing that the Visayans derived their writing system from those of Toba, Borneo
Trafficking of children
Trafficking of children is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transfer, and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation. This definition is wider than the same document's definition of "trafficking in persons". Children may be trafficked for the purpose of adoption. Though statistics regarding the magnitude of child trafficking are difficult to obtain, the International Labour Organization estimates that 1.2 million children are trafficked each year. In 2012 the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime reports the percentage of child victims had risen in a 3 year span from 20 per cent to 27 per cent; every year 300,000 children are sold by human traffickers as slaves. 17,000 of those children are brought to the United States, so, 46 children per day. In 2014, research conducted by the anti-human trafficking organization Thorn reported that Internet sites like Craigslist are used as tools for conducting business within the industry and that 70 percent of child sex trafficking survivors surveyed were at some point sold online.
The trafficking of children has been internationally recognized as a serious crime that exists in every region of the world and which has human rights implications. Yet, it is only within the past decade that the prevalence and ramifications of this practice have risen to international prominence, due to a dramatic increase in research and public action. A variety of potential solutions have accordingly been suggested and implemented, which can be categorized as four types of action: broad protection, law enforcement, victim assistance; the main international documents dealing with the trafficking of children are the 1989 U. N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, the 1999 I. L. O. Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention and the 2000 U. N. Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children; the first major international instrument dealing with the trafficking of children is part of the 2000 United Nations Palermo protocols, titled the Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children.
Article 3 of this document defines child trafficking as the "recruitment, transfer, harboring and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of exploitation. The definition for child trafficking given here applies only to cases of trafficking that are transnational and/or involve organized criminal groups; the International Labour Organization expands upon this definition by asserting that movement and exploitation are key aspects of child trafficking. The definition of "child" used here is that listed in the 1989 U. N. Convention on the Rights of the Child which states, "a child means every human being below the age of 18 years, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier." The distinction outlined in this definition is important, because some countries have chosen to set the "age of majority" lower than 18, thus influencing what constitutes child trafficking. Many international and national instruments deal with the trafficking of children; these instruments are used to define what constitutes trafficking of children, such that appropriate legal action can be taken against those who engage in and promote this practice.
These legal instruments are called by a variety of terms, including conventions, memorandums, joint actions and declarations. The most significant instruments are listed below: These legal instruments were developed by the United Nations in an effort to protect international human rights and, more children's rights. U. N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 U. N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 The trafficking of children involves both labor and migration; as such, these international frameworks clarify instances. I. L. O. Minimum Age Convention, 1973 I. L. O. Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999I. L. O. Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation No. 190, 1999 I. L. O. Forced Labor Convention, 1930 I. L. O. Migrant Workers Convention, 1949 United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990 Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children, 2000 The Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, 2002 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in regard to Intercountry Adoption A variety of regional instruments have been developed to guide countries in decisions regarding child trafficking.
Below are some of the major instruments, though many others exist: Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 2005 Communication to the European Parliament and the Council COM 514 Final Multilateral cooperation agreement to combat trafficking in persons women and children, in West and Central Africa, 2006 Mekong sub regional cooperation agreement to fight human trafficking, 2004 National laws pertaining to child trafficking continue to develop worldwide, based on the international principles that have been established. Anti-trafficking legislation has been lauded as critical by the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, because it ensures that traffickers and trafficking victims are treated accordingly: for example, "if migration laws are used to pursue traffickers, it is the case that the victims too are prosecuted as illegal migrants, whereas if there is a sp