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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. As part of the Bantoid group, they are part of the Benue–Congo language family, which in turn is part of the large Niger–Congo phylum; the total number of Bantu languages ranges in the hundreds, depending on the definition of "language" versus "dialect", is estimated at between 440 and 680 distinct languages. For Bantuic, Linguasphere has 260 outer languages. McWhorter points out, using a comparison of 16 languages from Bangi-Moi, Bangi-Ntamba, Koyo-Mboshi, Likwala-Sangha, Ngondi-Ngiri, Northern Mozambiqean from Guthrie Zone C, that many varieties are intercomprehensible; the total number of Bantu speakers is in the hundreds of millions, estimated around 350 million in the mid-2010s. Bantu languages are spoken southeast of Cameroon, throughout Central Africa, Southeast Africa and Southern Africa. About one sixth of the Bantu speakers, about one third of Bantu languages, are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo alone.

See list of Bantu peoples. The Bantu language with the largest total number of speakers is Swahili. Other major Bantu languages include Zulu, with 27 million speakers, Shona, with about 11 million speakers. Ethnologue separates the mutually intelligible Kinyarwanda and Kirundi, which, if grouped together, have 20 million speakers; the similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century. The term "Bantu" as a name or the group was coined by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862; the name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix *ba- categorizing "people", the root *ntʊ̀ - "some, any". There is no native term for the group, as Bantu-speaking populations refer to themselves by their endonyms but did not have a concept for the larger ethno-linguistic phylum. Bleek's coinage was inspired by the anthropological observation of groups self-identifying as "people" or "the true people".

The term "narrow Bantu", excluding those languages classified as Bantoid by Guthrie, was introduced in the 1960s. The prefix ba- refers to people. Endonymically, the term for cultural objects, including language, is formed with the ki- noun class, as in Kiswahili "coast language and culture" and isiZulu "Zulu language and culture". There was a suggestion in South Africa to refer to these languages as "KiNtu" in the 1980s. However, the word kintu exists in some places, meaning "thing" with no relation to the concept of "language", it was reported by delegates at the African Languages Association of Southern Africa conference in 1984 that in some places, the term'Kintu' has a derogatory significance, that is, kintu refers to "things" and is used as a dehumanizing term of people who have lost their dignity. In addition, Kintu is a figure in some mythologies; the term "Kintu" still saw occasional use in the 1990s in South Africa. In contemporary decolonial South African linguistics, the term "Ntu languages" is used.

The Bantu languages descend from a common Proto-Bantu language, believed to have been spoken in what is now Cameroon in Central Africa. An estimated 2,500–3,000 years ago, although other sources put the start of the Bantu Expansion closer to 3000 BC, speakers of the Proto-Bantu language began a series of migrations eastward and southward, carrying agriculture with them; this Bantu expansion came to dominate Sub-Saharan Africa east of Cameroon, an area where Bantu peoples now constitute nearly the entire population. The technical term Bantu, meaning "human beings" or "people", was first used by Wilhelm Bleek, as this is reflected in many of the languages of this group. A common characteristic of Bantu languages is that they use words such as muntu or mutu for "human being" or in simplistic terms "person", the plural prefix for human nouns starting with mu- in most languages is ba-, thus giving bantu for "people". Bleek, Carl Meinhof, pursued extensive studies comparing the grammatical structures of Bantu languages.

The most used classification is an alphanumeric coding system developed by Malcolm Guthrie in his 1948 classification of the Bantu languages. It is geographic; the term'narrow Bantu' was coined by the Benue–Congo Working Group to distinguish Bantu as recognized by Guthrie, from the Bantoid languages not recognized as Bantu by Guthrie. In recent times, the distinctiveness of Narrow Bantu as opposed to the other Southern Bantoid languages has been called into doubt, but the term is still used. A coherent classification of Narrow Bantu will need to exclude many of the Zone A and Zone B languages. There is no true genealogical classification of the Bantu languages; until most attempted classifications only considered languages that happen to fall within traditional Narrow Bantu, but there seems to be a continuum with the related languages of South Bantoid. At a broader level, the family is split in two de


WKHB is an AM radio station licensed to Irwin, United States, which serves the greater Pittsburgh area. Known as 620 KHB, the station operates with 5,500 watts daytime and airs a mix of health talk and paid programming with oldies music in the morning and overnight hours, it is known for its weekend polka shows and ministries that broadcast on KHB. WKHB's studios are located in Greensburg, while its transmitter is located near Wendel, just south of Irwin. WKHB's high power on a low frequency yields what is considered to be the second-best daytime AM signal in the Pittsburgh area, covering nearly two and a half million people in various portions of five states. WKHB simulcasts on FM translators 94.1 W231BM, 92.3 W222CB, 102.1 W271CW. WKHB and its sister stations 770 WKFB and 103.1 WKVE are owned by Broadcast Communications Inc. which owns and operates WANB-Waynesburg, which simulcast 1210 AM and 105.1 FM. 620 began as WHJB licensed Greensburg. The station began as a daytime-only operation, operating at a power of non-directional.

The station was founded by H. J. Brennen, whose initials the station call letters stood for. WHJB, doing business as Pittsburgh Radio Supply House, first operated beginning October 28, 1934 from a studio at 128 North Penn Avenue in Greensburg. WHJB, as the first radio station on the air in suburban Pittsburgh, experienced steady growth and prospered over its formative years, getting nighttime power authorization by 1955, as well as a daytime power increase, with power settings at 1,000 watts during the day, 500 watts at night, adopting a directional antenna pattern with changing patterns for night and day operation. By 1960, the name of the licensee had changed its name to WHJB, Inc. though the station still was owned by the Brennen family. That changed in 1962 when control was transferred to others after the Brennen family's interests were sold to Robert Burstein, to general manager Melvin Goldberg by 1967. On November 1, 1964, WHJB welcomed its like-named FM sister station to the air. Though the stations shared identical call letters, they were programmed separately, until 1967, when several changes took place.

That year, WHJB and its FM sister, by this time named WOKU-FM, now simulcasting for half the broadcast day, moved to new studios and offices at 227 West Otterman Street in Greensburg. The stations moved to another location at 245 Brown Street near the Greensburg city limits in 1974, where they remained for the rest of the 20th century; as "Disco 107" in 1979, WOKU won an award from Billboard magazine as "Large-Market Disco Station of the Year." In 1980, WHJB upgraded its transmitting facilities again, increasing its power to 2,500 watts daytime and 500 watts at night, which it kept until shortly after its sale in 1996. WHJB's antenna array along U. S. Route 30 could be seen overlooking Greensburg for many years, but came down after the sale was completed; the station was sold in 1996 to Inc.. Broadcast Communications, Inc. moved WHJB's transmitter site closer to Pittsburgh, raised its daytime power twice, changed its community of license to Irwin, Pennsylvania, a nearby suburb of Pittsburgh. WHJB had always been a Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania radio station while WKHB with its higher power and closer tower, aspires to serve the tri-state greater Pittsburgh area.

Although the station continued to operate as a music-formatted, stand-alone AM outlet for several more years, the call letter change to WKHB in 1999 was more or less concurrent with a format switch to all paid programming. Music continues to air in the station's off-peak hours, 7:15 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. consisting of classic hits from the mid 60's to the mid 80's. Morning host and station manager Barry Banker celebrated 40 years with the station in 2006. Banker retired and was replaced in morning drive by Bill Korch from nearby WEDO. Veteran Pittsburgh on-air personality and programmer Clarke Ingram was associated with the station as Program Director and Operations Manager for several years in the mid-2000s, his voice is still heard on many of the station's recorded elements, as well as on WKFB. Caleb Michaels and Michael J. Daniels appear at various times at night, doing the classic hits/oldies format. Regular non-music programs include "Health Breakthroughs" with Dr. James Winer, "Alternatives to Medicine" with Dr. Martin Gallagher, the daily Scriptural Rosary, which has now aired on Pittsburgh radio for over 45 years.

There is an extended lineup of polka shows on Saturday and Sunday and a variety of local ministry programs broadcast on WKHB. 1945 Broadcasting Yearbook 1956 Broadcasting Yearbook 1960 Broadcasting Yearbook 1963 Broadcasting Yearbook 1965 Broadcasting Yearbook 1967 Broadcasting Yearbook 1971 Broadcasting Yearbook 1975 Broadcasting Yearbook 1981 Broadcasting Yearbook Query the FCC's AM station database for WKHB Radio-Locator Information on WKHB Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WKHBQuery the FCC's FM station database for W231BM {{FMQ|W271CW KHB Coverage Map

Buried Country

Buried Country is a documentary film, soundtrack album, stage show. A prosopography, created by Clinton Walker, it tells the story of Australian country music in the Aboriginal community by focussing on the genre's most important stars; the book Buried Country: The Story of Aboriginal Country Music by Clinton Walker was published by Pluto Press in 2000. The 2000 2-CD set Buried Country: Original Film Soundtrack produced by Walker contains 45 classic and rare tracks featured in the book and film. Buried Country has been produced as a touring stage show that made its premiere at the Playhouse in Newcastle in August, 2016, starring surviving elders of the tradition and a younger generation of singers and songwriters. 1940s-50s Jimmy Little Georgia Lee Vic Sabrino Herbie Laughton 1960s-70s Dougie Young Black Allan Barker Lionel Rose Vic Simms Bobby McLeod Harry and Wilga Williams George and Ken Assang 1970s-80s Gus Williams Auriel Andrew Bob Randall Isaac Yamma 1980s-90s Roger Knox Kevin Gunn Warren H. Williams Kev Carmody Troy Cassar-Daley Archie Roach Ruby Hunter Tiddas Warumpi Band Official website YouTube channel Music Australia Collection Listing for Buried Country: The Story of Aboriginal Country Music by Clinton Walker Screen Australia Film Listing Buried Country on IMDb

Eureka Tower

Eureka Tower is a 297.3 m skyscraper located in the Southbank precinct of Melbourne, Australia. Construction began in August 2002 and the exterior was completed on 1 June 2006; the plaza was finished in June 2006 and the building was opened on 11 October 2006. The project was designed by Melbourne architectural firm Fender Katsalidis Architects and was built by Grocon; the developer of the tower was Eureka Tower Pty Ltd, a joint venture consisting of Daniel Grollo, investor Tab Fried and one of the Tower's architects Nonda Katsalidis. It was the world's tallest residential tower when measured to its highest floor, until surpassed by Ocean Heights and the HHHR Tower in Dubai. From 2006 to 2019, it was the tallest building in Melbourne, until the topping out of Australia 108, it is the third tallest building in Australia, behind the Q1 in Queensland and Australia 108, as well as the second tallest to roof behind the latter skyscraper. As of 2016 it was the 15th tallest residential building in the world.

Eureka Tower is named after the Eureka Stockade, a rebellion during the Victorian gold rush in 1854. This has been incorporated into the design, with the building's gold crown representing the gold rush and a red stripe representing the blood spilt during the revolt; the blue glass cladding that covers most of the building represents the blue background of the stockade's flag and the white lines represent the Eureka Stockade flag. The white horizontal stripes represent markings on a surveyor's measuring staff. At the base of the tower is an art installation containing bees inside a white box, resembling a manmade beehive. There are two regular sized bees outside the box, one queen bee on the top; the gold colour of the bees complements the gold at the top of the tower. The installation was created by Richard Stringer and Nonda Katsalidis, was complete in December 2007; when measured either by the height of its roof, or by the height of its highest habitable floor, Eureka Tower was the tallest residential building in the world when completed.

It was the building with the most floors available for residential occupancy in the world. The building stands 297 m in height, with 91 storeys above ground plus one basement level. At the time of its completion, it was one of the only buildings in the world with 90 or more storeys, it is the third-tallest building in Australia and the second tallest building in Melbourne, behind Australia 108 which topped out in November 2019.. The single level basement and first 9 floors contain car parking; the building's proximity to the water table as well as the Yarra River made the construction of a basement car park uneconomical. In all, there are 84 floors of apartments, with the remainder being used for building facilities and the observation deck. According to the ranking system developed by the U. S.-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, the Eureka Tower qualified as the tallest building in three of the four categories in which heights are ranked, namely height to the floor of the highest occupied floor of the building.

For comparison, the Q1 apartment tower on the Gold Coast has its highest habitable floor, reaching a height of 235 m, some 62 m lower than Eureka Tower's highest habitable floor. Q1's highest penthouse apartment is 217 m. However, the spire attached to the top of Q1 exceeds the Eureka Tower in the other two categories, namely "Height to the tip of spire, antenna, mast or flag pole" – in this case, spire – and height to architectural top of the building. 556 apartments 13 lifts travelling up to 9 m/s 52,000 m2 of windows 3,680 stairs 110,000 t of concrete 5,000 t of reinforced steel Building weighs 200,000 t Floors 82 to 87, marketed as Summit Levels, contain only one apartment per floor, each with an original price of A$7 million for the unfurnished floor space alone. The highest floors of the tower house an observation deck, communication rooms and balcony and water tanks. A system of pumps moves water between the two 300,000 litre tanks to counteract wind-induced oscillations; the observation deck occupies the entire 88th floor of the Eureka Tower and is the highest public vantage point in a building in the Southern Hemisphere at 285 m.

It opened to the public on 15 May 2007. An entry fee applies to access the Skydeck; the Skydeck features thirty viewfinders that help visitors to pinpoint numerous significant landmarks around all parts of Melbourne, along with several free binoculars. There is a small outside area called The Terrace, closed in high winds. There is a glass cube called The Edge, which extends itself from the building to hang over the edge of the tower and add to the viewing experience. On 10 January 2005, the firm building Eureka Tower, proposed adding a 53.8 m communications mast/observation tower. The proposal is before the local planning commission; this mast would be a significant structure, used for providing an adventure climb to the tip of the summit. On 16 April 2006, a new proposal was announced that the construction company and developers were considering options for the building to have a "skywalk" that would take daring people up 350 m high; the proposed structure may include a communications tower. Skydeck 88 features The Edge – a glass cube which projects 3 m out from the building with visitors inside, suspended almost

Alexandra M. Schmidt

Alexandra M. Schmidt is a Brazilian biostatistician and epidemiologist who works as an associate professor of biostatistics at McGill University in Canada, she is known for her research on spatiotemporal and multivariate statistics and their applications in environmental statistics. Schmidt earned bachelor's and master's degrees in statistics at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 1994 and 1996 respectively, she completed her Ph. D. in statistics in 2001 at the University of Sheffield. Her dissertation, Bayesian Spatial Interpolation of Pollution Monitoring Stations, was supervised by Tony O'Hagan, she was a faculty member at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro before moving to McGill in 2016. Schmidt became an Elected Member of the International Statistical Institute in 2010, she was president of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis for the 2015 term. In 2017 the Section on Statistics and the Environment of the American Statistical Association gave Schmidt their Distinguished Achievement Medal "for fundamental contributions to the development of spatio-temporal process theory, most notably to the theory of multivariate processes through coregionalization as well as the modelling of spatial covariance matrices.

Alexandra M. Schmidt publications indexed by Google Scholar


Preondactylus is a genus of long-tailed pterosaurs from the Late Triassic that inhabited what is now Italy. It contains a single known species, Preondactylus buffarinii, discovered by Nando Buffarini in 1982 at the Forni Dolostone near Udine in the Preone valley of the Italian Alps. Preondactylus had single cusp teeth, its diet either consisted of fish, insects or both, but there is still debate going on as the tooth structure could indicate either diet. It had short wings, whose total span was only 45 cm, long legs; the short wings were a "primitive" feature for pterosaurs, but Preondactylus was a developed flier. When Buffarini first discovered Preondactylus, the thin slab of bituminous, dolomitic limestone containing the fossil was accidentally broken into pieces while being extracted. After reassembly the rock was cleaned with water by him and his wife and the marl and in it the bone was washed away and lost. All, left was a negative imprint on the stone, of which a silicon rubber cast was made to allow for subsequent study of the otherwise lost remains.

Most of the skeleton is known. This first specimen is the holotype: MFSN-1770. A second, disarticulated specimen, MFSN-1891, was found at the same locale in 1984 about 150–200 meters deeper into the strata than the original find; the second specimen appears to have been preserved in the gastric pellet of a predatory fish, which had consumed the pterosaur and vomited up the indigestible pieces that would fossilize. More detailed knowledge of the variability of Triassic pterosaurs has made the identification of this specimen as Preondactylus uncertain, it may be that the remains are not those of a pterosaur at all. A third specimen is a partial skull, lacking the lower jaws; the species was described and named by Rupert Wild in 1984. The genus name refers to Preone, the specific name honours Buffarini. Rupert classified the new species within Rhamphorhynchidae, of which group old species are known such as Dorygnathus, but soon it was understood the form was much more basal. A cladistic analysis by David Unwin found Preondactylus as the most basal pterosaur, the species was accordingly used by him for a node clade definition of the clade Pterosauria.

Other analyses however, have found a somewhat more derived position for Preondactylus. The following phylogenetic analysis follows the topology of Upchurch et al.. List of pterosaur genera Timeline of pterosaur research Wild, R. "A new pterosaur from the Upper Triassic of Friuli, Italy". Gortiana — Atti Museo Friuliano di Storia Naturale. 5: 45–62. Dalla Vecchia, F. M.. "Pterosaur remains in a gastric pellet from the Upper Triassic of Rio Seazza Valley". Gortiana — Atti Museo Friuliano di Storia Naturale. 10: 121–132. Dalla Vecchia F. M. 1998, "New observations on the osteology and taxonomic status of Preondactylus buffarinii Wild, 1984", Boll. Soc. Paleont. It. 36: 355-366 Dalla Vecchia, Fabio M.. "A Review of the Triassic Pterosaur Record". Riv. Mus. Civ. Sc. Nat. "E. Caffi" Bergamo. 22: 13–29