Bao'an District is one of the nine districts comprising the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong province. It is one of the two districts lying outside the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, the other being Longgang. Bao'an was the historical name of Bao'an County of the Qing dynasty, which included area of modern day Shenzhen and Hong Kong; the area of today Bao'an District, was integrated into Shenzhen in 1979, which the Bao'an County was promoted as a city. Bao'an was reverted into county status in 1981, as the administrative unit of the area that belongs to Shenzhen, but not belongs to Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. Border patrols were established in the border of the Economic Zone. In 1991, Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport, located in Bao'an County, was opened. Bao'an district was established in January 1, 1993. Two New Districts were created as sub-districts of Bao'an district, namely Guangming and Longhua new districts, in 2007 and 2011 respectively. In 2010, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone was enlarged to cover the whole Shenzhen city.
Rapid development occurred in the Bao'an District. Longhua District was separated from Bao'an and became a district on 11 October 2016. In 2018, Guangming District was separated from Bao'an District; the district had a population of 2,736,500 in 2014. About 85% of Bao'an's population are migrants from other parts of China, most speaking Standard Chinese. Hence this made Standard Chinese the primary Chinese variety spoken in the district. Cantonese is widely spoken, between locals and migrants from around Guangdong Province. Bao'an has a notoriously bad safety record. Since the turn of the millennium, the district has seen a string of high-profile abductions and other cases of violent crime. However, in the last 4 years, this has become less of an issue with an increased police presence and higher average income in the district. Foreigners feel threatened when going about their daily lives in Bao'an District. Bao'an District comprises ten subdistricts: Bao'an is predominantly a secondary sector economy as industrial center famous for having a concentration electronics factories in Xixiang and Guanlan sub-districts.
There is a sizable service industry. Agriculture, which used to dominate the economy, has diminished in recent years. Like many parts of Shenzhen, high-rises can be found all over Bao'an. Four airlines are headquartered on the grounds of Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport: Shenzhen Airlines, Jade Cargo International, Shenzhen Donghai Airlines, SF Airlines. Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport is situated in this district. Shenzhen metro lines 1, 5 and 11 go through the district at some point. Bao'an is served by three metro lines operated by Shenzhen Metro: Line 1 - Xin'an, Bao'an Center 5, Bao'an Stadium, Xixiang, Hourui, Airport East Line 5 - Baohua, Bao'an Center 1, Lingzhi, Honglang North, Xingdong Line 11 - Bitou, Houting, Shajing, Ma'an Hill, Qiaotou, Airport North, Bihaiwan, Bao'an Primary schools include: Xiwan Primary School Bao'an Stadium Bao'an District Government Official website Bao'an District Government Official website
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Gushu station is a station on Line 1 of the Shenzhen Metro in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The station opened on 15 June 2011. Shenzhen Metro Gushu Station Shenzhen Metro Gushu Station
Gerkan, Marg and Partners
Gerkan, Marg & Partners is an international architectural company based in Hamburg, Germany. The company was founded in 1965 by Meinhard von Gerkan and Volkwin Marg, now has more than 300 employees in 13 offices. Leipzig Trade Fair, Germany Hörn Bridge, Germany Swissôtel Berlin, Germany Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Germany Vietnam National Convention Center, Vietnam Haidian Christian Church, China Moses Mabhida Stadium, South Africa Tamil Nadu Government Multi Super Speciality Hospital, India Shanghai Oriental Sports Center, China National Museum of China reconstruction, China Arena Națională, Romania Olimpiysky National Sports Complex reconstruction, Ukraine National Stadium, Poland VTB Arena, Russia Berlin Brandenburg Airport, until being dismissed from the project. Lingang New City, China Crystal Hall, Azerbaijan Bunyodkor Stadium, Uzbekistan Estádio Nacional de Brasília, Brazil Estádio Mineirão, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Arena da Amazônia, Brazil Estadio Santiago Bernabéu, Spain – Renovation Dongguan Basketball Center, China The company has received several awards, for instance, the MIPIM AR Future Project Award 2005 for Lingang New City, China.
Buildings by Gerkan and Partners gmp Interview with Volkwin Marg
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Yantian District is one of the nine districts of the city of Shenzhen, China. It is adjacent to Shenzhen River and Hong Kong to the south, is surrounded by Luohu and Pingshan districts of Shenzhen. Before 1960s, the northern part of the district belonged to Huiyang County; the famous Huizhou Uprising launched by Dr. Sun Yat-sen started in the northern part of the district during 1900; the failure of the revolution had inspired Dr. Sun to revolt against the Qing Imperial. Qing Dynasty soon ended in 1912 after the Wuchang Uprising. Due to the proximity to Bao'an County, Northern Yantian merged into the new County in 1960s. In 1978, after the establishment of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, together with several other districts in Bao'an County, formed the new special economic district. In March 1998, Yantian separated from Luohu District after the construction of Yantian Port Area of Shenzhen Port; the size of Yantian district is about 72.63 km2, divided into four subdistricts: Located on Mirs Bay, Yantian is the location of some of Shenzhen's best-known tourist beaches and Xiaomeisha.
Yantian Port Area is located within the district. Vanke is headquartered in Vanke Center in Yantian District; the Shenzhen Yantian Port Free Trade Zone was set up and approved by the State Council on September 27, 1996 with a total area of 0.85 square kilometer. On August 16, 2004, the project of "zone-port interaction" was approved by the State Council between Yantian Port Area and the Shenzhen Yantian Port Free Trade Zone. Yantian Port Bonded Logistics Park was established with 0.96 square kilometer on December 30, 2005. The zone is situated near Yantian Port Area. Industries that are encouraged include printing/publishing/packaging, raw material processing, shipping/warehousing/logistics, trading and distribution. Chung Ying Street Wutongshan National Park Dameisha Beach Xiaomeisha Beach Shenzhen Xiaomeisha Sea World OCT East The main bus routes covering Yantian District are shown on the table below. Moreover, there is Nan ` ao, Dapeng New District; the proposed Shenzhen Metro Yantian Line will be built to help serve the area.
Yantian Government Online Yantian Government Online
Hourui station is an elevated station on Line 1 of the Shenzhen Metro in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The station opened on 15 June 2011. Passenger flights to and from Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport moved to the new Terminal 3 on 28 November 2013, the old terminals A and B located by Airport East Station were closed; this station served the airport passenger traffic with a connecting bus to Terminal 3 until Airport Station opened. Shenzhen Metro Hourui Station Shenzhen Metro Hourui Station