The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire, it spanned 63 kilometres and was about 3 metres high and 5 metres wide. Lidar scans have been carried out to establish the length of the wall and the Roman distance units used. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side, it is thought. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in what the English once called Northern Britain, its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian's Wall to the south because the turf and wood wall has weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor. Construction began in AD 142 at the order of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, took about 12 years to complete. Antoninus Pius never visited Britain. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north.
The Antonine Wall was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them. The soldiers who built the wall commemorated the construction and their struggles with the Caledonians in decorative slabs, twenty of which survive; the wall was abandoned only eight years after completion, the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 Emperor Septimius ordered repairs; the occupation ended a few years and the wall was never fortified again. Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are visible. Many of these have come under the care of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered the construction of the Antonine Wall around 142. Quintus Lollius Urbicus, governor of Roman Britain at the time supervised the effort, which took about twelve years to complete; the wall stretches 63 kilometres from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth. The wall was intended to extend Roman territory and dominance by replacing Hadrian's Wall 160 kilometres to the south, as the frontier of Britannia.
But while the Romans did establish many forts and temporary camps further north of the Antonine Wall in order to protect their routes to the north of Scotland, they did not conquer the Caledonians, the Antonine Wall suffered many attacks. The Romans called the land north of the wall Caledonia, though in some contexts the term may refer to the whole area north of Hadrian's Wall; the Antonine Wall was shorter than Hadrian's Wall and built of turf on a stone foundation, but it was still an impressive achievement. It was a simpler fortification than Hadrian's Wall insofar as it did not have a subsidiary ditch system behind it to the south, as Hadrian's Wall did with its Vallum; the stone foundations and wing walls of the original forts on the Antonine Wall demonstrate that the original plan was to build a stone wall similar to Hadrian's Wall, but this was amended. As built, the wall was a bank, about four metres high, made of layered turves and earth with a wide ditch on the north side, a military way on the south.
The Romans planned to build forts every 10 kilometres, but this was soon revised to every 3.3 kilometres, resulting in a total of nineteen forts along the wall. The best preserved but one of the smallest forts is Rough Castle Fort. In addition to the forts, there are at least 9 smaller fortlets likely on Roman mile spacings, which formed part of the original scheme, some of which were replaced by forts; the most visible fortlet is Kinneil, at the eastern end of the Wall, near Bo'ness. There was once a remarkable Roman structure within sight of the Antonine Wall at Stenhousemuir; this was Arthur's O'on, a circular stone domed monument or rotunda, which may have been a temple, or a tropaeum, a victory monument. It was demolished for its stone in 1743. In addition to the line of the Wall itself there are a number of coastal forts both in the East and West, which should be considered as outposts and/or supply bases to the Wall itself. In addition a number of forts farther north were brought back into service in the Gask Ridge area, including Ardoch, Strageath and Dalginross and Cargill.
Recent research by Glasgow University has shown that the distance stones, stone sculptures unique to the Antonine Wall which were embedded in the wall to mark the lengths built by each legion, were brightly painted unlike their present bare appearance. These stones are preserved in the University's museum and are said to be the best-preserved examples of statuary from any Roman frontier. Several of the slabs have been analysed by various techniques including portable X-ray fluorescence. Tiny remnants of paint have been detected by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Several of the distance slabs have been scanned and 3-D videos produced. There are plans to reproduce the slabs, both digitally and in real physical copies, with their authentic colours. A copy of the Bridgeness Slab has been made and can be found in Bo'ness, it is expected that lottery funding will allow replicas of distance markers to be placed along the length of the wall. The wall was abandoned onl
Kilsyth is a town and civil parish in North Lanarkshire halfway between Glasgow and Stirling in Scotland. The estimated population is 9,860; the town is famous for the Battle of Kilsyth and the religious revivals of the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries. The town now has links with Cumbernauld at one time being part of Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District Council; the towns have the same members of parliament at Holyrood and Westminster. Part of Stirlingshire, Kilsyth is at 200 feet above sea level and occupies a narrow strip of land between the Kilsyth Hills to the north and the River Kelvin to the south. To the east and west it is bordered by marshland and bogs; the centre of the town is close to the confluence of the Ebroch burns. From earliest recorded times Kilsyth was one of the main routes between Glasgow and Edinburgh, is close to the Roman Antonine Wall, the Forth and Clyde Canal and the main Glasgow to Edinburgh railway line, with the nearest railway station at Croy. Two separate stations existed in the town on separate, although linked, railway lines.
One, the Kelvin Valley Railway went to Glasgow-Maryhill while the other, the Kilsyth and Bonnybridge railway, went via Banknock to Falkirk. The town occupies a sheltered position in the Kelvin Valley, is bisected by the A803 between Kirkintilloch and Falkirk; the old drovers' road from Stirling, the route south to Cumbernauld via Auchinstarry Bridge, intersect the A803 at Kilsyth. The M80 motorway passes through Cumbernauld to the south on its way between Stirling. There is archaeological evidence of settlement since Neolithic times The Romans recognised the strategic significance of Kilsyth. In the Middle Ages, Kilsyth held a key strategic position on one of the main routes across the narrowest part of Scotland, it was the site of two, now ruined, castles at Colzium. These were shown in Timothy Pont's map of 1580 and can been seen on Blaeu's map, derived from it; the town came into being in 1620 although a barony of Kilsyth preceded this. Regarding the name of the town, modern research into Kilsyth's toponymy leads to different findings than earlier analysis.
The civil war Battle of Kilsyth took place on hillsides between Kilsyth and Banton in 1645. Kilsyth was closely associated with the various attempts by the Jacobites to regain the crown. Bonnie Prince Charlie is reported to have spent the night in the town in January 1746; the battlefield is now under the Townhead Reservoir, a artificial body of water used to feed the Forth and Clyde Canal, close to its highest elevation. The canal was cut through Dullatur Bog in 1769-1770 bringing economic benefit to Kilsyth.. The parish was known as Moniabrugh, or one of its variants, with its name changing sometime in the 18th century; the town economy has shifted over the past three centuries from dairy farming, handloom weaving and extractive industries to light engineering and service industries. Many of the townsfolk of working age now commute to work in Glasgow. Following its foundation as an early monastic settlement, the town has a long tradition of radical protestantism and was the scene of major revivals for example under the leadership of James Robe in 1742.
William Chalmers Burns a minister in Kilsyth, St. Peter's and China saw revival in 1839, part of the Second Great Awakening. William Irvine was born in Kilsyth in 1863; the formation of the new Church of God, the first Pentecostal Church in Scotland in 1902 led to further outbreaks of revival in 1908 and to Kilsyth becoming an early focus of Pentecostalism. Kilsyth was part of the deanery of Lennox; the parish was called variously Monyabroch, Monaeburgh, or Moniabrocd, but part of the parish was called Kelvesyth by the beginnings of the 13th century. The lands passed through the hands of branches of the Callendar and Livingston families as their fortunes waxed and waned becoming the property of the Edmonstones. Kilsyth was established as a Burgh of Barony in 1620. A Town Charter was granted in 1826, it is now within North Lanarkshire jurisdiction. In 2012, the multi-member ward was represented by three elected councillors. Jamie Hepburn MSP was elected as Cumbernauld and Kilsyth member of the Scottish Parliament on 5 May 2011 with a majority of 3459.
Since May 2015, Stuart MacDonald has been Westminster MP for the Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch East. He is a member of the Scottish National Party; as he said in his maiden speech he has sometimes been mistaken for his namesake, an SNP MP. Kilsyth Community Council, as the locally elected representative body, is an active community group but enjoys limited powers. Since 1995 Kilsyth has been part of North Lanarkshire; the arms of Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District Council featured an open Bible and the shuttle and miner's lamp. These symbols were taken from the earlier arms of Kilsyth; however the open Bible and the miner's lamp were the only symbols which were carried on to the North Lanarkshire coat of arms. Kilsyth has many of the elements associated with a Scottish market town, including a pedestrianised Main Street with a wide range of local and specialist independent shops, attractive par
Twechar is a small former mining village in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland close to the boundary with North Lanarkshire. It lies between the larger towns of Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch; the Forth and Clyde Canal runs close to the village to the north, follows the line of the Antonine Wall. There are visible remains of the wall on Bar Hill and the Roman Fort is a local tourist attraction; the etymology of the name is ‘causeway or pavement’. Several old documents show Twechar with various spellings including maps by Charles Ross, William Roy. There is a long history of mining activity in the Twechar locality but it was not until the coming of William Baird & Co. to the area, about 1860, that a close-knit mining community was created. Before that time Shirva was described as having the best farm land in the parish. Several tombstones from a possible Roman Cemetery were found at Shirva House. A legionary slab was discovered. Pits were sunk at Twechar and Gartshore and a row of workers' houses was built on the south bank of the Forth and Clyde canal, just east of Twechar Bridge.
The coal mining industry begun by the Bairds in the 1860s lasted for just over a century. Twechar No.1 Pit, on the north bank of the canal to the east of Twechar Bridge, closed in 1964, while Gartshore 9/11, the last colliery in the area, was shut down in 1968. Thereafter some Twechar men travelled each day to collieries such as Bedlay and Cardowan in Lanarkshire, until they too were closed, during the early 1980s. Baird & Co. provided rail connections to their local pits at an early date but for many years much of their coal was transported to market by canal boat. During the 1860s the canal company permitted Baird & Co. to place a railway swing bridge over the canal, a short distance to the west of Twechar road bridge, for the purpose of forming a connection between collieries on either side of the canal. As part of the deal the coal company agreed to transport a proportion of its coal by canal although this requirement lapsed early in the twentieth century. However, the swing bridge continued in use until the mid-1960s, its hand-winding apparatus having been made redundant on 1 January 1963, when the canal closed.
The original housing provided by William Baird & Co soon proved inadequate and around 1880 the Barrhill Rows were constructed at right angles to Main Street, on its western side. At first there were four rows, supplemented by two more about 1900, by which date the total number of dwellings in the rows was 160; the row nearest the canal included a Gartsherrie Co-operative shop and accordingly was known as the'Store Row'. The houses had no sanitation and were lit by paraffin lamps. Communal wash houses were provided at intervals along each row. Most of the houses were of the two-apartment variety. A great improvement was made in 1925, when Baird & Co. provided good quality modern housing for their mine workers at Burnbrae, Annieston and adjacent streets. There were 200 dwellings in all, some two-apartment and some three-apartment, built in two-story blocks of four, they were provided with electric lighting. When these houses were built the old row on the south bank of the canal was demolished; the Barrhill Rows, lasted until 1957.
The Baird houses of 1925 are being demolished and little remains of Burnbrae, Whitelaw Terrace, Shirva lea and Merryflats. Housing was provided by Dunbartonshire County Council at MacDonald Crescent, Alexander Avenue and Kelvin View. In the 2001 census, the population was recorded as 1,363, a drop of over 9% from the previous census in 1991; the village had its own secondary education in Twechar School until secondary schools in Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch opened and secondary age pupils were sent by bus to these schools. Pupils from Twechar Primary now go on to further education at the new state of the art Kirkintilloch High School; the Roman Catholic children are taught at St Agathas in Kirkintilloch for their primary and the new St Ninian's High School, Kirkintilloch for their secondary education. The primary school has an estimate of 70-90 pupils; the reopening of the Forth & Clyde Canal, in May 2001, brought with it great opportunities for the development of Twechar, which lies close to the canal's half-way point.
The village is undergoing a regeneration, EDC and private enterprise have put forward proposals to build 200+ new houses, older housing stock in the "National Coal Board" scheme will be demolished from late 2007 onwards if the plan goes ahead. Newer small business units have been built in the small enterprise park opposite the war memorial, an application for new housing has been raised with the council for new housing next to Kelvin View; as of February 2012, residents have been moving into their new homes at the new Kelvin View housing site near the top end of Davison Crescent, the tenants seem happy with their new homes. Various new walkways have been made, in and around the village and the glen; the local leisure centre has undergone an expensive renovation and has been re-titled " The Twechar healthy living and enterprise centre." There is a pharmacy run by M & D Green Dispensing Chemists Ltd. Negotiations to obtain a GP have been ongoing for some time. An area to the rear of the former Masonic Hall has been developed for boating purposes on the canal, a slipway and floating pontoon are in-situ there will be a community canal boat in place in the near future.
There is a Church of Scotland congregation, Twechar Parish Church, which shares a minister with Banton. The Ro
Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
The University of Glasgow's Hunterian is the oldest museum in Scotland. It covers the Hunterian Museum, the Hunterian Art Gallery, the Mackintosh House, the Zoology Museum and the Anatomy Museum, all located in various buildings on the main campus of the University in the west end of Glasgow. In 1783, William Hunter bequeathed his substantial and varied collections to the University of Glasgow, they were "to be well and packed up and safely conveyed to Glasgow and delivered to the Principal and Faculty of the College of Glasgow to whom I give and bequeath the same to be kept and preserved by them and their successors for ever... in such sort, way and form as... shall seem most fit and most conducive to the improvement of the students of the said University of Glasgow."The museum first opened in 1807, in a specially constructed building off the High Street, adjoining the original campus of the University. For this, Hunter ensured funds for its building and design by architect William Stark through his three trustees namely his nephew Matthew Baillie, his Scottish lawyer Robert Barclay of Capelrig House and John Millar cousin of Dr William Cullen When the University moved west to its new site at Gilmorehill the museum moved too.
In 1870, the Hunterian collections were transferred to the University’s present site and assigned halls in Sir George Gilbert Scott's neo-Gothic building. At first the entire collection was housed together, displayed in the packed conditions common in museums of that time, but significant sections were moved away to other parts of the University; the Zoological collections are now housed within the Graham Kerr Building, the art collections in The Hunterian Art Gallery, Hunter's library containing some 10,000 printed books and 650 manuscripts received in 1807, in Glasgow University Library. The University`s Librarian Professor Lockhart Muirhead became the first Keeper of the Hunterian Museum in 1823. Hunter’s anatomical collections are housed in the Allen Thomson Building, his pathological preparations at the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow; the money to build the museum, the core of its original collections, came from the bequest of the Scottish anatomist and scientist William Hunter, who died in London in 1783.
As well as his medical collections, which arose from his own work, Hunter collected widely assisted by his many royal and aristocratic patrons. He and his agents scoured Europe for coins, minerals and prints, ethnographic materials and manuscripts, as well as insects and other biological specimens. Hunter's eclectic bequest forms the core of the collections, but have grown and now include some of the most important collections of work by artists such as Charles Rennie Mackintosh and James McNeill Whistler, as well as superb geological, anatomical, archaeological and scientific instrument collections; the Hunterian Museum re-opened in September 2011 featuring a new permanent gallery devoted to the Romans in Scotland and new opening hours of 10:00–5:00 Tuesday to Saturday, 11:00–4:00 Sundays and closed Monday. Robert Arnot Staig c.1905 to c.1945 William Smellie Housed in large halls in George Gilbert Scott's University buildings on Gilmorehill, the museum features extensive displays relating to William Hunter and his collections, Roman Scotland, ethnography, ancient Egypt, scientific instruments and medals, much more.
The museum contains many donated collections, such as the Begg Collection of fossils donated by James Livingstone Begg in the 1940s. The museum contains a high number of scientific instruments owned by or created by Lord Kelvin and other 19th century instrument makers. In September 2016 the new Hunterian Collections and Study Centre, embracing the full range and activities of the Museum and the Art Gallery, opened in the transformed Kelvin Hall in Phase 1 of a partnership with Glasgow City Council Glasgow Life and the National Library of Scotland. Most of the zoology collections, including those of William Hunter, are displayed in a separate museum within the Graham Kerr building, which houses most of the University's zoological research and teaching; this is open to the general public. The insect collections are important and extensive, are the feature of some excellent recent displays; the Gallery is now housed in a modern, custom-built facility, part of the extensive Glasgow University Library complex, designed by William Whitfield.
This displays the University's extensive art collection, features an outdoor sculpture garden. The bas relief aluminium doors to the Hunterian Gallery were designed by sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi; the gallery's collection includes a large number of the works of James McNeill Whistler and the majority of the watercolours of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. The Hunterian Art Gallery reopened in September 2012 after a refurbishment, with an exhibition dedicated to Rembrandt and the Passion; the Mackintosh House is part of the gallery-library complex. It stands on the site of one of two rows of terraced houses which were once sections of Hillhead Street and Southpark Avenue, demolished in the 1960s to make room for the University's expansion across the residential crown of Gilmorehill. One of the buildings lost, 78 Southpark Avenue, was a home to Glasgow architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh; the University rebuilt the form of the house 100 metres from the site of the original. Due to its displacement, one door now hangs precariously above a 20-foot drop, the ground on what was
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. Castrum was the term used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller auxiliary forts, temporary encampments, "marching" forts; the diminutive form castellum was used for fortlets occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century. In English, the terms Roman fortress, Roman fort, Roman camp are used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the words camp, marching camp, fortress as a translation of castrum. For a list of known castra see List of castra. Castrum appears in Oscan and Umbrian, two other Italic languages, suggests an origin at least as old as Proto-Italic language. Julius Pokorny traces a probable derivation from * k̂es -, schneiden in * k̂es - tro-m; these Italic reflexes based on * kastrom include Umbrian castruo, kastruvuf. They have the same meaning, says Pokorny, as Latin fundus, an estate, or tract of land.
This is not any land, but is a prepared or cultivated tract, such as a farm enclosed by a fence or a wooden or stone wall of some kind. Cornelius Nepos uses Latin castrum in that sense: when Alcibiades deserts to the Persians, Pharnabazus gives him an estate worth 500 talents in tax revenues; this is a change of meaning from the reflexes in other languages, which still mean some sort of knife, axe, or spear. Pokorny explains it as ’Lager’ als ‘abgeschnittenes Stück Land’, “a lager, as a cut-off piece of land.” If this is the civilian interpretation, the military version must be “military reservation,” a piece of land cut off from the common land around it and modified for military use. All castra must be defended by works no more than a stockade, for which the soldiers carried stakes, a ditch; the castra could be prepared under attack behind a battle line. Considering that the earliest military shelters were tents made of hide or cloth, all but the most permanent bases housed the men in tents placed in quadrangles and separated by numbered streets, one castrum may well have acquired the connotation of tent.
The commonest Latin syntagmata for the term castra are: castra stativa Permanent camp/fortresses castra aestiva Summer camp/fortresses castra hiberna Winter camp/fortresses castra navalia or castra nautica Navy camp/fortressesIn Latin the term castrum is much more used as a proper name for geographical locations: e.g. Castrum Album, Castrum Inui, Castrum Novum, Castrum Truentinum, Castrum Vergium; the plural was used as a place name, as Castra Cornelia, from this come the Welsh place name prefix caer- and English suffixes -caster and -chester. Castrorum Filius, "son of the camps," was one of the names used by the emperor Caligula and also by other emperors. Castro derived from Castrum, is a common Spanish family name as well as toponym in Italy, the Balkans and Spain and other Hispanophone countries, either by itself or in various compounds such as the World Heritage Site of Gjirokastër; the terms stratopedon and phrourion were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively.
A castrum was designed to house and protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. This most detailed description that survives about Roman military camps is De Munitionibus Castrorum, a manuscript of 11 pages that dates most from the late 1st to early 2nd century AD. Regulations required a major unit in the field to retire to a properly constructed camp every day. "… as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight until they have walled their camp about. To this end a marching column ported the equipment needed to build and stock the camp in a baggage train of wagons and on the backs of the soldiers. Camps were the responsibility of engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by architecti, "chief engineers", who requisitioned manual labor from the soldiers at large as required, they could throw up a camp under enemy attack in as little as a few hours. Judging from the names, they used a repertory of camp plans, selecting the one appropriate to the length of time a legion would spend in it: tertia castra, quarta castra, etc..
More permanent camps were castra stativa. The least permanent of these were castra aestiva or aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents". Summer was the campaign season. For the winter the soldiers retired to castra hiberna containing barracks and other buildings of more solid materials, with timber construction being replaced by stone; the camp supplied army in the field. Neither the Celtic nor Germanic armies had this capability: they found it necessary to disperse after only a few days; the largest castra were legionary fortresses built as bases for one or more whole legions. From the time of Augustus more permanent castra with wooden or stone buildings and walls were introduced as the distant and hard-won boundaries of the expanding empire required permanent garrisons to control local and external threats
Lidar is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. Differences in laser return times and wavelengths can be used to make digital 3-D representations of the target; the name lidar, now used as an acronym of light detection and ranging, was a portmanteau of light and radar. Lidar sometimes is called 3D laser scanning, a special combination of a 3D scanning and laser scanning, it has terrestrial and mobile applications. Lidar is used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geodesy, archaeology, geology, seismology, atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne laser swath mapping, laser altimetry; the technology is used in control and navigation for some autonomous cars. Lidar originated in the early 1960s, shortly after the invention of the laser, combined laser-focused imaging with the ability to calculate distances by measuring the time for a signal to return using appropriate sensors and data acquisition electronics.
Its first applications came in meteorology, where the National Center for Atmospheric Research used it to measure clouds. The general public became aware of the accuracy and usefulness of lidar systems in 1971 during the Apollo 15 mission, when astronauts used a laser altimeter to map the surface of the moon. Although now most sources treat the word "lidar" as an acronym, the term originated as a combination of "light" and "radar"; the first published mention of lidar, in 1963, makes this clear: "Eventually the laser may provide an sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by'lidar'..." The Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology. The interpretation of "lidar" as an acronym came beginning in 1970, based on the assumption that since the base term "radar" started as an acronym for "Radio Detection And Ranging", "LIDAR" must stand for "Light Detection And Ranging", or for "Laser Imaging, Detection And Ranging". Although the English language no longer treats "radar" as an acronym and printed texts universally present the word uncapitalized, the word "lidar" became capitalized as "LIDAR" or "LiDAR" in some publications beginning in the 1980s.
No consensus exists on capitalization, reflecting uncertainty about whether or not "lidar" is an acronym, if it is an acronym, whether it should appear in lower case, like "radar". Various publications refer to lidar as "LIDAR", "LiDAR", "LIDaR", or "Lidar"; the USGS uses both "LIDAR" and "lidar", sometimes in the same document. Lidar uses ultraviolet, near infrared light to image objects, it can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols and single molecules. A narrow laser beam can map physical features with high resolutions; the essential concept of lidar was originated by EH Synge in 1930, who envisaged the use of powerful searchlights to probe the atmosphere. Indeed, lidar has since been used extensively for atmospheric meteorology. Lidar instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites carry out surveying and mapping – a recent example being the U. S. Geological Survey Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar. NASA has identified lidar as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar-landing vehicles.
Wavelengths vary to suit the target: from about 10 micrometers to the UV. Light is reflected via backscattering, as opposed to pure reflection one might find with a mirror. Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications: most Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Raman scattering, fluorescence. Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by identifying wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal; the two kinds of lidar detection schemes are "incoherent" or direct energy detection and coherent detection. Coherent systems use optical heterodyne detection; this is more sensitive than direct detection and allows them to operate at much lower power, but requires more complex transceivers. Both types employ pulse models: either high energy. Micropulse systems utilize intermittent bursts of energy, they developed as a result of ever-increasing computer power, combined with advances in laser technology. They use less energy in the laser on the order of one microjoule, are "eye-safe", meaning they can be used without safety precautions.
High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are used for measuring atmospheric parameters: the height and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties, pressure, wind and trace gas concentration. Lidar systems consist of several major components. 600–1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. The maximum power of the laser is limited, or an automatic shut off system which turns the laser off at specific altitudes is used in order to make it ey
Westerwood is an area in the north-east of Cumbernauld in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It was the site of a Roman Fort of which a video reconstruction has been produced. In the past two decades, new housing developments have been built around the Westerwood Hotel and Golf Course; the golf complex is owned by Aprirose since they acquired QHotels in October 2017. The hotel's internationally award winning spa cost more than half a million pounds. In October 2018, after a 1.3 million pound refurbishment, the resort re-opened as DoubleTree by Hilton Glasgow Westerwood Spa and Golf Resort in a franchise agreement between Aprirose and Hilton Hotels. The golf course, designed by Seve Ballesteros and Dave Thomas, is located on the north side of the town, close to Cumbernauld Airport. Westerwood Community Council was set up for local residents and a committee has been appointed. Neighbouring villages which are outside of Cumbernauld include Dullatur to the north-west and Castlecary to the east. Westerwood is the site of a Roman Fort on the Antonine Wall.
Its neighbouring forts were Croy Hill to Castlecary to the east. At Tollpark, is one of the best preserved continuous sections of the whole Wall, between the forts of Castlecary and Westerwood. There may have been a signal tower at Garnhall from where both Westerwood and Castlecary forts are to have been visible. A kissing gate behind Castlecary Hotel provides access to this section of the wall to the east. Parking for the section of the wall to the west can be found at Dullatur or Croy. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is likely to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Westerwood was excavated in 1932 by Sir George Macdonald, it was excavated in 1974 and 1985-8. Finds near Westerwood include a distance slab depicting a sea-deity and a naked, captive and an uninscribed altar which were found at Arniebog.
The slab can now be viewed at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. Other artefacts include a diamond patterned a grey, buff jar. A religious stone showed a relief of an engorged phallus over the inscription EX VOTO "the result of a vow", it has since been lost. It had a second inscription: NVX "the night". A centurion called Verecundus, his wife, dedicated an altar to Silvanus and the Sky, recovered at Westerwood. Pottery found at Westerwood is unlike any other pottery found on the Antonine Wall, it has been suggested that the course pottery was made locally by a single potter at Westerwood