K. D. Singh
Kunwar Digvijay Singh, popularly known as "Babu", was an Indian field hockey player, regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of the sport. He was born in Uttar Pradesh, he is known for his mesmerising passing ability and is considered by many to be the greatest dribbler of the game comparable only to Dhyan Chand. He received his early education at the Government High School and Kanyakubj Inter College, Lucknow. K. D. Singh made his foray into active Hockey with a tournament played at Dewa Mela, in the year 1937 represented his College Hockey team in an Inter-College tournament. At a young age of 15 years he played for the LYA Lucknow at the Trades Cup in Delhi. In the same Traders Cup, the young team of Lucknow met with a reputed Delhi team, for which Olympic player Mohammed Hussain played. K. D Singh was not told that Olympian Hussain is playing in the rival team so that he could play his natural game; the wizard of the hockey kept Hussain dodging during the entire match. Hussain was surprised by the sports skills of this young boy.
After the match, Hussain said that this boy will one day become one of the greatest players of the Field Hockey. He played for the Hockey team of Uttar Pradesh in all the National tournaments continuously from 1939 to 1959, he was first selected to the All India Hockey Team in 1946-47 for the tour to Afghanistan. After that there was no looking back and he rose to be one of the deadliest forward the hockey world has known. In 1947, while playing alongside Dhyan Chand during the East Africa tour he outscored the wizard by netting 70 goals while the wizard got 62. Before he was selected as Vice Captain of 1948 Olympic team he was being compared to Dhyan Chand, he played in the capacity of vice-captain in the 1948 Olympic Games. The Indian team won a gold medal on this occasion; the 1948 outing was the first Olympic participation of India as an independent nation, which made the gold medal victory a important achievement for the nascent nation though it had won the Olympic gold in 1928, 1932 and 1936.
Such was his performance in 1948 Olympics that one of the leading British newspapers wrote: "Babu’s performance was as near to perfection as was possible. Scintillating dribbling and adroit through passes characterized his play and he was the chief instigator in tying the dogged England defense. On many occasions he dribbled past whole defence with ease throughout the tournament, he was the brain behind the attacks. It is tempting to write that Babu is as elusive as Dhyan Chand." He was made captain of the Indian team in 1949, this year out of 236 goals scored, he had netted 99 goals, maximum by any member of the team. He was the captain of the Indian team, his performance in 1952 olympics was described as'poetic', where he was the mastermind and playmaker of the team. Former New Zealand Captain C V Walter wrote: ‘I run out of adjectives in trying to describe his superlative dribbling and the timing and geometrical accuracy of his passing. Babu’s dribbling is poetry in motion.’ He served as the coach for Indian hockey team for the 1972 Munich Olympics.
K. D. Singh Babu was a member of numerous organisations that include All India Council of Sports, Railway Board, Rifle Association of India and Wild Life Protection Committee of Uttar Pradesh. Gold Movie, based on 1948 Summer Olympics Amit Sadh played the role of vice captain of the Indian field hockey team, inspired from K. D. Singh. K. D. Singh Babu received the Helms Trophy in 1953 for being the best hockey player in the world and the best sportsman of Asia; this was the first time an Indian was awarded the Helms Trophy In 1958 he was awarded the prestigious Padmashri award by the Government of India. The stadiums in Barabanki and Lucknow are named after him; the stadiums at Lucknow and Barabanki both are known as the "K. D. Singh Babu Stadium" A street in Barabanki city connecting Chhaya Chauraha and Lucknow-Faizabad Road is named after him. On 27 March 1978, he died of a gunshot wound from his own weapon, while cleaning it. List of Indian hockey captains in Olympics Field hockey in India India national field hockey team Official website https://www.dnaindia.com/sports/report-when-the-legendary-dhyan-chand-stood-in-a-queue-to-a-watch-hockey-2588425 Biography on nic's Barabanki portal Biography on nic's Sports portal https://m.hindustantimes.com/india/kd-singh-next-only-to-dhyan-chand/story-WCr3Iyz53ropyfuRsGsYML.html http://lucknowobserver.com/remembering-babu/ http://sify.com/sports/fullstory.php?id=13392137&cid=13391382 विश्व में'बाबू' ने दी बाराबंकी को पहचान
In Hinduism, Hanuman is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama. Lord Hanuman, known as the Lord of Celibacy was an ideal "Brahmachari" or called Naistika Brahmachari in Sanskrit and is one of the central characters of the Indian Epic ￼￼Ramayana￼￼. ￼￼As one of the Chiranjivi, he is mentioned in several other texts, such as the Mahabharata and the various Puranas. Hanuman is the son of Anjani and Kesari and is son of the wind-god Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth. If yoga is the ability to control one's mind Hanuman is the quintessential yogi having a perfect mastery over his senses, achieved through a disciplined lifestyle tempered by the twin streams of celibacy and selfless devotion. In fact, Hanuman is the ideal Brahmachari, if there was one, he is a perfect karma yogi since he performs his actions with detachment, acting as an instrument of destiny rather than being impelled by any selfish motive. While Hanuman is one of the central characters in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, the evidence of devotional worship to him is missing in the texts and archeological sites of ancient and most of the medieval period.
According to Philip Lutgendorf, an American Indologist known for his studies on Hanuman, the theological significance and devotional dedication to Hanuman emerged about 1,000 years after the composition of the Ramayana, in the 2nd millennium CE, after the arrival of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent. Bhakti movement saints such as Samarth Ramdas expressed Hanuman as a symbol of nationalism and resistance to persecution. In the modern era, his iconography and temples have been common, he is viewed as the ideal combination of "strength, heroic initiative and assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to his personal god Rama", as Shakti and Bhakti. In literature, he has been the patron god of martial arts such as wrestling, acrobatics, as well as meditation and diligent scholarship, he symbolizes the human excellences of inner self-control and service to a cause, hidden behind the first impressions of a being who looks like an Ape-Man Vanara. Hanuman is stated by scholars to be the inspiration for the allegory-filled adventures of a monkey hero in the Xiyouji – the great Chinese poetic novel influenced by the travels of Buddhist monk Xuanzang to India.
The meaning or the origin of word "Hanuman" is unclear. In the Hindu pantheon, deities have many synonymous names, each based on the noble characteristic or attribute or reminder of that deity's mythical deed. Hanuman has many names like Maruti, Bajrangbali, Mangalmurti but these names are used. Hanuman is the common name of the vaanar god. One interpretation of the term is that it means "one having a jaw, prominent"; this version is supported by a Puranic legend wherein baby Hanuman mistakes the sun for a fruit, attempts to heroically reach it, is wounded and gets a disfigured jaw."Hanuman": the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han and maana. This epithet resonates with the story in the Ramayana about his emotional devotion to Sita, he combines two of the most cherished traits in the Hindu bhakti-shakti worship traditions: "heroic, assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to personal god". Linguistic variations of "Hanuman" include Hanumat, Hanumantha, Hanumanthudu. Other names of Hanuman include: Anjaneya, Anjaneyar, Anjanisuta all meaning "the son of Hanuman's mother Anjana".
Kesari Nandan, based on his father, which means "son of Kesari" Maruti, or the son of the wind god. Sankata Mochana, the remover of dangers The earliest mention of a divine monkey, interpreted by some scholars as the proto-Hanuman, is in hymn 10.86 of the Rigveda, dated to between 1500 and 1200 BCE. The twenty-three verses of the hymn are a riddle-filled legend, it is presented as a dialogue between multiple characters: the god Indra, his wife Indrani and an energetic monkey it refers to as Vrisakapi and his wife Kapi. The hymn opens with Indrani complaining to Indra that some of the soma offerings for Indra have been allocated to the energetic and strong monkey, the people are forgetting Indra; the king of the gods Indra responds by telling his wife that the living being that bothers her is to be seen as a friend, that they should make an effort to coexist peacefully. The hymn closes with all agreeing that they should come together in Indra's house and share the wealth of the offerings; the orientalist F. E. Pargiter theorized.
According to this theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the Tamil word for male monkey, first transformed to "Anumant" – a name which remains in use. "Anumant", according to this hypothesis, was Sanskritized to "Hanuman" because the ancient Aryans confronted with a popular monkey deity of ancient Dravidians coopted the concept and Sanskritized it. According to Murray Emeneau, known for his Tamil linguistic studies, this theory does not make sense because the Old Tamil word mandi in Caṅkam literature can only mean "female monkey", Hanuman is male. Further, adds Emeneau, the compound ana-mandi makes no semantic sense in Tamil, which has well developed and sophisticated grammar and semantic rules; the "prominent jaw" etymology, according to Emeneau, is therefore plausible. Hanuman is mentioned in both the
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, means comfort, condolence or expression of grief. It comes from roots aza. Depending on the region, occasion, etc. the word can signify different cultural meanings and practices: In Persian cultural reference it is categorized as Condolence Theater or Passion Play inspired by a historical and religious event, the tragic death of Hussein, symbolizing epic spirit and resistance. In South Asia and in the Caribbean it refers to the Miniature Mausoleums used in ritual processions held in the month of Muharram. Ta'zieh known from the Persian tradition, is a shi'ite Muslim ritual that reenacts the death of Hussein and his male children and companions in a brutal massacre on the plains of Karbala, Iraq in the year 680 A. D, his death was the result of a power struggle in the decision of control of the Muslim community after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Today, we know of 250 Ta'zieh pieces, they were collected by an Italian ambassador to Iran and added to a collection which can be found in the Vatican Library.
Various other scripts can be found scattered throughout Iran. Ta'zieh as a kind of passion play is a kind of comprehensive indigenous form considered as being the national form of Iranian theatre which have pervasive influence in the Iranian works of drama and play, it originates from some famous mythologies and rites such as Mithraism, Sug-e-Siavush and Yadegar-e-Zariran or Memorial of Zarir. The Ta'zieh tradition originated in Iran in the late 17th century. There are two branches of Islam; the Sunnis make up about 85-90% of Muslims, but the Ta'zieh tradition is performed by Shi'i Muslims during the first month of the Muslim calendar, one of the four sacred months of the Islam calendar. Muharram means forbidden; the Ta'Zieh is performed each year on the 10th day of Muharram, a significant day for the Shi'i Muslims because, the day of Hussein's slaughter. Each year the same story is told, so the spectators know the story well and know what to expect. However, this does not negatively affect audience levels.
In fact, the Ta'zieh welcomes large crowds and the audience members are known to cry each time the story is told in mourning and respect for Hussein. A strong belief in the Muslim community was that nothing created by regular people could be better than the way Allah created it, so all other creation was deemed disrespectful; because of this, there are not otherwise - of this religious tradition. During the tradition it was important that all spectators knew the actors were not disrespecting Allah, so most the actors had their scripts on stage with them so it was clear that they were not trying to depict another person that Allah did not create; the ritual was banned by the authorities in Iran because the ritual was being exploited for political advances. Ta'zieh is not performed in Iran and has not been seen at all in certain provinces of the region since 1920. France was the first non-Muslim country that Ta'zieh was performed in 1991. Since the tradition has been seen in non-Persian cities like Avignon and Paris in France and Rome in Italy, New York City.
In Persian culture it refers to condolence theater and Naqqali which are traditional Persian theatrical genres in which the drama is conveyed wholly or predominantly through music and singing. It dates from before the Islamic era and the tragedy of Saiawush in Shahnameh is one of the best examples. In Persian tradition, Ta'zieh and Parde-khani, inspired by historical and religious events, symbolize epic spirit and resistance; the common themes are of resistance against the evil. While in the West the two major genres of drama have been comedy and tragedy, in Persia, Ta'zieh seems to be the dominant genre. Considered as Persian opera, Ta'zieh resembles European opera in many respects. Persian cinema and Persian symphonic music have been influenced by the long tradition of Ta'zieh in Iran. Abbas Kiarostami, famous Iranian film maker, made a documentary movie titled "A Look to Ta'zieh" in which he explores the relationship of the audience to this theatrical form. Nasser Taghvaee made a documentary on Ta'zieh titled "Tamrin e Akhar".
The appearance of the characteristic dramatic form of Persia known as the ta'zïye Mu'izz ad-Dawla, the king of Buyid dynasty, in 963. As soon as the Safavid Dynasty was established in Persia in 1501 and the Shiism of the Twelvers adopted as the official sect, the state took interest in theater as a tool of propagating Shiism. Women were not considered active members of the Ta'zieh performance ritual. All women in these rituals were played by young males, however on some occasions little girls under the age of nine were able to fulfill small roles. Women were traditionally played by males who would veil their faces. During the festival period, the tekyehs were lavishly decorated by the women of the community that the performance took place, with the prized personal possessions of the local community. Refreshments were prepared by women and served to the spectators by the children of well-off families. Society women were invited to watch the performance from the boxes above the general viewing area.
The audience consisted of the more well-off families as they regarded Ta'zieh as entertainment, while the lower-class community members thought of it as an important religious ritual. The Ta'Zieh gained popularity during the 19th century and women painted sce
Nawabganj is a city in Barabanki district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a nagar parishad for Barabanki town, it is one of the constituent entities of Barabanki city, District HQ of Barabanki district. Nawabganj has been known as such since the Nawabi. Battle of Nawabganj was a conflict between rebel sepoys, troops of Oudh State and local Taluqdars and troops of East India Company from 12 to 14 June 1857 during Indian Mutiny. During the Sepoy war of 1857-1858 the whole of the Bara Banki taluqdars joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance after the capture of Lucknow. In the battle of Nawabganj in 1857 at Nawabganj Sir Hope Grant defeated the revolutionaries. Raja Balbhadra Singh Chehlari along with other 1000 revolutionaries were killed in action while fighting British at Obri around 2 km from Barabanki on the confluence of riverlets Rait and Jamuria. During the British rule Nawabganj headquarters of tehsil and pargana of same name. Area of Nawabganj Pargana around 1878 was 79 square miles and it was bounded in North by Ramnagar and Fatehpur, on the east by Daryabad, on the west by Dewa, on south by Partabganj.
Out of 77 villages, 44 were 33 Mufrad. Out of 44 taluqdari villages 25 were held by Jahngirabad Estate, the rest were divided between several neighbouring estates. Nawabganj contained village of Bara Banki which had civil railway station having junction on Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Nawabganj is located at 26.94°N 81.19°E / 26.94. It has an average elevation of 93 metres; as of 2001 India census, Nawabganj had a population of 75,087. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Nawabganj has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, female literacy is 62%. In Nawabganj, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Tehsil Nawabganj has 4 Block panchayats, they are: Banki Dewa Harakh Masauli The Nawabganj Municipal Board was constituted on 16 July 1884, under the North-Western provinces and Oudh Municipalities Act, 1883. According to census of 2001 Nagar Palika Parishad Nawabganj covers an area of 12 km² with population of 75,741.
It consists of seven sections for providing civic amenities to its citizens, they are: Revenue Section Public Works Section Health & Sanitation Section Water Works Street Light Nazul Accounts, Establishment & RecordsNagar Palika Parishad Nawabganj has 25 wards. They are: Tehsil Nawabganj has following health infrastructure: Health centres – 7 PHCs – 8 Sub centres – 17
Barabanki district is one of four districts of Ayodhya division, lies at the heart of Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India, forms as it were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate. It is situated between 27°19' and 26°30' north latitude, 80°05' and 81°51’ east longitude. With its most northern point it impinges on the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is washed by the waters of the Ghagra, beyond which lie the districts of Bahraich district and Gonda district, its eastern frontier marches with Faizabad district, the Gomti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the Sultanpur district. On the west it adjoins the Lucknow district; the extreme length of the district from east to west may be taken at 57 miles, the extreme breadth at 58 mi. Barabanki city is the district headquarters; the district under British rule had an area of 1,769 sq mi. In 1856 it came, under British rule. During the Sepoy war of 1857-1858 the whole of the Barabanki talukdars joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance after the capture of Lucknow.
It stretches out in a level plain interspersed with numerous marshes. In the upper part of the district the soil is sandy, while in the lower part it is clayey and produces finer crops; the district is well fed by rivers Ghaghra and Kalyani and their tributaries, for the major part of the year. Some rivers dry out in the summer, get flooded during the rainy season; the changing course of the river Ghagra changes the land area in the district, year to year. The principal crops are rice, wheat and other food grains and sugarcane. Trade in agricultural produce is active. Both the bordering rivers are navigable, it has good road connectivity including National Highways NH 28, State Highways and various link roads. The district was known before the Muslim conquest as Jasnaul, from Jas, a raja of the Bharpasi tribe, said to have founded it before 1000 AD. With a change of proprietors came a change of name; the Muslim owners divided the lands into twelve shares, over which the respective proprietors quarrelled so incessantly that they were called the Barah Banke, or twelve quarrelsome men.
Banka, in Awadhi, meaning a bully or brave. Others derive the name from ban, meaning wood or jungle, interpret Barabanki as the twelve shares of jungle. Parijaat tree a sacred baobab tree in the village of Kintoor on the banks of Ghaghra. Located near the Kunteshwar Mahadeva temple, the tree is said to grow from Kunti's ashes; the tree is old. Greater part of Barabanki was included in Pachhimrath country, one of the five divisions of the kingdom of Rama. Before 1000 AD, Jas, a raja of the Bharpasi tribe is said to have founded the locality of Jasnaul which after the Muslim conquest of the region, came to be known as Bara Banki or Barabanki; the Muslims had made their first permanent settlement in this district at Satrikh, in 421 AH. / 1030 AD. Sihali, was conquered, its sovereign, a Siharia Chhattri, was killed. Kintur was captured, its Bhar queen, Kintama slain; the battle in which bhar-pasi chief Sohil Deo of Sahet-Mahet a small northern kingdom was subversed by Sri Chandradeo, the Rathor monarch of Kannauj was fought in Satrikh village of the district.
In 1049 AD / 441 AH, the Kings of Kanauj and Manikpur were defeated and driven from Oudh by Qutub-ud-din of Medina. The Muslim invasion was more successful in Bara Banki than elsewhere. In 586 AH. / 1189 AD, Sihali was conquered by Shekh Nizam-ud-din of Herat, Ansari. Zaidpur was occupied by them in 636 AH, when Sayyad Abd-ul-Wahid turned out the Bhar-pasi, altering the name of the town from Suhalpur; the colony of Musalman Bhattis is reported to have arrived about the same time, although some place it as early as 596 AH. / 1199 AD. They settled at Mawai Maholara. After 1350 AD Muslim immigrants started to settle in great number in the district until nearly to middle of eighteenth century. At the Muslims first permanently settled in Oudh. Rudauli was occupied about 700 AH, in the reign of Alla-ud-din Khilji, whose forces had just about the same time destroyed Anhalwara, Dcogir, Jessulmere, Bundi, in fact nearly every remaining seat of Chhattri power. Rasulpur was conquered about 1350 AD / 756 AH.
Daryabad was founded by Dariab Khan Subahdar. Fatehpur was colonized by Fateh Khan, a brother of Dariab Khan, about the same time; the villages of Barauli and Barai, near Rudauli, were occupied, gave their name to large estates about the middle of the fifteenth century. However, with this latter immigration of the Muslims there was one of Chhattris; the mysterious tribe of Kalhans, which numbers some twenty thousand persons, are said to be descended from Achal Singh, who came in as a soldier of fortune with Dariab Khan about 1450 AD. Raja Achal Singh is a great name in the Middle Ages of Oudh. At this time Ibrahim Shah Sharqi, reigned at Jaunpur. Oudh was the battle ground—the border land between Sharqis of Jaunpur and the Lo
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit