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Sømarkedyssen is a neolithic megalithic tomb located near Sømarke on the Danish island of Møn Dating back to 3400 BC, the tomb consists of an octagonal chamber. A big boulder serves as a capstone, supported by seven load-bearing stones. Leading to the burial chamber, the corridor is covered with a smaller boulder, supported by four stones, whose upper surface has more than 180 bowl-shaped carvings dating from the Bronze Age. A total of 119 megalithic tombs of the neolithic period are known on the 231 square kilometers of the Møn and Bogø islands, of which 38 have been conserved and protected, 21 were from the Beaker culture which, like polygonal dolmens, emerged towards 3500-2800 BC. Megaliths passage tomb Grønsalen Klekkende Høj Karsten Kjer Michaelsen: Politikens bog om Danmarks oldtid. Politiken, Kopenhagen 2002, ISBN 87-567-6458-8, p 217. Peter V. Glob: Vorzeitdenkmäler Dänemarks. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1968


Hamasien was a historical province including and surrounding Asmara, part of modern Eritrea. In 1996 the province was divided and distributed amongst the modern Maekel, Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, Anseba regions. Hamasien's population predominantly follow Oriental Orthodox Christianity and are members of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, with a considerable minority from the Sunni Muslim, Roman Catholic, Lutheran communities. Traditionally being the center of the Kebessa, it was the locality of the old palace town of Debarwa; the border was changed further to place Debarwa in the province of Seraye before its present status of being the capital of the Tselema district in the Debub region. The former province republic of Hamassien was the economic center of Eritrea; the earliest surviving appearance of the name "Hamasien" is believed to have been the region ḤMS²M, i.e. ḤMŠ, mentioned in a Sabaic inscription of the Axumite king Ezana. The region may have been mentioned as early as Puntite times by Ancient Egyptian records as'MSW, a region of Punt.

During the early medieval centuries, it was ruled by the Raesi`s of the Hazega and Tseazega and the Bahri negasi making their center of administration in Debarwa. According to Francisco Alvares, writing in the early 16th century, the Raesi of the Tseazegas had been able to collect tax by extending their authority as far as Suakin in modern Sudan. Despite the Emperor of Ethiopia's allegations and grants of control of the country of the Bahri negesitat the Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties, the 1984 "Proceedings of the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal of the International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples," declares that "There was no administration that connected Hamasin and Serae to the centre of the Ethiopian Kingdom With the decline of the importance of the Midri Bahri in the 17th to 19th centuries, the province enjoyed a period of communal rule under councils of village elders, the so-called shimagile who enforced traditional laws which had prevailed uniquely in the region alongside feudal authority since ancient times.

The region appeared in European maps as'The Republic of Hamasien'. In the late 19th century, Hamasien was invaded and occupied by the Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV who granted control of the region to Ras Alula. Ethiopian forces wrestled for control over the region with Ottomans and with Italian colonialists. Following the death of Emperor Yohannes at the Battle of Gallabat, Hamasien was occupied by the Italians, who incorporated it into their colony of Eritrea and making one of its villages, the capital of the colony, a status it retains today as the capital of the sovereign country of Eritrea. Provinces of Eritrea

Logical link control

In the IEEE 802 reference model of computer networking, the logical link control data communication protocol layer is the upper sublayer of the data link layer of the seven-layer OSI model. The LLC sublayer acts as an interface between the media access control sublayer and the network layer; the LLC sublayer provides multiplexing mechanisms that make it possible for several network protocols to coexist within a multipoint network and to be transported over the same network medium. It can provide flow control and automatic repeat request error management mechanisms; the LLC sublayer is concerned with multiplexing protocols transmitted over the MAC layer and demultiplexing them. It can provide node-to-node flow control and error management; the flow control and error management capabilities of the LLC sublayer are used by protocols such as the NetBIOS Frames protocol. However, most protocol stacks running atop 802.2 do not use LLC sublayer flow control and error management. In these cases flow control and error management are taken care of by a transport layer protocol such as TCP or by some application layer protocol.

These higher layer protocols work in an end-to-end fashion, i.e. re-transmission is done from the original source to the final destination, rather than on individual physical segments. For these protocol stacks only the multiplexing capabilities of the LLC sublayer are used. An LLC sublayer was a key component in early packet switching networks such as X.25 networks with the LAPB data link layer protocol, where flow control and error management were carried out in a node-to-node fashion, meaning that if an error was detected in a frame, the frame was retransmitted from one switch to next instead. This extensive handshaking between the nodes made the networks slow; the IEEE 802.2 standard specifies the LLC sublayer for all IEEE 802 local area networks, such as IEEE 802.3/Ethernet, IEEE 802.5, IEEE 802.11. IEEE 802.2 is used in some non-IEEE 802 networks such as FDDI. Since bit errors are rare in wired networks, Ethernet does not provide flow control or automatic repeat request, meaning that incorrect packets are detected but only cancelled, not retransmitted.

Instead, retransmissions rely on higher layer protocols. As the EtherType in an Ethernet frame using Ethernet II framing is used to multiplex different protocols on top of the Ethernet MAC header it can be seen as an LLC identifier. However, Ethernet frames lacking an EtherType have no LLC identifier in the Ethernet header, instead, use an IEEE 802.2 LLC header after the Ethernet header to provide the protocol multiplexing function. In wireless communications, bit errors are common. In wireless networks such as IEEE 802.11, flow control and error management is part of the CSMA/CA MAC protocol, not part of the LLC layer. The LLC sublayer follows the IEEE 802.2 standard. Some non-IEEE 802 protocols can be thought of as being split into LLC layers. For example, while HDLC specifies both MAC functions and LLC functions, some protocols such as Cisco HDLC can use HDLC-like packet framing and their own LLC protocol. Over telephone network modems, PPP link layer protocols can be considered as a LLC protocol, providing multiplexing, but it does not provide flow control and error management.

In a telephone network, bit errors might be common, meaning that error management is crucial, but, today provided by modern protocols. Today's modem protocols have inherited LLC features from the older LAPM link layer protocol, made for modem communication in old X.25 networks. The GPRS LLC layer does ciphering and deciphering of SN-PDU packets. Another example of a data link layer, split between LLC and MAC is the ITU-T standard, which provides high-speed local area networking over existing home wiring. Virtual Circuit Multiplexing Subnetwork Access Protocol


Bładnice is a village in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It is located on the Bładnica river, left tributary of the Vistula river, it lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. The village was first mentioned in 1416 in the document of Bolesław of Cieszyn. Politically it belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy; the history of the village was twined with the history of Nierodzim where the noble owners of them both resided. The distinction between two parts of the village developed: Dolne and Górne. Bładnice Górne were absorbed by Nierodzim. In the late 19th century they both became part of the Teschener Kammer. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. Bładnice Dolne as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Bielsko and the legal district of Skotschau. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality dropped from 211 in 1880 to 204 in 1910, with all of the inhabitants being native Polish-speakers of Protestants faith, followed by Roman Catholics.

Bładnice Górne as a cadastral community of Nierodzim in 1910 had 87 inhabitants, all of them Polish-speaking, 57 Protestants and 30 Catholics. The village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect. After World War I, the fall of Austria-Hungary, the Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Poland, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Poland. Bładnicy Dolne and Bładnice Górne were administratively joined in 1973. A Lutheran church was built here in 1990, as a filial church of Ustroń. In 2000 it became an independent parish of the Diocese of Cieszyn

Hinsdale, Montana

Hinsdale is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Valley County, United States. The town's population was 217 and the community's population as a whole was 583 as of the 2010 census; the community is located on the Milk River and U. S. Route 2, with Montana Highway 537 headed north out of town and South Bench Road crossing the railroad tracks and heading south out of town. Hinsdale has a post office with ZIP code 59241. There are smaller communities and ghost towns left over from the Homestead Period that fall under the Hinsdale community. Barr Beaverton Genevieve Happy Flats Miles Crossing Tampico Vandalia Theony Native American tribes lived in the local area for thousands of years before European colonization; this colonization brought horses which improved life on the prairie. The steady eastward march of settlers pushed new tribes into the area; the Corps of Discovery reached the head of the Milk River in May 1805. There, the river received its name, for "the water of this river possesses a peculiar whiteness, being about the colour of a cup of tea with the admixture of a tablespoonfull of milk."After the Corps of Discovery, the next major event in the area was the arrival of Texas cattle coming to fatten up on the local grass after their long cattle drives.

The cattle drives lasted from 1866 until the late 1880s. The area was claimed by various Native American Tribes; the Act of May 1, 1888 ceded a large area of land, including Hinsdale, from the tribes and opened the area up to homesteading Hinsdale was created when the railroad came through. The area became populated with homesteaders seeking farm ground in the newly opened land The original site, or Old Hinsdale, was located one and a half miles east of the present town site; the old site was once owned by Bob Walsh, aka "Six-shooter Bob." The present town site was owned by William Woolridge, the depot agent in 1897. The first schoolhouse in the community was built by James Deegan and Los Blackmon near the old Deegan ranch; the first schoolhouse in new Hinsdale, a log building, was located on the current school grounds. Hinsdale has had two newspapers in the past; the Montana Homestead ran from 1904-1912 The better known Hinsdale Tribune ran from 1912-1971. The Hinsdale Tribune merged with The Saco Independent to form the Independent Tribune for a few years in the 1970s.

While the rest of the country was booming in the roaring twenties, Montana was in a drought. Montana was the only state in the union to have a decrease in population during that time. Though far removed from the center of the Dust Bowl, Hinsdale did see a few dust storms during the Great Depression. Times were tough and most of the settlers who toughed it out and stayed lived by subsistence farming; the 1980s was a tough time in agriculture across the country. The community of Hinsdale suffered as the period saw one of the worst droughts in the areas history; the second decade of the 21st century has seen unusual and record breaking weather for Hinsdale. During the winter of 2010–2011, more than 105 inches fell in neighboring Glasgow, Montana; this led to severe flooding in the spring due to runoff. A second flood period occurred in the spring as the soil was saturated and all of the water once again rushed into the streams and the Milk River; the summer of 2014 was unusually wet. After several weeks of small, scattered rainstorms, a larger system rolled through in late August.

The storm dropped several inches of rain. Hinsdale received seven inches rain over a three-day period; this induced the third hundred‑year‑flood. As of the 2010 Census, there were 583 people and 240 occupied homes in the Hinsdale CCD. There were 289 females; the largest age group was ages 50–64 with 148 individuals. Hinsdale is the 7th CCD of Valley County and Hinsdale Rural was the 4th. Hinsdale was not a unique district in the 1900 U. S. Census, so there is no population data from that census. Since Hinsdale is not and never has been an incorporated town, neither the town or the community are defined; the census districts are one of the more accurate ways of defining the community. They reflect how smaller communities in the area evaporated and the Hinsdale area grew despite a dwindling population in the 20th century. Hinsdale All of the areas listed in the chart are Census County Divisions. In 2010, the town of Hinsdale was created as a CDP, Census Designated place; this means. The smaller is the population of the town and the larger is the whole community, including the town.

Hinsdale is located at 48°24′17″N 107°05′13″W. The town is located on the Milk River just above the flood plain. A cut bank separates the town from the county park on the river's edge. U. S. Highway 2 runs east and west on the south side of town, with the railroad tracks running parallel south of the highway. Just south of town is the south bench, with marks the edge of the terrace than makes up the majority of south Valley County; the terrace is a raised area, not cut down as far by erosion compared to the Milk River Valley. Numerous soil horizons, including multiple layers of sandstone, are visible in the bench. Hinsdale was once on the edge of the inland sea of North America; as the Rocky Mountains began to rise, they were sediment filled in the sea. As the Rocky Mountain Front continued to gain elevation and increase the slope of the land, water began to erode away the sediment, deposited. At this point, the Missouri River flowed north past Big Sandy, entered what is now the Milk River Valley, flowed along its course past Hinsdale.

Around what is now Poplar, the Mis