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Kempner, Texas

Kempner is a city in Lampasas County, United States. The population was 1,089 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area. Former State Representative Suzanna Hupp lives in Kempner with her family, she was a survivor of the infamous Luby's shooting of 1991 in Killeen. Kempner is located at 31°4′39″N 97°58′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, 1,004 people, 351 households, 272 families resided in the city; the population density was 450.3 people per square mile. The 373 housing units averaged 167.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 84.86% White, 6.37% African American, 0.90% Native American, 1.79% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 3.29% from other races, 2.59% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 7.97% of the population. Of the 351 households, 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were not families.

About 16.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 2.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was distributed as 29.0% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,981, for a family was $41,094. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $19,188 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,661. About 5.5% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. The City of Kempner is served by the Lampasas Independent School District; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.

According to the Köppen climate classification, Kempner has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps

Visoko during the Middle Ages

The area of today's Visoko is considered to be a nucleus from where Bosnian statehood was developed in 10th century. The expanded valley of the river Bosna around today's Visoko was the biggest agriculture area in central Bosnia, so fertile ground around Visoko was ideal for development of early political center of Bosnian nobility; the settlement, in Visoko field has been associated with name Bosnia for a long time, only since the 1350s has the name Visoki became used. Visoko and its valley with Mile, Moštre, Podvisoki was an early center of the Bosnian medieval state, the site where the first Bosnian King Tvrtko I was crowned; the old town of Visoki, located on Visočica hill, was a politically important fortress, its inner bailey, was an early example of a Bosnian medieval urban area. In this early period, we know that first known ruler of Bosnia was Knyaz Stephen of Bosnia, who ruled the area of today's Sarajevo and Visoko fields. Pavao Anđelić considers Visoko field to be the core from where early Slavs in the 7th and 8th century expanded the term Bosnia as a territorial unit.

The place known as Bosnia is mentioned in 17 medieval sources. A number of documents in Latin mention Bosnia in the context of a settlement. Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, writes charter in 1334 in Bossina in curia nostra. Ragusans wrote in 1367 about the location of St. Nikola church as conventus sancti Nicolae de Bosna. With times Visoki has become a prevalent name for the medieval area, known as Bosna Names for Visoko varied in literature: Vizoka, Vissokium, Visuki, Visochium. Bosnia was a banate by 1154; the first domestic ruler was Kulin. His plate was found in a small place just outside of Visoko; the plate was once part of a church built by Kulin. According to Pavao Anđelić and others Bilino Polje abjuration happened in Visoko valley, as Latin sources do not indicate where this meeting took place, other than: by river, that monastery is located beside town Bosna, his plate one part of Kulin church, that's the reason some authors believe that meeting took place in Biskupići and not in today field of Bilino, near Zenica, as there are no records of significant settlement there.

Medieval settlement Bosna is mentioned in documents in 12th century. Mile are mentioned in 1244 as a place where Stephen II Kotromanić built Franciscan monastery of st. Nicholas. After the death of Stephen II, young ban Tvrtko will emerge. Important part of his early reign will be played by his mother Jelena, she will go to Kingdom of Hungary in 1354 and ask king Louis I of Hungary for confirmation of Tvrtko's rule in Bosnia. She held stanak in Mile, asking nobleman's to confirm all rights of Tvrtko, 15 years old by that time. Old town of Visoki on Visočica hill is first mentioned in charted, issued on 1 September 1355, where Tvrtko I granted Ragusians all benefits and freedom in trade, customary from the time of Kulin. Podvisoki is mentioned in 1363; the crowning of Tvrtko I Kotromanić was held on 26 October 1377 in the Church of St. Nicholaus, Mile; the Bosnian banate was now kingdom. Evidence that this happened in Visoko was proven archaeologically Tvrtko Kotromanić wrote to Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić on 12 March 1380, location of issuing was royal court of Moštre, located in Visoko basin.

The trading center of the Bosnian kingdom was Podvisoki, which had a considerable colony of Ragusian merchants. From 1404 to 1428, Podvisoki is frequent caravan destination. Milaš Radomirić was a prominent merchant from Visoko accepted as a Republic of Ragusa citizen. On April 9, 1428, wedding engagement was made between Tvrtko II and Dorothy Garai, by July 31 Ragusian asked for the queen to stop by Podvisoki so she could receive gifts; the biggest caravan shipment was recorded in 1428. On August 9, Vlachs committed to Ragusan lord Tomo Bunić, that they will with 600 horses deliver 1500 modius of salt. Mile was one of the places where kings held stanak. Ostoja of Bosnia was one of the most active kings, he assumed his role as a king in 1398. Nobility with Tvrtko II held a meeting in Mile and they decided to overthrow Ostoja because of his pro-Hungarian stance. Ostoja has lost support of all nobility at the time. Stanak, held in June 5, 1404 was difficult and long. Hungarians decided to send an army into Bosnia, Podvisoki will be looted on Mart 4, 1410.

They captured some Ragusians merchants stationed in Podvisoki, for which Republic of Ragusa protested to Sigismund, King of Hungary In 1412 Vuk Kotromanić, nephew of king Ostoja killed and stole silver from one Ragusian merchant Jakša Bunić. Ragusians demanded that Vuk be punished for his crime, but there is no evidence that he was prosecuted. However, king Ostoja remained in power, Tvrtko II went into hiding. King Ostoja would die in 1418, that will spark another unrest in the kingdom, that will grow into a civil war. Nobility once again didn't approve of a new king, son of Ostoja, Stjepan Ostojić, he only had a handful of nobility behind him, namely Petar Pavlović and Radosav Vladimirić. Stjepan Ostojić ruled until June 1420, when a meeting of nobility in Visoko sealed his fate. Crucial event for Ostojić's demise would be conciliation between Radosav Pavlović and Duke Sandalj Hranić. Tvrtko II appeared around this time, he will have the support of Bosnian nobility in Visoko, that included voivod Vukmir, mayor Dragiša, knez Juraj Vojsalić, knez Pribić, knez Radič Radojević, knez Batić Mirk

Network science

Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks and semantic networks, social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes and the connections between the elements or actors as links. The field draws on theories and methods including graph theory from mathematics, statistical mechanics from physics, data mining and information visualization from computer science, inferential modeling from statistics, social structure from sociology; the United States National Research Council defines network science as "the study of network representations of physical and social phenomena leading to predictive models of these phenomena." The study of networks has emerged in diverse disciplines as a means of analyzing complex relational data. The earliest known paper in this field is the famous Seven Bridges of Königsberg written by Leonhard Euler in 1736. Euler's mathematical description of vertices and edges was the foundation of graph theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of pairwise relations in a network structure.

The field of graph theory found applications in chemistry. Dénes Kőnig, a Hungarian mathematician and professor, wrote the first book in Graph Theory, entitled "Theory of finite and infinite graphs", in 1936 In the 1930s Jacob Moreno, a psychologist in the Gestalt tradition, arrived in the United States, he developed the sociogram and presented it to the public in April 1933 at a convention of medical scholars. Moreno claimed that "before the advent of sociometry no one knew what the interpersonal structure of a group'precisely' looked like; the sociogram was a representation of the social structure of a group of elementary school students. The boys were friends of boys and the girls were friends of girls with the exception of one boy who said he liked a single girl; the feeling was not reciprocated. This network representation of social structure was found so intriguing that it was printed in The New York Times; the sociogram has grown into the field of social network analysis. Probabilistic theory in network science developed as an offshoot of graph theory with Paul Erdős and Alfréd Rényi's eight famous papers on random graphs.

For social networks the exponential random graph model or p* is a notational framework used to represent the probability space of a tie occurring in a social network. An alternate approach to network probability structures is the network probability matrix, which models the probability of edges occurring in a network, based on the historic presence or absence of the edge in a sample of networks. In 1998, David Krackhardt and Kathleen Carley introduced the idea of a meta-network with the PCANS Model, they suggest that "all organizations are structured along these three domains, Individuals and Resources". Their paper introduced the concept that networks occur across multiple domains and that they are interrelated; this field has grown into another sub-discipline of network science called dynamic network analysis. More other network science efforts have focused on mathematically describing different network topologies. Duncan Watts reconciled empirical data on networks with mathematical representation, describing the small-world network.

Albert-László Barabási and Reka Albert developed the scale-free network, a loosely defined network topology that contains hub vertices with many connections, that grow in a way to maintain a constant ratio in the number of the connections versus all other nodes. Although many networks, such as the internet, appear to maintain this aspect, other networks have long tailed distributions of nodes that only approximate scale free ratios; the U. S. military first became interested in network-centric warfare as an operational concept based on network science in 1996. John A. Parmentola, the U. S. Army Director for Research and Laboratory Management, proposed to the Army’s Board on Science and Technology on December 1, 2003 that Network Science become a new Army research area; the BAST, the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences for the National Research Council of the National Academies, serves as a convening authority for the discussion of science and technology issues of importance to the Army and oversees independent Army-related studies conducted by the National Academies.

The BAST conducted a study to find out whether identifying and funding a new field of investigation in basic research, Network Science, could help close the gap between what is needed to realize Network-Centric Operations and the current primitive state of fundamental knowledge of networks. As a result, the BAST issued the NRC study in 2005 titled Network Science that defined a new field of basic research in Network Science for the Army. Based on the findings and recommendations of that study and the subsequent 2007 NRC report titled Strategy for an Army Center for Network Science and Experimentation, Army basic research resources were redirected to initiate a new basic research program in Network Science. To build a new theoretical foundation for complex networks, some of the key Network Science research efforts now ongoing in Army laboratories address: Mathematical models of network behavior to predict performance with network size and environment Optimized human performance required for network-enabled warfare Networking within ecosystems and at the molecular level in cells.

As initiated in 2004 by Frederick I. Moxley with support he solicited from David S. Alberts, the Department of Defense helped to establish the first Network Science Center in conjunction wit

Bahadurganj (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Bahadurganj is an assembly constituency in Kishanganj district in the Indian state of Bihar. As per Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies Order, 2008, No 52 Bahadurganj is composed of the following: Bahadurganj and Terhagachh community development blocks. Bahadurganj is part of No 10 Kishanganj. List of Member of Legislative Assembly from Bahadurganj Assembly Constituency. In November 2010 and October 2005 state assembly elections, Md. Tousif Alam of Congress won the Bahadurganj assembly seat defeating his nearest rivals Mohammad Maswar Alam of JD and Sikandar Singh, respectively. Contests in most years were multi cornered but only winners and runners are being mentioned. Md. Tousif Alam contesting as an independent candidate defeated Zahidur Rahman of Congress in February 2005. Zahidur Rahman of Congress defeated Awadh Bihari Singh of BJP in 2000. Awadh Bihari Singh of BJP defeated Zahidur Rahman, Independent, in 1995. Islamuddin Bagi of JD defeated Najmuddin of Congress in 1990.

Najmuddin of Congress defeated Shital Prasad Sinha, Independent, in 1985 and Kalimuddin, Independent, in 1980. Islamuddin Bagi of JP defeated Md. Nazmuddin in 1977

On the Road (Art Farmer album)

On the Road is an album by Art Farmer recorded in Los Angeles in 1976 and released on the Contemporary label. Scott Yanow of Allmusic states, "Everyone plays up to par on this spirited straight-ahead set". "Downwind" - 7:30 "My Funny Valentine" - 6:57 "Namely You" - 6:51 "What Am I Here For?" - 6:46 "I Can't Get Started" - 7:30 "Will You Still Be Mine?" - 5:39 Art Farmer - flugelhorn Art Pepper - alto saxophone Hampton Hawes - piano Ray Brown - bass Steve Ellington, Shelly Manne - drums