A herding dog known as a stock dog or working dog, is a type of pastoral dog that either has been trained in herding or belongs to breeds developed for herding. All herding behavior is modified predatory behavior. Through selective breeding, humans have been able to minimize the dog's natural inclination to treat cattle and sheep as prey while maintaining the dog's hunting skills, thereby creating an effective herding dog. Dogs can work other animals in a variety of ways; some breeds, such as the Australian Cattle Dog nip at the heels of animals and the Cardigan Welsh Corgi and the Pembroke Welsh Corgi were used in a similar fashion in the cattle droves that moved cattle from Wales to the Smithfield Meat Market in London but are used for herding today. Other breeds, notably the Border Collie, get in front of the animals and use what is called strong eye to stare down the animals; the headers or fetching dogs keep livestock in a group. They go to the front or head of the animals to turn or stop the animal's movement.
The heelers or driving dogs keep pushing the animals forward. They stay behind the herd; the Australian Kelpie and Australian Koolie use both these methods and run along the backs of sheep so are said to head and back. Other types such as the Australian Shepherd, English Shepherd and Welsh Sheepdog are moderate to loose eyed, working more independently; the New Zealand Huntaway uses its deep bark to muster mobs of sheep. Belgian Shepherds, German Shepherd Dogs and Briards are tending dogs, who act as a "living fence," guiding large flocks of sheep to graze while preventing them from eating valuable crops and wandering onto roads. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured when introducing a dog to livestock or at noncompetitive herding tests. Individuals exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in herding trials. In Australia, New Zealand and the United States herding dogs are known as working dogs irrespective of their breeding; some herding breeds work well with any kind of animals.
Mustered animals include cattle, sheep and reindeer, although it is not unusual for poultry to be handled by dogs. The term "herding dog" is sometimes erroneously used to describe livestock guardian dogs, whose primary function is to guard flocks and herds from predation and theft, they lack the herding instinct. Although herding dogs may guard flocks their primary purpose is to move them. In general terms when categorizing dog breeds, herding dogs are considered a subcategory of working dogs, but for conformation shows they form a separate group. Australia has the world's largest cattle stations and sheep stations and some of the best-known herding dogs, such as the Koolie, Kelpie and Blue Heelers are bred and found there; the competitive dog sport in which herding dogs move animals around a field, gates, or enclosures as directed by their handlers is called a sheepdog trial, herding test or stockdog trial depending on the area. Such events are associated with hill farming areas, where sheep range on unfenced land.
These trials are popular in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada, the USA, New Zealand and other farming nations, have even become primetime television fare. In the US, regular events are run by the United States Border Collie Handler's Association, Australian Shepherd Club of America, American Kennel Club and many others; the world record price for a working sheep dog was broken February 2011 at the auction at Skipton Market, with £6,300 for Dewi Fan. The previous record was £5,145 Come-bye or just bye - go to the left of the stock, or clockwise around them. Away to me, or just away or ` way - counterclockwise around them. Stand - stop, although when said may mean just to slow down. Wait, down or sit or stay - stop, but remain with that contact on the stock...don't take it off by leaving. Steady or take time - slow down. Cast - gather the stock into a group. Good working dogs will cast over a large area; this is not a command but an attribute. Find - search for stock. A good dog will hold the stock.
Some will bark. Get out or back - move away from the stock. Used when the dog is working too close to the stock causing the stock stress. Used as a reprimand. Keep Away or Keep - Used by some handlers as a direction and a distance from the sheep. Hold - keep stock where they are. Bark or speak up - bark at stock. Useful when more force is needed, not essential for working cattle and sheep. Look back - return for a missed animal. Used after a shed is completed and rejoined the flock or packet of sheep. In here or here - go through a gap in the flock. Used when separating stock. Walk up, walk on or just walk - move in closer to the stock. That'll do - stop return to handler; these commands may be indicated by a hand whistle or voice. There are many other commands that are used when working stock and in general use away from stock. Herding dog commands are taught using livestock as the modus operandi. Urban owners without access to livestock are able to teach basic commands through herding games; these are not the only commands used: there are many variations.
When whistles are used, each individual
The domestic goat or goat is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the goat—antelope subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, have been used for milk, meat and skins across much of the world. Milk from goats is turned into goat cheese. Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats. In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization; the Modern English word goat comes from Old English gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat", itself from a root meaning "jump".
To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans; the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the original ancestor of all domestic goats today. Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, used as fuel, their bones and sinew for clothing and tools; the earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.
It has been used to produce parchment. Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg for smaller goat does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm at the shoulder as adults. Most goats have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are sterile, their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, are used for defense and territoriality. Goats are ruminants.
They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates; the females have an udder consisting in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat. Goats have slit-shaped pupils; because goats' irises are pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, most horses and many sheep, whose horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Both male and female goats have beards, many types of goat may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck. Goats expressing the tan pattern have coats pigmented with phaeomelanin; the allele which codes for this pattern is located at the agouti locus of the goat genome. It is dominant to all other alleles at this locus. There are multiple modifier genes which control how much tan pigment is expressed, so a tan-patterned goat can have a coat ranging from pure white to deep red. Goats reach puberty depending on breed and nutritional status.
Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding. However, this separation is possible in extensively managed, open-range herds. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat flags her tail stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, may show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat. Bucks of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The Rambouillet is a breed of sheep known as the Rambouillet Merino or the French Merino. The development of the Rambouillet breed started in 1786, when Louis XVI purchased over 300 Spanish Merinos from his cousin, King Charles III of Spain; the flock was subsequently developed on an experimental royal farm, the Bergerie royale built during the reign of Louis XVI, at his request, on his domain of Rambouillet, 50 km southwest of Paris, which Louis XVI had purchased in December 1783 from his cousin, Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre. The flock was raised at the Bergerie, with no sheep being sold for several years, well into the 19th century. Outcrossing with English long-wool breeds and selection produced a well-defined breed, differing in several important points from the original Spanish Merino; the size was greater, with full-grown ewes weighing up to 200 pounds and rams up to 300 pounds, live weight. The wool clips were larger and the wool length had increased to greater than three inches.
In 1889, the Rambouillet Association was formed in the United States with the aim of preserving the breed. An estimated 50% of the sheep on the US western ranges are of Rambouillet blood. Rambouillet stud has had an enormous influence on the development of the Australian Merino industry though Emperor and the Peppin Merino stud; the fleece was valuable in the manufacture of cloth, at times being woven in a mixed fabric of cotton warp and wool weft, known as Delaine Merino. The breed is well known for its wool, but for its meat, both lamb and mutton, it has been described as a dual-purpose breed, with superior wool and near-mutton breed characteristics. This breed was used for the development of the "Barbado" or American Blackbelly sheep, crossed with Barbados Blackbelly and mouflon for their horns at hunting ranches
Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, United States, located just northwest of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C, it takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House, which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda. In Aramaic, beth ḥesda means "House of Mercy" and in Hebrew, beit ḥesed means "House of Kindness"; the National Institutes of Health main campus and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are in Bethesda, as are a number of corporate and government headquarters. As an unincorporated community, Bethesda has no official boundaries; the United States Census Bureau defines a census-designated place named Bethesda whose center is located at 38°59′N 77°7′W. The United States Geological Survey has defined Bethesda as an area whose center is at 38°58′50″N 77°6′2″W different from the Census Bureau's definition. Other definitions are used by the Bethesda Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, other organizations.
According to estimates released by the U. S. Census Bureau in 2013, the community had a total population of 63,374. Most of Bethesda's residents are in Maryland Legislative District 16. Bethesda is situated along a major thoroughfare, the route of an Indian trail. Henry Fleet was an English fur trader and the first European to travel to the area, which he reached by sailing up the Potomac River, he stayed with the Piscataway tribe from 1623 to 1627 as both a guest and a prisoner returned to England. He spoke of potential riches in fur and gold, won funding for another American expedition. Most early settlers in Maryland were tenant farmers who paid their rent in tobacco, colonists continued to push farther north in search of fertile land. Henry Darnall surveyed a 710-acre area in 1694 which became the first land grant in Bethesda. and tobacco farming was the primary way of life in Bethesda throughout the 1700s. The establishment of Washington, D. C. in 1790 deprived Montgomery County of its economic center at Georgetown, although the event had little effect on the small farmers throughout Bethesda.
Between 1805 and 1821, Bethesda became a rural way station after development of the Washington and Rockville Turnpike, which carried tobacco and other products between Georgetown and Rockville, north to Frederick. A small settlement grew around a store and tollhouse along the turnpike by 1862 known as "Darcy's Store", named after the store's owner William E. Darcy; the settlement was renamed in 1871 by postmaster Robert Franck after the Bethesda Meeting House, a Presbyterian church built in 1820. The church burned in 1849 and was rebuilt the same year about 100 yards south, its former location became the Cemetery of the Bethesda Meeting House. Bethesda did not develop beyond a small crossroads village through the 19th century, consisting of a blacksmith shop, a church and school, a few houses and stores. In 1852, the postmaster general established a post office in Bethesda and appointed Rev. A. R. Smith its first postmaster. A streetcar line was established in 1890 and suburbanization increased in the early 1900s, Bethesda began to grow in population.
Communities that were situated near railroad lines had grown the fastest during the 19th century, but mass production of the automobile ended that dependency and Bethesda planners grew the community with the transportation revolution in mind. This included becoming a key stopping point for the B & O railroad on their Georgetown Branch line completed around 1910 that ran from Silver Spring to Georgetown, passing through Bethesda on the way; the branch had a storage yard there and multiple sidings that served the industries in Bethesda in the early 20th century. B & O successor CSX ceased train service on the line in 1985, so the county transformed it into a trail in the rails-to-trails movement; the tracks were removed in 1994 and the first part of the trail was opened in 1998. Subdivisions began to appear on old farmland in the late 19th century, becoming the neighborhoods of Drummond, Woodmont and Battery Park. Farther north, several wealthy men made Rockville Pike famous for its mansions; these included Brainard W. Parker, James Oyster, George E. Hamilton, Luke I.
Wilson, Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor, George Freeland Peter. In 1930, Dr Armistead Peter's pioneering manor house "Winona" became the clubhouse of the Woodmont Country Club on land, now part of the National Institutes of Health campus. Merle Thorpe's mansion "Pook's Hill" became the home-in-exile of the Norwegian Royal Family during World War II. World War II and the subsequent expansion of government further fed the rapid growth of Bethesda. Both the National Naval Medical Center and the NIH complex were built just to the north of the developing downtown, this drew government contractors, medical professionals, other businesses to the area. In recent years, Bethesda has consolidated as the major urban core and employment center of southwestern Montgomery County; this recent growth has been vigorous following the expansion of Metrorail with a station in Bethesda in 1984. Alan Kay built the Bethesda Metro Center over the Red line metro rail which opened up further commercial and residential development in the immediate vicinity.
In the 2000s, the strict height limits on construction in
Lamb and mutton
Lamb and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages. In general a sheep in its first year is called a lamb, its meat is called lamb; the meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget. The meat of an adult sheep is a term only used for the meat, not the living animals. In the Indian subcontinent the term mutton is used to refer to goat meat. Lamb is the most expensive of the three types, in recent decades sheep meat is only retailed as "lamb", sometimes stretching the accepted distinctions given above; the stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find in many areas, despite the efforts of the Mutton Renaissance Campaign in the UK. In Australia, the term prime lamb is used to refer to lambs raised for meat. Other languages, for example French, Spanish and Arabic, make similar, or more detailed, distinctions among sheep meats by age and sometimes by sex and diet, though these languages do not always use different words to refer to the animal and its meat — for example, lechazo in Spanish refers to meat from milk-fed lambs.
The definitions for lamb and mutton vary between countries. Younger lambs are more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two years old, has less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal. Baby lamb meat will be pale pink. Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear. Hogget — A term for a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear, or its meat. Still common in farming usage, it is now rare as a retail term for the meat. Much of the "lamb" sold in the UK is "hogget" to an Antipodean farmer. Mutton — the meat of a female or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear; the terms "mutton" and "hogget" are uncommon in the United States. Federal statutes and regulations dealing with food labeling in the United States permit all sheep products to be marketed as "lamb." Sheep products less than 12-14 months old can be labeled "prime lamb" or "choice lamb" and all other sheep meat can be labeled as "lamb."
The term "mutton" is applied to goat meat in most of these countries, the goat population has been rising. For example, mutton-curry is always made from goat meat, it is estimated that over one-third of the goat population is slaughtered every year and sold as mutton. The husbanded sheep population in India and the Indian subcontinent has been in decline for over 40 years and has survived at marginal levels in mountainous regions, based on wild-sheep breeds, for wool production. Milk-fed lamb — meat from an unweaned lamb 4–6 weeks old and weighing 5.5–8 kg. The flavour and texture of milk-fed lamb when grilled or roasted is thought to be finer than that of older lamb, fetches higher prices; the areas in northern Spain where this can be found include Asturias, Castile and León, La Rioja. Milk-fed lambs are prized for Easter in Greece, when they are roasted on a spit. Young lamb — a milk-fed lamb between six and eight weeks old Spring lamb — a milk-fed lamb three to five months old, born in late winter or early spring and sold before 1 July.
Sucker lambs — a term used in Australia — includes young milk-fed lambs, as well as older lambs up to about seven months of age which are still dependent on their mothers for milk. Carcases from these lambs weigh between 14 and 30 kg. Older weaned lambs which have not yet matured to become mutton are known as old-season lambs. Yearling lamb — a young sheep between 12 and 24 months old, so another term for a hogget. Saltbush mutton – a term used in Australia for the meat of mature Merinos which have been allowed to graze on atriplex plants Salt marsh lamb is the meat of sheep which graze on salt marsh in coastal estuaries that are washed by the tides and support a range of salt-tolerant grasses and herbs, such as samphire, sparta grass and sea lavender. Depending on where the salt marsh is located, the nature of the plants may be subtly different. Salt marsh lamb has long been appreciated in France and is growing in popularity in the United Kingdom. Places, where salt marsh lamb are reared in the UK, include Harlech and the Gower Peninsula in Wales, the Somerset Levels, Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth.
Saltgrass lamb – a term used to describe a type of lamb exclusive to Flinders Island. The pastures on the island have a high salt content, leading to a flavor and texture similar to saltmarsh lamb; the meat of a lamb is taken from the animal between one month and one year old, with a carcase weight of between 5.5 and 30 kg. This meat is more tender than that from older sheep and appears more on tables in some Western countries. Hogget and mutton have a stronger flavour than lamb because they contain a higher concentration of species-characteristic fatty acids and are preferred by some. Mutton and hogget tend to be tougher than lamb and are therefore better suited to casserole-style cooking, as in Lancashire hotpot, for example. Lamb is sorted into three kinds of m