Grenache or Garnacha is one of the most planted red wine grape varieties in the world. It ripens late, so it needs hot, dry conditions such as those found in Spain, where the grape most originated, it is grown in the Italian isle of Sardinia, the south of France and California's Monterey AVA and San Joaquin Valley. It is spicy, berry-flavored and soft on the palate and produces wine with a high alcohol content, but it needs careful control of yields for best results. Characteristic flavor profiles on Grenache include red fruit flavors with a subtle, white pepper spice note. Grenache wines are prone to oxidation with young examples having the potential to show browning coloration that can be noticed around the rim when evaluating the wine at an angle in the glass; as Grenache ages the wines tend to take on more tar flavors. Wines made from Grenache tend to lack acid and color, it is blended with other varieties such as Syrah, Carignan and Cinsaut. In Spain, there are monovarietal wines made of Garnacha tinta, notably in the southern Aragon wine regions of Calatayud and Campo de Borja, but it is used in blends, as in some Rioja wines with tempranillo.
Grenache is the dominant variety in most Southern Rhône wines in Châteauneuf-du-Pape where it is over 80% of the blend. In Australia it is blended in "GSM" blends with Syrah and Mourvèdre with old vine examples in McLaren Vale. In Italy, the Sardinian D. O. C. Wine Cannonau di Sardegna is by law 99% local Grenache. Grenache is used to make rosé wines in France and Spain, notably those of the Tavel district in the Côtes du Rhône and those of the Navarra region, and the high sugar levels of Grenache have led to extensive use in fortified wines, including the red vins doux naturels of Roussillon such as Banyuls, as the basis of most Australian fortified wine. Grenache or Garnacha most originated in the region of Aragon in northern Spain, according to ampelographical evidence. Plantings spread from the original birthplace to Catalonia and other lands under the Crown of Aragon such as Sardinia and Roussillon in southern France. An early synonym for the vine was Tinto Aragonés; the grape is known as Cannonau in Sardinia, where it is claimed that it originated there and spread to other Mediterranean lands under Aragon rule.
Grenache, under its Spanish synonym Garnacha, was well established on both sides of the Pyrenees when the Roussillon region was annexed by France. From there the vine made its way through the Languedoc and to the Southern Rhone region where it was well established by the 19th century. Despite its prevalence in nearby Navarra and Catalonia, Garnacha was not planted in the Rioja till the early 20th century as vineyards were replanted following the phylloxera epidemic. Grenache was one of the first varieties to be introduced to Australia in the 18th century and became the country's most planted red wine grape variety until it was surpassed by Shiraz in the mid 1960s. Early Australian Grenache was a main component in the sweet fortified wines, the lynchpin of the early Australian wine industry. In the 19th century, California wine growers prized the vine's ability to produce high yields and withstand heat and drought conditions; the grape was extensively planted throughout the hot San Joaquin Valley where it was used as a blending component for pale, sweet jug wines.
In the late 20th century, the Rhone Rangers movement brought attention to the production of premium varietal Grenache and Rhone style blends modeled after the Grenache dominate wines of Châteauneuf-du-Pape. In the early 20th century, Grenache was one of the first Vitis vinifera grapes to be vinified during the early development of the Washington wine industry with a 1966 Yakima Valley rosé earning mention in wine historian Leon Adams treatise The Wines of America; the Grenache vine is characterized by its strong wood upright growth. It has good wind tolerance and has shown itself to be suited for the dry, warm windy climate around the Mediterranean; the vine buds early and requires a long growing season in order to ripen. Grenache is one of the last grapes to be harvested ripening weeks after Cabernet Sauvignon; the long ripening process allows the sugars in the grape to reach high levels, making Grenache-based wines capable of substantial alcohol levels at least 15% ABV. While the vine is vigorous, it is susceptible to various grape diseases that can affect the yield and quality of the grape production such as coulure, bunch rot and downy mildew due to the vine's tight grape clusters.
Marginal and wet climates can increase Grenache's propensity to develop these viticultural dangers. The vine's drought resistance is dependent on the type of rootstock it is planted on but on all types of rootstocks, Grenache seems to respond favorably to some degree of water stress. Grenache prefers hot, dry soils that are well drained but it is adaptable to all vineyard soil types. In southern France, Grenache thrives on schist and granite soils and has responded well to the stony soil of Châteauneuf-du-Pape with the area's galets roulés, heat-retentive stones. In Priorat, the crumbly schist soil of the region retains enough water to allow producers to avoid irrigation in the dry wine region. Vineyards with an overabundance of irrigation tend to produce pale colored wines with diluted flavors and excessive alc
Nuoro is a city and comune in central-eastern Sardinia, situated on the slopes of the Monte Ortobene. It is the capital of the province of Nuoro. With a population of 36,347, it is the sixth-largest city in Sardinia. Birthplace of several renowned artists, including writers, poets and sculptors, Nuoro hosts some of the most important museums in Sardinia, it is considered an important cultural center of the region and it has been referred as the "Atene sarda". Nuoro is the hometown of Grazia Deledda, the only Italian woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature; the earliest traces of human settlement in the Nuoro area are the so-called Domus de janas, rock-cut tombs dated at the third millennium BC. However, fragments of ceramics of the Ozieri culture have been discovered and dated at c. 3500 BC. The Nuorese was a centre of the Nuragic civilization, as attested by more than 30 Nuragic sites, such has the village discovered in the countryside of Tanca Manna, just outside Nuoro, made of about 800 huts.
The Nuorese was crossed by a Roman road. The legacy of the Roman colonization can be found in the variety of the Sardinian language, still spoken today in Nuoro: Nuorese Sardinian is considered the most conservative dialect of Sardinian, in turn the most conservative Romance language. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Sardinia was held first by the Vandals and by the Byzantines. According to the letters of Pope Gregory I, a Romanized and Christianized culture co-existed with several Pagan cultures located in the island's interior; as the Byzantine control waned, the Judicates appeared. A small village known as Nugor appears on a medieval map from 1147. In the two following centuries it grew to more than 1000 inhabitants. Nuoro remained a town of average importance under the Aragonese and Spanish domination of Sardinia, until famine and plague struck it in the late 17th century. After the annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia, the town became the administrative center of the area, obtaining the title of city in 1836.
Since 1972 in Nuoro is active the Istituto superiore regionale etnografico, an institution that promotes the study and documentation of the social and cultural life of Sardinia in its traditional manifestations and its transformations. In fact, in addition to managing museums and libraries, it organizes national and international events, including: the Sardinia International Ethnographic Film Festival and the Festival Biennale Italiano dell’Etnografia. Sardinian Ethnographic Museum. Grazia Deledda's Museum. M. A. N. Museo d’Arte Provincia di Nuoro. National Archeological Museum Nuoro. Museo Ciusa, Museum dedicated to Francesco Ciusa and other artists Cattedrale della Madonna della Neve Piazza Sebastiano Satta Chiesa di Nostra Signora delle Grazie Chiesa della Solitudine The Redeemer's statue, Monte Ortobene, the 7 meters tall Vincenzo Gerace's bronze statue installed the 29th August 1901. Nuraghe Ugolio Chiesa di San Carlo, church built in the 17th century containing a copy of Francesco Ciusa's masterpiece La madre dell'ucciso.
Sas Birghines, Domus de Janas located in Monte Ortobene Sanctuary Madonna of Montenero, Monte Ortobene Along with Italian, the traditional language spoken in Nuoro is Sardinian, in its Logudorese-Nuorese variety. Nuoro is home to su filindeu; the name in Sardinian language means "the threads of God" and is made by the women of a single family in the town, with the recipe being passed down through generations. Sardinia International Ethnographic Film Festival Nuoro is served by the SS 131 DCN, the SS 129, the SS 389. ARST, Azienda Regionale Sarda Trasporti provide regular connections to Cagliari, Olbia, to several minor centres in the province and the region. Other private operators connects Nuoro to various airports in the island. Nuoro is connected by train to Macomer via Ferrovie della Sardegna. ATP Nuoro's bus system provides service within the city. Priamo Gallisay, musician Giampietro Chironi, senator Franceschino Guiso-Gallisai Knight, Order of Merit for Labour Antonio Ballero, painter Sebastiano Satta, lawyer Pasquale Dessanai, poet Grazia Deledda, winner Nobel Prize Francesco Ciusa, winner of the Venice Biennale Attilio Deffenu, trade unionist Gonario Pinna, politician, lawyer Salvatore Mannironi, Ministry of Commercial Navy Salvatore Satta, writer Giovanni Ciusa Romagna, painter Gerolamo Devoto, Industrialist - Grand Officer OMRI Maria Giacobbe and essayist Sebastiano Mannironi, athlete.
Olympic games medal winner. Franco Oppo, composer Romano Ruiu, poet, playwright Piero Marras, singer-songwriter Giovanni Columbu, film director Marcello Fois, writer Flavio Manzoni car designer Salvatore Sirigu, footballer Corte, France Tolmezzo, Italy Official Website O
Cantu a tenore
The cantu a tenòre or canto a tenore in Italian is a style of polyphonic folk singing characteristic of the island of Sardinia the region of Barbagia, though some other Sardinian sub-regions bear examples of such tradition. In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed the cantu; the word tenore, itself, is not to be confused with the word "tenor" as a simple description of vocal register. In the Barbagia region on the island of Sardinia, there are two different styles of polyphonic singing: cuncordu a form of sacred music, sung with regular voices, tenore a form of profane music, marked by the use of overtone singing. Cantu a tenore is traditionally practised by groups of four male singers standing in a close circle; each singer has a distinct role, here listed in descending pitch order—form a chorus:'oche or boche is the solo voice. The bassu sings the same note sung by the'oche, contra a fifth above the bassu. The'Oche and the mesu'oche sing in a regular voice, whereas the contra and the bassu sing with a technique affecting the larynx.
The'oche sings a poetic text in Sardinian language, which can be of epic, satirical, amorous or protest genre. The chorus consists of nonsense syllables. According to popular tradition, mesu'oche imitates the sound of wind, while the contra imitates a sheep bleating and the bassu a cow lowing; the solo voice starts a monodic vocal line and is joined by the others as he indicates to them to join in. The effect is somewhat that of a round except that the points where the other singers join in vary and, the harmonies vary from version to version; the execution differs in details between each of the villages where a tenore is sung to such an extent that the village can be recognized. Although nowadays cucordu and cantu a tenore are performed only by men, memories remain of a time where women groups performed as well, following the matriarchal tradition of Sardinia. According to some anthropologists, cantu a tenore was performed back in Nuragic times; some of the most well known groups who perform a tenore are Tenores di Bitti, Tenore de Orosei, Tenore di Oniferi and Tenores di Neoneli.
Tenore singers on a mountain The Oral Tradition of the a Tenore Song, an expression of Intangible heritage of the Sardinian pastoral culture Sardinian Music - Buy Sardinian Music Tenores.org
Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I known as Saint Gregory the Great, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to 12 March 604 AD. He is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the Gregorian Mission, to convert the then-pagan Anglo-Saxons in England to Christianity. Gregory is well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as Pope; the epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. English translations of Eastern texts sometimes list him as Gregory "Dialogos", or the Anglo-Latinate equivalent "Dialogus". A Roman senator's son and himself the Prefect of Rome at 30, Gregory tried the monastery but soon returned to active public life, ending his life and the century as pope. Although he was the first pope from a monastic background, his prior political experiences may have helped him to be a talented administrator, who established papal supremacy. During his papacy, he surpassed with his administration the emperors in improving the welfare of the people of Rome, he challenged the theological views of Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople before the emperor Tiberius II.
Gregory sent missionaries to England. The realignment of barbarian allegiance to Rome from their Arian Christian alliances shaped medieval Europe. Gregory saw Franks and Visigoths align with Rome in religion, he combated against the Donatist heresy, popular in North Africa at the time. Throughout the Middle Ages, he was known as "the Father of Christian Worship" because of his exceptional efforts in revising the Roman worship of his day, his contributions to the development of the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, still in use in the Byzantine Rite, were so significant that he is recognized as its de facto author. Gregory is one of the Latin Fathers, he is considered a saint in the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, some Lutheran denominations. After his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim; the Protestant reformer John Calvin admired Gregory and declared in his Institutes that Gregory was the last good Pope. He is the patron saint of musicians, singers and teachers.
The exact date of Gregory's birth is uncertain, but is estimated to be around the year 540, in the city of Rome. His parents named him Gregorius, which according to Ælfric of Abingdon in An Homily on the Birth-Day of S. Gregory, "... is a Greek Name, which signifies in the Latin Tongue, in English, Watchful...." The medieval writer who provided this etymology did not hesitate to apply it to the life of Gregory. Ælfric states, "He was diligent in God's Commandments."Gregory was born into a wealthy patrician Roman family with close connections to the church. His father, who served as a senator and for a time was the Prefect of the City of Rome held the position of Regionarius in the church, though nothing further is known about that position. Gregory's mother, was well-born, had a married sister, Pateria, in Sicily, his mother and two paternal aunts are honored by Orthodox churches as saints. Gregory's great-great-grandfather had been Pope Felix III, the nominee of the Gothic king, Theodoric. Gregory's election to the throne of St Peter made his family the most distinguished clerical dynasty of the period.
The family owned and resided in a villa suburbana on the Caelian Hill, fronting the same street as the former palaces of the Roman emperors on the Palatine Hill opposite. The north of the street runs into the Colosseum. In Gregory's day the ancient buildings were in ruins and were owned. Villas covered the area. Gregory's family owned working estates in Sicily and around Rome. Gregory had portraits done in fresco in their former home on the Caelian and these were described 300 years by John the Deacon. Gordianus was tall with light eyes, he wore a beard. Silvia was tall, had a round face, blue eyes and a cheerful look, they had another son whose fate are unknown. Gregory was born into a period of upheaval in Italy. From 542 the so-called Plague of Justinian swept through the provinces of the empire, including Italy; the plague caused famine and sometimes rioting. In some parts of the country, over 1/3 of the population was wiped out or destroyed, with heavy spiritual and emotional effects on the people of the Empire.
Politically, although the Western Roman Empire had long since vanished in favour of the Gothic kings of Italy, during the 540s Italy was retaken from the Goths by Justinian I, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire ruling from Constantinople. As the fighting was in the north, the young Gregory saw little of it. Totila sacked and vacated Rome in 546, destroying most of its population, but in 549 he invited those who were still alive to return to the empty and ruined streets, it has been hypothesized that young Gregory and his parents retired during that intermission to their Sicilian estates, to return in 549. The war was over in Rome by 552, a subsequent invasion of the Franks was defeated in 554. After that, there was peace in Italy, the appearance of restoration, except that the central government now resided in Constantinople. Like most young men of his position in Roman society, Saint Gregory was well educated, learning grammar, the sciences and law, excelling in all. Gregory of Tours reported that "in grammar and rhetoric... he was second to none...."
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture; some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are attached to the wall. Whether these works can be called "murals" is a subject of some controversy in the art world, but the technique has been in common use since the late 19th century. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the cave paintings in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Borneo, Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France. Many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces, the Oxtotitlán cave and Juxtlahuaca in Mexico and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster; the huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco. In Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting.
In modern times, the term became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement. There are many different techniques; the best-known is fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, in parts. The colors lighten; the marouflage method has been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways; the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil. Initiated by the works of mural artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-l'oeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas, pasted to a wall surface to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene. In the history of mural several methods have been used: A fresco painting, from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco, describes a method in which the paint is applied on plaster on walls or ceilings.
The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster. After this the painting stays for a long time up to centuries in brilliant colors. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. Mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly-dry plaster, was defined by the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo as "firm enough not to take a thumb-print" so that the pigment only penetrates into the plaster. By the end of the sixteenth century this had displaced the buon fresco method, was used by painters such as Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo; this technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work. In Greco-Roman times encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used. Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods in mural painting. In tempera, the pigments are bound in an albuminous medium such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.
In 16th-century Europe, oil painting on canvas arose as an easier method for mural painting. The advantage was that the artwork could be completed in the artist's studio and transported to its destination and there attached to the wall or ceiling. Oil paint may be a less satisfactory medium for murals because of its lack of brilliance in colour; the pigments are yellowed by the binder or are more affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more subject to rapid deterioration than a plaster ground. Different muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, whether that be oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints applied by brush, roller or airbrush/aerosols. Clients will ask for a particular style and the artist may adjust to the appropriate technique. A consultation leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a price quote that the client approves before the muralist starts on the work; the area to be painted can be gridded to match the design allowing the image to be scaled step by step.
In some cases the design is projected straight onto the wall and traced with pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without any prior sketching, preferring the spontaneous technique. Once completed the mural can be given coats of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work from UV rays and surface damage. In modern, quick form of muralling, young enthusiasts use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give desired models on a canvas board; the canvas is set aside to let the clay dry. Once dried, the canvas and the shape can be painted with your choice of colors and coated with varnish; as an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural, digitally printed murals can be applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and be reproduced
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Gavoi is a comune in central Sardinia, part of the province of Nuoro, in the natural region of Barbagia. It overlooks the Lake of Gusana; the territory of Gavoi is inhabited since the prenuragic period. During the middleage is cited various times in the list of villages and towns that paid the taxes to the Roman curia. Gavoi was hit by the plague in the 18th century; the Roman church of San Gavino is Gavoi's foremost sacred spot, through there are eight other ancient churches in the village. The village's center contains rock houses with balconies, a village fountain is known as "Antana'e Cartzonna". Near the lake are the archaeological areas of Orrui and San Michele di Fonni. A Roman bridge is submerged beneath the lake. Mountain tourism is among the sources of income. Agriculture production include potatoes and cheese; the "tumbarinu" is a traditional drum made of lamb skin, more dog or donkey skin. The tumbarinu is accompanied with the pipiolu, the traditional sheppard's fife; the "ballu tundu", is a traditional dance in the round, as in the Balkan area.
Poetry is esteemed, including extemporaneous rhyme competitions on given topics. The nearby Sanctuary of Madonna d'Itria hosts a palio, in this case a peculiar horse competition similar to that of Siena