Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia; these trees flourished and spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, inhabiting the temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, presently ranging southward across the Equator into Indonesia. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. Moreover, during the 19th and early 20th centuries many species and cultivars were planted as ornamental street and park trees in Europe, North America, parts of the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australasia; some individual elms reached great age. However, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, caused by a microfungus dispersed by bark beetles. In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry and landscaping.
There are about 30 to 40 species of Ulmus. Oliver Rackham describes Ulmus as the most critical genus in the entire British flora, adding that'species and varieties are a distinction in the human mind rather than a measured degree of genetic variation'. Eight species are endemic to North America, a smaller number to Europe; the classification adopted in the List of elm species, varieties and hybrids is based on that established by Brummitt. A large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries. Botanists who study elms and argue over elm identification and classification are called pteleologists, from the Greek πτελέα; as part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis and nettles. The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English "elm" and many other European names are either cognate with or derived from it; the genus is hermaphroditic, having apetalous perfect flowers. Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most doubly serrate margins asymmetric at the base and acuminate at the apex.
The fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge. The samarae are light, those of British elms numbering around 50,000 to the pound. All species are tolerant of a wide range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions, demand good drainage; the elm tree can grow to great height with a forked trunk creating a vase profile. Dutch elm disease devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the second half of the 20th century, it derives its name'Dutch' from the first description of the disease and its cause in the 1920s by the Dutch botanists Bea Schwarz and Christina Johanna Buisman. Owing to its geographical isolation and effective quarantine enforcement, Australia has so far remained unaffected by Dutch Elm Disease, as have the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia in western Canada. DED is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors; the disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant.
Fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system. The tree responds by producing tyloses blocking the flow from roots to leaves. Woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In France, inoculation with the fungus of over three hundred clones of the European species failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance; the first, less aggressive strain of the disease fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi, arrived in Europe from the Far East in 1910, was accidentally introduced to North America in 1928, but was weakened by viruses and had all but disappeared in Europe by the 1940s. The second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was identified in Europe in the late 1960s, within a decade had killed over 20 million trees in the UK alone. Three times more deadly, the new strain arrived in Europe from the US on a cargo of Rock Elm.
There is no sign of the current pandemic waning, no evidence of a susceptibility of the fungus to a disease of its own caused by d-factors: occurring virus-like agents that debilitated the original O. ulmi and reduced its sporulation. Elm phloem necrosis is a disease of elm trees, spread by leafhoppers or by root grafts; this aggressive disease, with no known cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada, Europe. It is caused by phytoplasmas. Infection and death of the phloem girdles the tree and stops the flow of water and nutrients; the disease affects cultivated trees. Cutting the infected tree before the disease establishes itself and cleanup and prompt disposal of infected matter has resul
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation; the concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is in use for men; the word nun is used for female monastics. Although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, anchorite, hesychast, or solitary. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place: "Angels are a light for monks, monks are a light for laymen".
Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world. They do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, so not all monasteries are "cloistered"; the level of contact though will vary from community to community. Hermits, on the other hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, nor do they have Rules in the same sense as the Rule of St. Benedict. Rather, Eastern monastics study and draw inspiration from the writings of the Desert Fathers as well as other Church Fathers. Hesychasm is of primary importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Most communities are self-supporting, the monastic’s daily life is divided into three parts: communal worship in the catholicon.
Meals are taken in common in a sizable dining hall known as a trapeza, at elongated refectory tables. Food is simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the spiritual writings of the Holy Fathers; the monastic lifestyle takes a great deal of serious commitment. Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a common way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the monastic comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal with them. For this same reason, bishops are always chosen from the ranks of monks. Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms: anchoritic and the "middle way" between the two, known as the skete. One enters a cenobitic community first, only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced, become a solitary anchorite. However, one is not expected to join a skete or become a solitary. In general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families.
The purpose of the monastic life is union with God, the means is through leaving the world. After tonsure, Orthodox monks and nuns are never permitted to cut their hair; the hair of the head and the beard remain uncut as a symbol of the vows they have taken, reminiscent of the Nazarites from the Old Testament. The tonsure of monks is the token of a consecrated life, symbolizes the cutting off of their self-will; the process of becoming a monk is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a lifelong commitment to God, are not to be entered into lightly. In Orthodox monasticism after completing the novitiate, there are three ranks of monasticism. There is only one monastic habit in the Eastern Church, it is the same for both monks and nuns; each successive grade is given a portion of the habit, the full habit being worn only by those in the highest grade, known for that reason as the "Great Schema", or "Great Habit". The various profession rites are performed by the Abbot, but if the abbot has not been ordained a priest, or if the monastic community is a convent, a hieromonk will perform the service.
The abbot or hieromonk who performs a tonsure must be of at least the rank he is tonsuring into. In other words, only a hieromonk, tonsured into the Great Schema may himself tonsure a Schemamonk. A bishop, may tonsure into any rank, regardless of his own. Novice, lit. "one under obedience"—Those wishing to join a monastery begin their lives as novices. After coming to the monastery and living as a guest for not less than three days, the revered abbot or abbess may bless the candidate to become a novice. There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice, he or she simply
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. A person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion; the first persons honored as saints were the martyrs. Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ; the Roman Rite's Canon of the Mass contains only the names of martyrs, along with that of the Blessed Virgin Mary and, since 1962, that of St. Joseph her spouse. By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly. Examples of such people are Saint Hilarion and Saint Ephrem the Syrian in the East, Saint Martin of Tours and Saint Hilary of Poitiers in the West.
Their names were inserted in the diptychs, the lists of saints explicitly venerated in the liturgy, their tombs were honoured in like manner as those of the martyrs. Since the witness of their lives was not as unequivocal as that of the martyrs, they were venerated publicly only with the approval by the local bishop; this process is referred to as "local canonization". This approval was required for veneration of a reputed martyr. In his history of the Donatist heresy, Saint Optatus recounts that at Carthage a Catholic matron, named Lucilla, incurred the censures of the Church for having kissed the relics of a reputed martyr whose claims to martyrdom had not been juridically proved, and Saint Cyprian recommended that the utmost diligence be observed in investigating the claims of those who were said to have died for the faith. All the circumstances accompanying the martyrdom were to be inquired into. Evidence was sought from the court records of the trials or from people, present at the trials.
Saint Augustine of Hippo tells of the procedure, followed in his day for the recognition of a martyr. The bishop of the diocese in which the martyrdom took place set up a canonical process for conducting the inquiry with the utmost severity; the acts of the process were sent either to the metropolitan or primate, who examined the cause, after consultation with the suffragan bishops, declared whether the deceased was worthy of the name of'martyr' and public veneration. Acts of formal recognition, such as the erection of an altar over the saint's tomb or transferring the saint's relics to a church, were preceded by formal inquiries into the sanctity of the person's life and the miracles attributed to that person's intercession; such acts of recognition of a saint were authoritative, in the strict sense, only for the diocese or ecclesiastical province for which they were issued, but with the spread of the fame of a saint, were accepted elsewhere also. The Church of England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, canonized Charles I as a saint, in the Convocations of Canterbury and York of 1660.
In the Roman Catholic Church, both Latin and constituent Eastern churches, the act of canonization is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonization lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that they are worthy to be recognized as a saint. The Church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that they may be publicly invoked and mentioned in the liturgy of the Church, including in the Litany of the Saints. In the Roman Catholic Church, canonization is a decree that allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite. For permission to venerate locally, only beatification is needed. For several centuries the Bishops, or in some places only the Primates and Patriarchs, could grant martyrs and confessors public ecclesiastical honor. Only acceptance of the cultus by the Pope made the cultus universal, because he alone can rule the universal Catholic Church.
Abuses, crept into this discipline, due as well to indiscretions of popular fervor as to the negligence of some bishops in inquiring into the lives of those whom they permitted to be honoured as saints. In the Medieval West, the Apostolic See was asked to intervene in the question of canonizations so as to ensure more authoritative decisions; the canonization of Saint Udalric, Bishop of Augsburg by Pope John XV in 993 was the first undoubted example of Papal canonization of a saint from outside of Rome. Thereafter, recourse to the judgment of the Pope was had more frequently. Toward the end of the eleventh century the Popes judged it necessary to restrict episcopal authority regarding canonization, therefore decreed that the virtues and miracles of persons proposed for public veneration should be examined in councils, more in general councils. Pope Urban II, Pope Calixtus II, Pope Eugene III conformed to this discipline. Hugh de Boves, Archbishop of Rouen, canonized Walter of Pontoise, or St. Gaultier, in 1153, the final saint in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: "The last case of canonization by a metropolitan is said to have been that of St. Gaultier, or Gaucher, bbot of Pontoise, by the Archbishop of Rouen.
A decree of
Grado, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Grado is a town and comune in the north-eastern Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located on an island and adjacent peninsula of the Adriatic Sea between Venice and Trieste. Once a fishing center, today it is a popular tourist destination, known as L'Isola del Sole famous because it is a spa town. Grado is the birthplace of Biagio Marin, a poet who sang about the island in the local Venetian dialect. In Roman times the city, known as ad Aquae Gradatae, was first port for ships entering the Natissa, headed upstream to Aquileia. During the late years of the Western Roman Empire many people fled from Aquileia to Grado in order to find a safer place, more protected from the invasions coming from the east. In 452, Bishop of Aquileia, took refuge at Grado. Grado was the home base of the patriarchate's fleet. In 568, after the invasion of the Lombards, the seat of the Patriarchate of Aquileia was transferred to Grado by the Patriarch Paulinus. After the Schism of the Three Chapters, two different patriarchs were elected: the patriarch of Grado exerted his jurisdiction over the Latin-origin people living on the coast and in the Venetian Lagoon, while that of Old-Aquileia moved to Cividale, had its jurisdiction over the interior.
A long-lasting dispute over the authority of the two patriarchs ensued. In 993, the patriarch of Aquileia, conquered Grado, but was unable to keep possession of it; the matter was settled only in 1027 when the pope declared the supremacy of the See of Aquileia over Grado and the Venetian province. The seat of the patriarchate was transferred to Venice in 1451 by Pope Nicholas V. Reduced to a minor hamlet, Grado was sacked by the English, who burned the city archives in 1810 and by the French in 1812. Grado was acquired by Austria in 1815, to which it belonged until 1918, when it was ceded to Italy after its victory in World War I. Today there are frequent finds of inscriptions, marble sculpture and small bronzes that once furnished its villas; the remains of one of these villas have been excavated on the islet of Gorgo in the lagoon. Modern landmarks include: The Basilica of Sant'Eufemia, with the octagonal Baptistry; the church was once preceded by a quadri-portico, one of the columns of, now in the centre of the Patriarch's Square.
The current appearance of the church dates from the reconstruction by Fra Elia, with a simple hut façade and a bell tower on the right side, surmounted by a statue portraying St. Michael and known as the Anzolo; the interior has two aisles. The main point of interest is the mosaic pavement from the 6th century, restored in 1946–48; the basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Begun in the 4th to 5th centuries, it was renovated in the 6th century and restored in Baroque in 1640; the Barbana Sanctuary. It is located in a small island in the Grado Lagoon; the original church was since rebuilt and enlarged. Of the ancient fortress only a tower, turned into a private residence, parts of the walls can still be seen. Under the Town Hall are remains of the Palaeo-Christian basilica of Piazza Vittoria; the Valle Cavanata Nature Reserve is a 327-hectare protected area situated in the easternmost part of the Grado Lagoon. Today, Grado attracts scores of tourists each year to its campgrounds. A large water park run by a municipal corporation is the main attraction, complete with indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a health center offering spa treatments.
The town boasts a well-preserved pedestrian-only center, in which many shops and restaurants are located. Grado offers facilities for many sporting activities, including tennis, wind-surfing, golf. From Grado can be done excursions by boat to the Grado Lagoon, visit the many dozen islands inside it. Sankt Lorenzen bei Knittelfeld, Austria Feistritz bei Knittelfeld, Austria Bisconti F. Temi di iconografia paleocristiana, Vatican City, 2000. Bovini G. "Grado paleocristiana", in Archeologia Cristiana, Bologna 1973. Farioli R. "Mosaici pavimentali dell'alto Adriatico e dell'Africa settentrionale in età bizantina", in Antichità Altoadriatiche, vo. V.paleocristiana, Ravenna 1975. Farioli R. Pavimenti musivi di Ravenna, Ravenna 1975. Efthalia Rentetzi, "Un'inedita figura di pesce. Parentele stilistiche tra i mosaici pavimentali di s. Maria delle Grazie e s. Eufemia a Grado", in Artonweb. Punti di visa sull'arte. Efthalia Rentetzi, "Un frammento inedito di S. Eufemia a Grado. Il pavimento musivo del Salutatorium", in Arte Cristiana, fasc..
850, Volume XCVI, p. 51-52. List of islands of Italy Marano Lagunare Grado Lagoon Friuli-Venezia Giulia Battle of Grado Official institutional website of City Official tourist website of City Scuola Insieme, a local Italian language school, offers details on history and activities in and around Grado. Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Ad Aquas Gradatas, Italy" Information about Grado
Tino is an Italian island situated in the Ligurian Sea, at the westernmost end of the Gulf of La Spezia. It is part of an archipelago of three spaced islands jutting out south from the mainland at Portovenere; the largest of the three, lies to the north and the tiny Tinetto to the south. In 1997, the archipelago, together with Portovenere and the Cinque Terre, was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the patron saint of the Gulf of La Spezia, Saint Venerius, is said to have lived in on the island as a hermit, as abbot, until his death in 630. His feast is celebrated here annually on 13 September, it is thought that a sanctuary was constructed at the place of Venerio's death to contain his remains and that this was extended to form a monastery in eleventh century. The remains of the monastery can be seen on the northern coast of the island. Today the island, part of a military zone, is surmounted by the San Venerio Lighthouse. List of islands of Italy Much of this article is based its equivalent in the Italian Wikipedia, Tino, as retrieved on 29 April 2006.
Further information on Saint Venerius from The Book of Saints, London: A & C Black, 1989
The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea, west of Tuscany, Italy. The islands' proximity to several major cities has made them a favourite tourist location. History and literature have ensured that most people are familiar with the islands of Elba and Montecristo; the Tuscan Archipelago contains seven major islands. The Archipelago extends 166 kilometres from the northernmost island to the southernmost and 56 kilometres from the westernmost to the Tuscan coast. There are several islets in the archipelago including: and skerries as: Others islets and skerries that are not part of the archipelago: The Tuscan Archipelago represents a region of correlation between the Sardinia-Corsica block and the Italian Peninsula; the origin of the archipelago dates to the Triassic period according to the type of the rocks. In the Quaternary the archipelago was related to the sea level fluctuations due to the glacial and interglacial periods; the Würm glaciation was followed by a warming phase, the sea rose to reach its current level.
The archipelago is distinguished by some endemic taxa which are protected in order to avoid the loss of the biodiversity of fauna and flora. The most important are Oxychilus pilula of Capraia. 31 species of mammals, several introduced, are known from the Tuscan archipelago, with the greatest diversity on Elba, with 24 species. The introduction of the wild boar to Elba several years ago has caused problems regarding the conservation of some plant species. All the islands of the Tuscan Archipelago are a place where the migrant birds take a stop along their seasonal movement from north to south and vice versa; the Falco peregrinus brookei nests on Elba and Capraia, the shearwater and the rare Audouin's gull are common on all the islands. The rich productivity of the coastal waters provides habitats for various marine life dolphins and whales, including fin and sperm whales; the archipelago is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with high insolation all year round. The archipelago's flora differs from island to island.
Elba has a complex orography including the mountain Mount Capanne which favoured the preservation of the chestnut, the holm oak and the black alder on the northern side. The main plant formations are those of shrubs of Erica, strawberry tree, mastic, Mediterranean buckthorn and Phoenician juniper; the endemic species of the archipelago are Centaurea aetalieae, Centaurea gymnocarpa, Centaurea ilvensis, Crocus ilvensis, Limonium doriae, Limonium gorgonae, Limonium ilvae, Limonium planesiae, Limonium sommerierianum, Linaria capraria, Romulea insularis and Silene capraria. Endemic taxa of lower rank are Biscutella pichiana subsp. Ilvensis, Festuca gamisansii subsp. Aethaliae, Mentha requienii subsp. Bistaminata and Viola corsica subsp. Ilvensis. Elba is a Mediterranean island in 10 kilometres from the coastal town of Piombino; the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, Elba is part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 50 kilometres east of the French island of Corsica.
Isola del Giglio is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, is part of the Province of Grosseto. The island is one of seven that form the Tuscan Archipelago, lying within the Arcipelago Toscano National Park. Giglio means "lily" in Italian, though the name would appear consistent with the insignia of Medici Florence, it derives from Aegilium, "Goat Island", a Latin transliteration of the Greek word for "little goat". Capraia is an Italian island, is the north-westernmost of the seven islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, the third largest after Elba and Giglio; the island has a population of about 400. Montecristo is part of the Tuscan Archipelago. Administratively it belongs to the municipality of Portoferraio in the province of Italy; the island has an area of 10.39 km2 and is 4.3 km wide at its widest point. The island is a state nature reserve and forms part of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park; the small island of Pianosa, about 10.25 km2 in area, has a coastal perimeter of 26 km, forms part of Italy's Tuscan Archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Gorgona is the northernmost island in the Tuscan Archipelago. Between Cors