Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Harper's Bazaar is an American women's fashion magazine, first published in 1867. Harper's Bazaar is published by Hearst and considers itself to be the style resource for "women who are the first to buy the best, from casual to couture". Aimed at what it calls "discerning ladies", Bazaar is published monthly. Since its debut in 1867 as America's first fashion magazine, its pages have been home to talent such as the founding editor and translator Mary Louise Booth, as well as numerous fashion editors, photographers and writers. Glenda Bailey is the editor-in-chief of U. S. edition of Harper's Bazaar. First called Harper's Bazar, it began publication as a tabloid-size weekly newspaper catering to women in the middle and upper classes, it showcased fashion from Paris in a newspaper-design format. It was. Now Harper's Bazaar is owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation in the U. S. and The National Magazine Company in the U. K. Hearst purchased the magazine in 1913. Harper & Brothers founded the magazine.
This company gave birth to Harper's Magazine and HarperCollins Publishing. As the turn-of-the-century began in America, Harper's Bazaar began featuring both illustrations and photographs for its covers and inside features of high society and of fashion. During the late Victorian period, as the women's suffrage movement was gaining momentum, the introduction of more tailored dresses and jackets coincided with women's new sense of feminism. Bazaar began profiling prominent socialites, such as the Astors and the Griscoms. In 1933, editor-in-chief Carmel Snow brought photojournalist Martin Munkacsi to a windswept beach to shoot a swimwear spread; as the model ran toward the camera, Munkacsi took the picture. Until that moment, nearly all fashion was staged on mannequin-like models in a studio. Snow's buoyant spirit and wicked sense of adventure brought life to the pages of Bazaar. Snow's genius came from cultivating the "best" people, her first big find was art director Alexey Brodovitch. Brodovitch is best known for his work with Richard Avedon, who, as a young photographer, was so determined to work at Bazaar that he endured the humiliation of 14 canceled interviews before being hired.
Snow unleashed the force of nature known as Diana Vreeland, whom she brought on as fashion editor in 1936. The collaboration of these four visionaries resulted in some of the germane fashion shoots of the 20th century and ended only with Snow's retirement, at the age of 70, in 1957. In 1934, newly installed Bazaar editor Carmel Snow attended an Art Directors Club of New York exhibition curated by 36-year-old graphic designer Alexey Brodovitch and offered Brodovitch a job as Bazaar's art director. Throughout his career at the magazine, Brodovitch, a Russian émigré, revolutionized magazine design. With his directive "Astonish me", he inspired some of the greatest visual artists of the 20th century. One of his assistants was future Rolling Stone art director Tony Lane. Brodovitch's signature use of white space, his innovation of Bazaar's iconic Didot logo, the cinematic quality that his obsessive cropping brought to layouts compelled Truman Capote to write, "What Dom Pérignon was to champagne... so has been to... photographic design and editorial layout."
Brodovitch's personal life was less triumphant. Plagued by alcoholism, he left Bazaar in 1958 and moved to the south of France, where he died in 1971; when Carmel Snow saw Mrs. T. Reed Vreeland dancing on the roof of New York's St. Regis Hotel in a white lace Chanel dress and a bolero with roses in her hair one evening in 1936, she knew she'd found Bazaar's newest staffer. Diana, said to have invented the word "pizzazz", first came to the attention of readers with her "Why Don't You...?" column. Before long, she became fashion editor, collaborating with photographers Louise Dahl-Wolfe and Richard Avedon and art director Henry Wolf, her eccentricity and wit, as well as her sharp wit and sweeping pronouncements, were memorialized in the movie Funny Face, making her, for many, the prototypical fashion-magazine editor. Richard Avedon began creating fashion portfolios for Harper's Bazaar at the age of 22, his distinctive photographs showed both chic boundless vitality. Avedon's women leapt off curbs, roller-skated on the Place de la Concorde, were seen in nightclubs, enjoying the freedom and fashions of the postwar era.
He was immortalized in the film Funny Face by the character Dick Avery, who asked, "What's wrong with bringing out a girl who has character and intelligence?" Gleb Derujinsky's 18-year career at Harper's bazaar spanned from 1950–1968 and during that time produced some of the classic images of the era. Scouted by editor-in-chief Carmel Snow and art director Alexey Brodovitch, Derujinsky joined the elite group of photographers, including Richard Avedon, who shot for the magazine. Working with the fashion editor Diana Vreeland, Derujinsky proved a pioneer i
Broadmoor Hospital is a high-security psychiatric hospital at Crowthorne in Berkshire, England. It is the best known and oldest of the three high-security psychiatric hospitals in England, the other two being Ashworth Hospital near Liverpool and Rampton Secure Hospital in Nottinghamshire; the Broadmoor complex houses about 210 patients, all of whom are men since the female service closed in September 2007, with most of the women moving to a new service in Southall and the remainder moving to Rampton and elsewhere. At any one time there are approximately 36 patients on trial leave at other units. Most of the patients there have been diagnosed with severe mental illness. Most have either been convicted of serious crimes, or been found unfit to plead in a trial for such crimes; the average stay is six years, but this figure is skewed by a few patients who have stayed for over 30 years. The hospital's catchment area consists of four National Health Service regions: London, South East and South West.
It is managed by the West London NHS Trust. The hospital was first known as the Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum, it was built to a design by Sir Joshua Jebb, an officer of the Corps of Royal Engineers, covered 53 acres within its secure perimeter. The first patient was a female admitted for infanticide on 27 May 1863. Notes described her as being'feeble minded; the first male patients arrived on 27 February 1864. The original building plan of five blocks, four for men and one for women was completed in 1868. A further male block was built in 1902. Due to overcrowding at Broadmoor, a branch asylum was constructed at Rampton and opened in 1912. Rampton was closed as a branch asylum at the end of 1919 and reopened as an institution for "mental defectives" rather than lunatics. During World War I Broadmoor's block 1 was used as a Prisoner-of-war camp, called Crowthorne War Hospital for mentally ill German soldiers. After the escape in 1952 of John Straffen, who murdered a local child, the hospital set up an alarm system, activated to alert people in the vicinity, as well as the public including those in the surrounding towns of Sandhurst, Wokingham and Bagshot, when any dangerous patient escapes.
It is based on World War II air raid sirens, a two-tone alarm sounds across the whole area in the event of an escape. It is tested every Monday morning at 10 am for two minutes, after which a single tone'all-clear' is sounded for a further two minutes. All schools in the area must keep procedures designed to ensure that in the event of a Broadmoor escape no child is out of the direct supervision of a member of staff. Sirens are located at Sandhurst School, Wellington College, Bracknell Forest council depot and other sites. Following the Peter Fallon QC inquiry into Ashworth Special Hospital which reported in 1999, found serious concerns about security and abuses resulting from poor management, it was decided to review the security at all three of the special hospitals in England; until this time each was responsible for maintaining its own security policies. This review was made the personal responsibility of Sir Alan Langlands, who at the time was chief executive of the English National Health Service.
The report that came out of the review initiated a new partnership whereby the Department of Health sets out a policy of safety, security directions, that all three special hospitals must adhere to. In 2003 the Victorian buildings at Broadmoor Hospital were declared'unfit for purpose' by the Commission for Healthcare Improvement. Broadmoor uses psychotherapy. One of the therapies available is the arts, patients are encouraged to participate in the Koestler Awards Scheme. One of the longest-detained patients at Broadmoor is Albert Haines, who set a legal precedent in 2011 when his mental health tribunal hearing was allowed to be public, where he argued that he has never been given the type of counselling he has always sought; because of its high walls and other visible security features, the inaccurate news reporting it has received in the past, the hospital is assumed to be a prison by members of the public. Many of its patients are sent to it via the criminal justice system, its original design brief incorporated an essence of addressing criminality in addition to mental illness.
However, nearly all staff are members of the Prison Officers Association, as opposed to other health service unions such as UNISON and the Royal College of Nursing. Jimmy Noak, Broadmoor's director of nursing in 2011, in response to concerns about the amount of resources going into the treatment of those in the facility given the harm some of them had caused to victims or their families, commented,'It's not fair, but what is the alternative? If these people committed crimes because they were suffering from an acute mental illness they should be in hospital.' The first medical superintendent was John Meyer. His assistant, William Orange CB, MD, FRCP, LSA, succeeeded him. Orange established "a management style, admired", he advised the Home office on how to approach criminal insanity. Orange was in charge from 1870-1886. From its opening, until 1948, Broadmoor was managed by a Council of Supervision, appointed by and reporting to
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants and is classified as a town by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office, it lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerland's highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy. Zermatt is famed as a ski resort of the Swiss Alps; until the mid-19th century, it was predominantly an agricultural community. The year-round population is 5,643, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the local economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants and just under half of all apartments are vacation apartments. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, while another third moved to Zermatt from outside Switzerland; the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley.
The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt. It may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the older names of Zermatt; the Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, or Praborgne. The reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony; the town of Zermatt lies at the southern end of the Matter Valley, one of the lateral branches of the grand Valley of the Rhône. Zermatt is completely surrounded by the high mountains of the Pennine Alps including Monte Rosa, Switzerland's highest peak at 4,634 metres above sea level, it is followed by the Dom, Liskamm and the Matterhorn. Most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located in the neighbouring valleys. Zermatt is traversed by the main river of the valley: the Matter Vispa, which rises at the glaciers at the feet of the highest peaks: the Gorner Glacier on the east side near Monte Rosa and the Zmutt Glacier on the west side between Dent d'Hérens and Dent Blanche.
The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small. There are three main streets which run along the banks of the Matter Vispa, numerous cross-streets around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away. There are several "suburbs" within Zermatt. Winkelmatten/Moos, once a separate hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side. Steinmatten is located on the eastern bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not inhabited all year round. Zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, north of the creek Zmuttbach. Findeln is located in the eastern valley above the creek Findelbach, it lies below the Sunnegga station. Located near a train station of the Gornergratbahn, Riffelalp is one of the highest hamlets with a chapel. Zermatt had an area, of 242.91 km2.
Of this area, about 9.4 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 0.8% is settled and 85.2% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades the amount of land, settled has increased by 54 ha and the agricultural land has decreased by 160 ha; the village was "discovered" by mid-nineteenth-century British mountaineers, most notably Edward Whymper, whose conquest of the Matterhorn made the village famous. The Matterhorn was one of the last alpine mountains to be conquered, the first expedition that reached the top ended with only 3 of the 7 climbers surviving the descent; the story is related in the Matterhorn Museum. Zermatt is a starting point for hikes into the mountains, including the Haute Route that leads to Chamonix in France and the Patrouille des Glaciers. Cable cars and chair lifts carry hikers in the summer, it is possible to cross into Italy via the Cervinia cable car station. A rack railway line runs up to the summit of the Gornergrat at 3,089 m. Zermatt is the western terminus for the Glacier Express rail service connecting to St. Moritz and the MGB.
Together with eleven other towns Zermatt is a member of the community Best of the Alps. To prevent air pollution that could obscure the town's view of the Matterhorn, the entire town is a combustion-engine car-free zone. All vehicles in Zermatt are battery driven and completely si
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, it was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. Bakelite was patented on December 7, 1909; the creation of a synthetic plastic was revolutionary for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators and telephone casings and such diverse products as kitchenware, pipe stems, children's toys, firearms. The "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible. Bakelite was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark on November 9, 1993, by the American Chemical Society in recognition of its significance as the world's first synthetic plastic. Baekeland was wealthy due to his invention of Velox photographic paper when he began to investigate the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde in his home laboratory.
Chemists had begun to recognize that fibers were polymers. Baekeland's initial intent was to find a replacement for shellac, a material in limited supply because it was made from the excretion of lac insects. Baekeland produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde shellac called "Novolak", but it was not a market success. Baekeland began experimenting on strengthening wood by impregnating it with a synthetic resin, rather than coating it. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol and formaldehyde, Baekeland produced a hard moldable material that he named "Bakelite", after himself, it was the first synthetic thermosetting plastic produced, Baekeland speculated on "the thousand and one... articles" it could be used to make. Baekeland considered the possibilities of using a wide variety of filling materials, including cotton, powdered bronze, slate dust, but was most successful with wood and asbestos fibers. Baekeland filed a substantial number of patents in the area. Bakelite, his "method of making insoluble products of phenol and formaldehyde," was filed on July 13, 1907, granted on December 7, 1909.
Baekeland filed for patent protection in other countries, including Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Mexico and Spain. He announced his invention at a meeting of the American Chemical Society on February 5, 1909. Baekeland started semi-commercial production of his new material in his home laboratory, marketing it as a material for electrical insulators. By 1910, he was producing enough material to justify expansion, he formed the General Bakelite Company as a U. S. company to market his new industrial material. He made overseas connections to produce materials in other countries. Bijker gives a detailed discussion of the development of Bakelite and the Bakelite company's production of various applications of materials; as of 1911, the company's main focus was laminating varnish, whose sales volume vastly outperformed both molding material and cast resin. By 1912, molding material was gaining ground, but its sales volume for the company did not exceed that of laminating varnish until the 1930s; as the sales figures show, the Bakelite Company produced "transparent" cast resin for a small ongoing market during the 1910s and 1920s.
Blocks or rods of cast resin known as "artificial amber", were machined and carved to create items such as pipe stems, cigarette holders and jewelry. However, the demand for molded plastics led the Bakelite company to concentrate on molding, rather than concentrating on cast solid resins; the Bakelite Corporation was formed in 1922 after patent litigation favorable to Baekeland, from a merger of three companies: Baekeland's General Bakelite Company. W. Aylesworth. Under director of advertising and public relations Allan Brown, who came to Bakelite from Condensite, Bakelite was aggressively marketed as "the material of a thousand uses". A filing for a trademark featuring the letter B above the mathematical symbol for infinity was made August 25, 1925, claimed the mark was in use as of December 1, 1924. A wide variety of uses were listed in their trademark applications; the first issue of Plastics magazine, October 1925, featured Bakelite on its cover, included the article "Bakelite – What It Is" by Allan Brown.
The range of colors available included "black, red, green, gray and blends of two or more of these". The article emphasized. "Bakelite is manufactured in several forms to suit varying requirements. In all these forms the fundamental basis is the initial Bakelite resin; this variety includes clear material, for jewelry, smokers' articles, etc.. The molding material is prepared ordinarily by the impregnation of cellulose substances with the initial'uncured' resin." In a 1925 report, the United States Tariff Commission hailed the commercial manufacture of synthetic phenolic resin as "distinctly an American achievement", noted that "the publication of figures, would be a virtual disclosure of the production of an individual company". In England, Bakelite Limited, a merger of three British phenol formaldehyde resin suppliers (Damard Lacquer Company Limited of Birmingh