Emory University is a private research university in Atlanta, Georgia. The university was founded as Emory College in 1836 in Oxford, Georgia, by the Methodist Episcopal Church and was named in honor of Methodist bishop John Emory. In 1915, Emory College moved to its present location in Druid Hills and was rechartered as Emory University. Emory maintained a presence in Oxford that became Oxford College, a residential liberal arts college for the first two years of the Emory baccalaureate degree; the university is the second-oldest private institution of higher education in Georgia and among the fifty oldest private universities in the United States. Emory University has nine academic divisions: Emory College of Arts and Sciences, Oxford College, Goizueta Business School, Laney Graduate School, School of Law, School of Medicine, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Rollins School of Public Health, the Candler School of Theology. Emory University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, Peking University in Beijing, China jointly administer the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering.
The university operates the Confucius Institute in Atlanta in partnership with Nanjing University. Emory has a growing faculty research partnership with the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. Emory University students come from all 50 states, 6 territories of the United States, over 100 foreign countries. Emory Healthcare is the largest healthcare system in the state of Georgia and comprises seven major hospitals, including the internationally renowned Emory University Hospital and Emory University Hospital Midtown; the university operates the Winship Cancer Institute, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, many disease and vaccine research centers. Emory University is the leading coordinator of the U. S. Health Department's Education Center; the university is one of four institutions involved in the NIAID's Tuberculosis Research Units Program. The International Association of National Public Health Institutes is headquartered at the university and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society are national affiliate institutions located adjacent to the campus.
The university is partnered with the Nobel Peace Prize winning Carter Center. Emory University has the 16th largest endowment among U. S. colleges and universities. It is ranked 21st nationally and 71st globally according to U. S. News & World Report's 2018 rankings. Emory University has a Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education status of R1: "highest research activity" and is cited for high scientific performance and citation impact in the CWTS Leiden Ranking; the National Science Foundation ranked the university 36th among academic institutions in the United States for research and development expenditures. Emory University research is funded by federal government agencies, namely the National Institutes of Health. In 1995 Emory University was elected to the Association of American Universities, an association of the 62 leading research universities in the United States & Canada. Emory has many distinguished alumni and affiliates, including 2 Prime Ministers, 9 University Presidents, 11 members of the United States Congress, 2 Nobel Peace Prize laureates, a Vice President of the United States, a United States Speaker of the House, a United States Supreme Court Justice.
Other notable alumni include Rhodes Scholars, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, Emmy Award winners, MacArthur Fellows, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, heads of state and other leaders in foreign government, musicians, an Olympic medalist. Emory has more than 149,000 alumni, with 75 alumni clubs established worldwide in 20 countries. Emory College was founded in 1836 in Georgia by the Methodist Episcopal Church; the college was named in honor of the departed Methodist bishop John Emory. Ignatius Alphonso Few was the college's first president. In 1854, the Atlanta Medical College, a forerunner of Emory University School of Medicine, was founded. On April 12, 1861, the American Civil War began. Emory College was closed in November 1861 and all of its students enlisted on the Confederate side. In late 1863 the war came to Georgia and the college was used as hospital and a headquarters for the Union Army; the university produced many officers who served in the war, including General George Thomas Anderson who fought in nearly every major battle in the eastern theater.
35 Emory students lost their lives and much of the campus was destroyed during the war. Emory College, as with the entire Southeastern United States, struggled to overcome financial devastation during the Reconstruction Era. In 1880, Atticus Greene Haygood, Emory College President, delivered a speech expressing gratitude for the end of slavery in the United States, which captured the attention of George I. Seney, a New York banker. Seney gave Emory College $5,000 to repay its debts, $50,000 for construction, $75,000 to establish a new endowment. In the 1880s, the technology department was launched by Isaac Stiles Hopkins, a polymath professor at Emory College. Hopkins became the first president of the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1888. Emory University's first international student, Yun Chi-ho, graduated in 1893. Yun became an important political activist in Korea and is the author of "Aegukga", the national anthem of the Republic of Korea. On August 16, 1906, the Wesley Memorial Hospital and Training School for Nurses renamed the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, was established.
In 1914, the Candler School of Theology was established. In 1915, Emory College relocated to Druid Hills and was rechartered as Emory University after accepting a land grant from Asa Griggs Candler, founder of The Coca-Cola Company
Prolonged exposure therapy
Prolonged exposure therapy is a form of behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy designed to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. It is characterized in vivo exposures. Imaginal exposure is repeated'on-purpose' retelling of the trauma memory. In vivo exposure is confronting situations and things that are reminders of the trauma or feel dangerous. Additional procedures include breathing retraining. Prolonged exposure therapy was developed by Edna B Foa, PhD, Director of the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety at the University of Pennsylvania. Prolonged exposure therapy is a theoretically-based and effective treatment for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and related depression and anger. PE falls under the category of "exposure-based therapy" and is supported by scientific studies which reflect its positive impact on patient symptoms. Exposure-based therapies focus on confronting the harmless cues/triggers of trauma/stress in order to unpair them from the feelings of anxiety and stress.
Prolonged exposure is a flexible therapy that can be modified to fit the needs of individual clients. It is designed to help clients psychologically process traumatic events and reduce trauma-induced psychological disturbances. Prolonged exposure produces clinically significant improvement in about 80% of patients with chronic PTSD. Over years of testing and development, prolonged exposure has evolved into an adaptable program of intervention to address the needs of varied trauma survivors. In addition to reducing symptoms of PTSD, prolonged exposure instills confidence and a sense of mastery, improves various aspects of daily functioning, increases the ability to cope with courage when facing stress, improves the ability to discriminate safe and unsafe situations. In 2001, Prolonged Exposure for PTSD received an Exemplary Substance Abuse Prevention Program Award from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Prolonged exposure was selected by SAMHSA and the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention as a Model Program for national dissemination.
PTSD is characterized by the re-experiencing of the traumatic event through intrusive and upsetting memories, nightmares and strong emotional and physiological reactions triggered by reminders of the trauma. Most individuals with PTSD try to ward off the intrusive symptoms and avoid the trauma-reminders when those reminders are not inherently dangerous. To address the traumatic memories and triggers that are reminders of the trauma, the core components of exposure programs for the disorder are: Imaginal exposure, revisiting the traumatic memory, repeated recounting it aloud, processing the revisiting experience In vivo exposure, the repeated confrontation with situations and objects that cause distress but are not inherently dangerousThe goal of this treatment is to promote processing of the trauma memory and to reduce distress and avoidance evoked by the trauma reminders. Additionally, individuals with emotional numbing and depression are encouraged to engage in enjoyable activities if these activities do not cause fear or anxiety but have dropped out the person's life due to loss of interest.
The imaginal exposure occurs during the therapy session and consists of retelling the trauma to the therapist. For the in vivo exposure, the clinician works with the client to establish a fear and avoidance hierarchy and assigns exposures to these list items as homework progressively; the therapist may record the session and ask the patient to continue to complete in vivo exercises on their own time with the help of the recording. Both components work by facilitating emotional processing so that the problematic traumatic memories and avoidances habituate and are better tolerated. Randomized control trials reflect that only 10–38% of PTSD patients who take part in PE therapy terminate treatment before their program is complete. Practitioners throughout the United States and many other countries use prolonged exposure to treat survivors of varied traumas including rape, child abuse, motor vehicle accidents, disasters. Prolonged exposure has been beneficial for those suffering from co-occurring PTSD and substance abuse when combined with substance abuse treatment.
Studies have reflected that prolonged exposure therapy aids patients who suffer from both PTSD and borderline personality disorder when the treatment is coupled with dialectical behavior therapy. Some were concerned that PE would negatively affect the treatment of patients with substance abuse disorder as purposefully and intentionally exposing them to their reminders and triggers may worsen their state. Conducted studies have reflected positively on the effectiveness of PE. For example, in the Netherlands, patients responded better to PE than to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment. 6 month follow ups revealed that PE had lessened psychotic and schizophrenic issues. Furthermore, in Israel, the symptoms of in a small group of female methadone users in Israel had decreased after PE treatment. PE therapy was found to be superior to supportive therapy in female veterans with PTSD in a randomized controlled trial. Post-traumatic stress disorder Exposure therapy Behavior therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy Edna B.
Foa Barbara Rothbaum Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Exper
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies is a professional network established on March 2, 1985 in Washington, D. C, it is dedicated to disseminating the state of the science as it pertains to our understanding about the effects of trauma exposure, traumatic stress, evidence-based assessment of trauma and associated symptoms, evidence-based prevention and treatment intervention approaches. The society provides a forum for sharing research, clinical strategies, public policy issues and theoretical formulations on trauma around the world. Members include psychiatrists, social workers, counselors, administrators, journalists and other professionals with an interest in the study and treatment of traumatic stress. Members come from a variety of clinical and non-clinical settings around the world, including public and private health facilities, private practice, non-university research foundations, many different cultural backgrounds. Mission Statement: an international interdisciplinary professional organization that promotes advancement and exchange of knowledge about traumatic stress.
This knowledge includes: Understanding the scope and consequences of traumatic exposure Preventing traumatic events and ameliorating their consequences Advocating for the field of traumatic stress The organization was named the Society for Traumatic Stress Studies when it was established at a meeting organized by Charles Figley and held in Washington, D. C. in March 1985. A foundational objective of the society was to publish a journal featuring scholarly work on traumatic stress; this was achieved in July 1986 with the creation of the Journal of Traumatic Stress, whose first issue was published in January 1988. The Society’s first annual meeting was held in Atlanta, GA in September 1985. In April 1990, the society’s name was changed to the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies to reflect its growing non-U. S. Membership; the first edition of its newsletter, published in 1986, started with an editorial commenting upon the diversity of opinion expressed in the press about the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, expressing hope that "very soon we can create a national media registry.
This would include those most of us would agree are qualified to comment on the psychosocial consequences of traumatic events... We hope that by providing the media with a list of qualified experts, the level of public information about human response to catastrophes will be increased substantially; each year, the society recognizes the achievements of its members and others dedicated to the field of traumatic stress studies, including students and professionals in research, clinical/patient care settings and advocacy. These awards celebrate the efforts of those who work to advance the understanding of trauma and its effects, honor winners every year at the annual meeting: This award is the highest honor given to an individual who has made great lifetime contributions to the field of traumatic stress; the award was established by Dr. Yael Danieli in commemoration of her mother; this award recognizes excellence in the traumatic stress field by an individual who has completed his or her training within the last five years.
For men or women with primary childcare responsibilities, one year per child can be added up to an eight-year limit post training. For example, an individual who completed his or her post-doctoral fellowship in 2011 and has two children would be eligible until 2018; the traumatic stress field may include research, clinical work, policy, clergy or media. The definition of training includes clinical internship, post-doctoral training and medical residency; this award is given to an individual or group who has made an outstanding contribution to research in the field of traumatic stress. Robert S. Laufer, PhD, was a sociologist who made early and important contributions to the field of traumatic stress and PTSD through his research on the effects of war experiences on Vietnam combat veterans. Laufer was Professor of Sociology at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, an author of the groundbreaking study of returning veterans entitled Legacies of Vietnam: Comparative Adjustment of Veterans and Their Peers, published in 1981, with Arthur Egendorf, Ellen Frey-Wouters, others.
Laufer and colleagues expanded the concept of combat exposure to include multiple dimensions. In particular, he focused on witnessing or participating in abusive violence, an important new focus for a guerilla war where there were no front lines, where enemy combatants and civilians were difficult to distinguish, he found that abusive violence followed from more extreme exposure to combat, was associated with distinctive psychological and behavioral outcomes, including different aspects of PTSD. Laufer died prematurely of cancer in 1989 at the age of 47; this award is made in his memory. This award is given to a clinician or group of clinicians in direct service to traumatized individuals; this written and/or verbal communication to the field must exemplify the work of Sarah Haley. Sarah Haley, MSW, was a psychiatric social worker in the VA clinic in Boston, now a part of VA Boston Healthcare System. Beginning with her treatment of a My Lai veteran, distressed and unable to remember aspects of his traumatizing experiences in Vietnam, at a time when traumatic experiences were the focus of treatment, she sat with hundreds of veterans who were able to trust her enough to tell their horrific narratives.
Working with these men, who repulsed or frightened many other therapists, led to her landmark article entitled When the Patient Reports Atrocities: Specific Treatment Considerations of the Vietnam