Barbarella (film)

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Barbarella
Multicolored, comic-like film poster of Barbarella and other characters
French theatrical poster
Directed by Roger Vadim
Produced by Dino De Laurentiis
Screenplay by
Based on Barbarella
by Jean-Claude Forest
Starring
Music by
Cinematography Claude Renoir
Edited by Victoria Mercanton
Production
company
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date
  • October 1968 (1968-10) (Paris)
  • 18 October 1968 (1968-10-18) (Italy)
Running time
98 minutes
Country France
Italy
Budget $4–9 million[2][3]
Box office $5.5 million (North American rentals)[4]
878,015 admissions (France)[5]

Barbarella is a 1968 science fiction film, directed by Roger Vadim and based on the French comic book. The film stars Jane Fonda as Barbarella: a 41st-century representative of the United Earth government sent to find scientist Durand Durand, whose positronic ray could destroy humanity.

Producer Dino De Laurentiis bought the comic's film rights. Vadim, who had been a comics fan, wanted to adapt one to film, he attempted to cast several actors in the title role (including Virna Lisi, Brigitte Bardot and Sophia Loren) before choosing his wife at the time, Jane Fonda. Vadim's friend, Terry Southern wrote the screenplay, which was changed considerably during filming; several other writers are credited with it.

The film was particularly popular in the United Kingdom, where it was the year's second-highest-grossing film (after The Jungle Book). Contemporary film critics praised Barbarella's visuals and cinematography, but found its storyline weak after the first few scenes, although several attempts at sequels, remakes and other adaptations have been planned, none have entered production.

Plot[edit]

In an unspecified future, Barbarella is assigned by the president of Earth to retrieve Dr. Durand Durand from the Tau Ceti planetary system. Durand is the inventor of the positronic ray, a weapon which Earth leaders fear will fall into the wrong hands. Barbarella crash-lands on Tau Ceti's 16th planet, and is knocked unconscious by two women, they bring her into the wreckage of a spaceship, where she is bound and several dolls with razor-sharp teeth attack her. Barbarella is rescued by Mark Hand, the Catchman, who patrols the ice looking for errant children. Hand tells her that Durand is in the city of Sogo, and she expresses her appreciation by having sex with him in the old-fashioned way (which was replaced on Earth long ago by exaltation-transference pills).

Barbarella leaves the planet and crashes into a labyrinth inhabited by outcasts from Sogo, she is found by Pygar, a blind angel who has lost the will to fly. Pygar introduces her to Professor Ping, who offers to repair Barbarella's ship. Pygar flies her to Sogo after she restores his will to fly with more old-fashioned sex. When they arrive, Pygar and Barbarella are captured by Sogo's Black Queen and her concierge, the concierge describes the Matmos: living energy in liquid form, powered by evil thoughts and used as an energy source in Sogo. Pygar endures a mock crucifixion and Barbarella is placed in a cage, where hundreds of birds prepare to attack her, she is rescued by Dildano, leader of the local underground, who joins in her pursuit of Durand. Dildano offers her an invisible key to a chamber of dreams where the Queen sleeps, and sends her back to Sogo.

Barbarella is promptly recaptured by the concierge; he places her in an excessive-pleasure machine, which induces fatal sexual pleasure. She outlasts the machine, which shuts down, the concierge, shocked at its destruction, is revealed as Durand (who has aged 30 years due to the Matmos). He wants to become Sogo's new leader and overthrow the Black Queen, which requires his positronic ray and access to the chamber of dreams. Durand takes Barbarella to the chamber, locking her inside with the invisible key, she meets the Queen, who says that if two people are in the chamber the Matmos will devour them. Durand seizes control of Sogo, as Dildano and his rebels begin their attack on the city, the Black Queen retaliates, releasing the Matmos to destroy Sogo. Protected by what the Black Queen calls Barbarella's innocence, they escape the Matmos and find Pygar; the angel clutches them in his arms and flies off. When Barbarella asks Pygar why he saved a tyrant, he replies: "An angel has no memory."

Cast[edit]

Trick photograph of Jane Fonda in a black-and-brown machine
Fonda as Barbarella in the excessive-pleasure machine

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Dino De Laurentiis bought Barbarella's film rights.[8] The comic had been published amidst publicity; unlike previous adult comics, it was published by Belgian-French publisher Eric Losfield in his Editions Le Terrain Vague.[9] De Laurentiis secured a distribution deal in the United States between France's Marianne Productions and Paramount Pictures,[8] he planned to film Danger: Diabolik, a less-expensive feature, to help cover production costs.[8] In 1966 Roger Vadim expressed an admiration for comics (particularly Peanuts), saying that he liked "the wild humor and impossible exaggeration of comic strips" and wanted to "do something in that style myself in my next film, Barbarella."[10] Vadim saw the film as a chance to "depict a new futuristic morality ... Barbarella has [no] guilt about her body. I want to make something beautiful out of eroticism."[11] His wife, actress Jane Fonda, noted that Vadim was a fan of science fiction; according to the director, "In science fiction, technology is everything ... The characters are so boring—they have no psychology. I want to do this film as though I had arrived on a strange planet with my camera directly on my shoulder—as though I was a reporter doing a newsreel."[2]

After Terry Southern finished writing Peter Sellers' dialogue for Casino Royale, he flew to Paris to meet Vadim and Fonda.[12] Southern, who had known Vadim in Paris during the early 1950s,[12] saw writing a science-fiction comedy based on a comic book as a new challenge,[12] he enjoyed writing the script, particularly the opening striptease and the scenes with tiny robotic toys pursuing Barbarella to bite her.[13] Southern felt that the film was his Candy, and enjoyed working with Vadim and Fonda; however, he found that De Laurentiis wanted to make a cheap film rather than a good one.[13] Southern said later, "Vadim wasn't particularly interested in the script, but he was a lot of fun, with a discerning eye for the erotic, grotesque, and the absurd. And Jane Fonda was super in all regards."[14] Southern was surprised to see his screenplay credited to Vadim and several Italian screenwriters in addition to himself.[13] Credited screenwriters included Claude Brule, Vittorio Bonicelli, Clement Biddle Wood, Brian Degas, Tudor Gates and Jean-Claude Forest.[15] Charles B. Griffith later said that he had done uncredited work on the script; the production team "hired fourteen other writers" after Southern "before they got to me. I didn't get credit because I was the last one."[16] According to Griffith, he "rewrote about a quarter of the film that was shot, then re-shot, and I added the concept that there had been thousands of years since violence existed, so that Barbarella was very clumsy all through the picture, she shoots herself in the foot and everything. It was pretty ludicrous, the stuff with Claude Dauphin and the suicide room were also part of my contribution to the film."[16]

Preproduction[edit]

Publicity photo of a smiling Roger Vadim
Director Roger Vadim in 1971

Several actresses were approached before Jane Fonda was cast as Barbarella.[8] De Laurentiis' first choice was Virna Lisi;[8] his second was Brigitte Bardot, who was not interested in a sexualized role.[8] His third choice was Sophia Loren, who was pregnant and felt that she would not fit the role.[8] Fonda was uncertain about the film, but Vadim convinced her by saying that science fiction was a rapidly-evolving genre,[8] before filming Barbarella, she was the subject of two sex scandals: the first when her nude body was displayed across an eight-story billboard promoting the premiere of Circle of Love in 1965, and the second when several candid nude photos from Vadim's closed set for The Game Is Over were sold to Playboy the following year.[17] According to biographer Thomas Kiernan, the billboard incident made her a sex symbol in the United States.[17] Vadim said that he did not want the actress to play Barbarella "tongue in cheek", and he saw the character as "just a lovely, average girl with a terrific space record and a lovely body. I am not going to intellectualise her, although there is going to be a bit of satire about our morals and our ethics, the picture is going to be more of a spectacle than a cerebral exercise for a few way out intellectuals."[18] Fonda felt that her first priority for Barbarella was to "keep her innocent"; the character "is not a vamp and her sexuality is not measured by the rules of our society. She is not being promiscuous, but she follows the natural reaction of another type of upbringing, she is not a so-called 'sexually liberated woman' either. That would mean rebellion against something, she is different. She was born free."[18]

French mime Marcel Marceau had his first speaking role in the film as Professor Ping.[19] Comparing his character to Bip the Clown and Harpo Marx, he said that he did not "forget the lines, but I have trouble organising them. It's a different way of making what's inside come out, it goes from the brain to the vocal chords, and not directly to the body."[20]

Among the crew was fashion designer Paco Rabanne, who was responsible for Fonda's costumes.[21] Rabanne was influenced by the women's liberation movement and designed outfits resembling metal armor, similar to a contemporary Indian philosophy which used iron.[22] Barbarella's creator, Jean-Claude Forest, also worked on the production's design.[23] In a 1985 interview, he said that during production he did not care about his original comic strip and was more interested in the film industry: "The Italian artists were incredible; they could build anything in an extremely short time. I saw all the daily rushes, an incredible amount of film, the choices that were made for the final cut from those images were not the ones I would have liked, but I was not the director. It wasn't my affair."[23]

Filming[edit]

John Phillip Law, who appeared in and Danger: Diabolik, said that after production finished on Danger: Diabolik (on 18 June 1967) shooting began on Barbarella.[24] Sets such as Valmont's night club in Danger: Diabolik were used in both films.[24] Barbarella was shot at Cinecittà in Rome.[25] To film its striptease introduction, Fonda said that the set was turned upward to face the ceiling of the soundstage.[23] A pane of thick glass was laid across the opening of the set, with the camera hung from the rafters above it. Fonda then climbed onto the glass to perform the scene.[23]

The actress later described her discomfort on the film's set; in her autobiography, Fonda said that Vadim began drinking during lunch; his words slurred, and "his decisions about how to shoot scenes often seemed ill-considered."[23] Fonda was bulimic and, at the time, was "a young woman who hated her body ... playing a scantily-clad, sometimes-naked sexual heroine."[23] Photographer David Hurn echoed Fonda, noting that she was insecure about her appearance during the production's photo shoots,[26] the actress took sick days so the film's insurance policy would cover the cost of a shutdown while the script was edited.[23]

Post-production[edit]

Michel Magne was commissioned to record a score for Barbarella, which was discarded.[27] The film's soundtrack, completed by composer-producers Bob Crewe and Charles Fox,[28] has been described as lounge or exotica.[29] Crewe was known for composing 1960s popular songs such as the Four Seasons' "Big Girls Don't Cry",[28] some of the music is credited to the Bob Crewe Generation, a group of session musicians who contributed to the soundtrack.[28] Crewe invited the New York-based group the Glitterhouse, whom he knew through his production work, to provide vocals for the songs,[28] he reflected on the soundtrack in his autobiography, saying that it "clearly needed to have a fun and futuristic approach to it, with sixties-music sensibility."[28]

Victoria Mercanton was Barbarella's film editor. Mercanton worked with Vadim on several of his previous films, from 1956's And God Created Woman to 1966's The Game Is Over.[30][31][32]

Release[edit]

Barbarella opened in New York on 11 October 1968,[33] and earned $2.5 million in North American theatre rentals that year.[34] It was the second-most-popular film in general release in the United Kingdom in 1968, after The Jungle Book.[8][35]

The film was shown in Paris that month, and was released in Italy on 18 October,[33][36] it was released on 25 October throughout France, where it was distributed by Paramount.[37] The film was re-released theatrically in 1977 without its nude scenes as Barbarella: Queen of the Galaxy.[38] Barbarella received a "condemned" rating from the National Catholic Office for Motion Pictures, which called the film a "sick, heavy-handed fantasy with nudity and graphic representations of sadism" and criticized the Production Code Administration for approving it.[39]

Home video[edit]

In 1994, the film's laser disc showed it in widescreen for the first time on home video,[40] it was released on DVD on 22 June 1999,[41][42] and on Blu-ray in July 2012 with the 1968 theatrical trailer the disc's only bonus feature.[43] According to The New York Times, home-video releases of the film before the Blu-ray version were "murky".[44] Entertainment Weekly and Video Librarian called Barbarella's Blu-ray transfer "breathtaking" and "superb-looking", respectively.[43][45]

Reviews[edit]

Contemporary[edit]

Contemporary publications, including Sight & Sound, The Washington Post, the Monthly Film Bulletin, the New York Times and the Globe & Mail, reported that the film's first scenes were enjoyable but its quality declined thereafter.[46][47] According to the Globe & Mail review, after the striptease scene "we are plunged back into the mundane, not to say inane world, of the spy thriller with a dreary overlay of futuristic science-fiction" and it "just lies there, with all its psychedelic plastic settings."[48] Barbarella 's script and humor were criticized; Variety noted a "flat script" with only "a few silly-funny lines of dialog" for a "cast that is not particularly adept at comedy".[49] A Film Quarterly reviewer wrote that "sharp satiric moments ... are welcome and refreshing but are rather infrequent",[50] and the New York Times noted that "there is the assumption that just mentioning a thing (sex, politics, religion) makes it funny."[47]

Critics praised the film's design and cinematography. Variety's mainly-negative review noted "a certain amount of production dash and polish" and, according to The Guardian, "Claude Renoir's limpid colour photography and August Lohman's eye-catching special effects are what save the movie time and again."[51] A Monthly Film Bulletin reviewer wrote that Barbarella's decor is "remarkably faithful to Jean-Claude Forest's originals", noting a "major contribution of Claude Renoir as director of photography" and "Jacques Fonterary's and Paco Rabanne's fantastic costumes".[15] Sight & Sound agreed, citing "the inventiveness of the decors and the richness of Claude Renoir's photography."[52]

The Guardian and the New York Times criticized Barbarella's nature, themes and tone, with The Guardian calling it a "nasty kind of film", "modish to the core" and "essentially just a shrewd piece of exploitation."[51] According to the New York Times, the film's humor was "not jokes, but hard-breathing, sadistic thrashings, mainly at the expense of Barbarella, and of women."[47] A Film Quarterly reviewer called it "pure sub-adolescent junk" and "bereft of redeeming social or artistic importance."[50]

The Globe & Mail praised Barbarella as part of "the first female sci-fi", and the film's shaggy gold rugs, Impressionist paintings and spaceship were "unquestionably female in design compared with any of today's projectiles"; Barbarella is "no man-challenging superwoman, but a sweet soft creature who's always willing to please a man who's king to her."[48] According to Sight & Sound, "There is a real fascination in its basic idea, which is a happy belief in the survival of sexuality ... The idea fascinates, but the execution somehow disappoints (how often one has to say that about Vadim)."[52] The Film Quarterly review concluded, "In the year that Stanley Kubrick and Franklin Schaffner finally elevated the science-fiction movie beyond the abyss of the kiddie show, Roger Vadim has knocked it right back down."[50]

Retrospective[edit]

Retrospective reviews in the New York Times, The A.V. Club and Video Librarian discussed Barbarella's plot and design.[44][45][53] According to the A.V. Club, "Mario Garbuglia keeps throwing inventive visuals and remarkable sets at the heroine" but "the journey itself is an unrelenting trudge."[53] A Video Librarian reviewer called Barbarella "set design and wild color triumphing over story and character."[45] The New York Times noted a lack of "plot impetus", suggesting that Vadim may have been "preoccupied with the special effects, though they are (and were) rather cheesy."[44] Kim Newman gave Barbarella three stars out of five in Empire, calling the film "literally episodic" and writing that the episodes spend "more time on the art direction, the costuming and the psychedelic music track than the plot".[6]

About its sexual elements, Brian J. Dillard of AllMovie wrote that the film's gender roles were not "particularly progressive, especially given the running gag about Barbarella getting her first few tastes of physical copulation after a lifetime of 'advanced' virtual sex."[54] The A.V. Club found the film "a missed opportunity," noting that the source material was part of "an emerging wave of European comics for adults" which "Vadim film[ed] indifferently."[53] David Kehr of the Chicago Reader found the film "ugly" on several levels, particularly its "human values."[55] Kim Newman summarized the film as "cheerful, kitsch and camp", with "a succession of truly amazing fashion creations with all the confidence of a generation that thought sex was, above all, fun."[6] Newman compared the film to Kubrick's 2001 and Star Wars, writing that Barbarella makes them seem "stuffy" by comparison.[6] MTV noted that Barbarella suffers when described as a "camp classic," since there was "so much to like about Fonda's work here and the movie as a whole"; "Fonda brings naivete and sweetness to a part that requires a certain level of comfort going bare onscreen, while the hostile planet Lythion is a parade of inventive and odd ways to imperil our heroine."[41]

Aftermath and influence[edit]

According to the Los Angeles Times, Barbarella may seem "quaint" to modern audiences but its "imagery has echoed for years in pop culture."[56] The New York Times called Barbarella "the most iconic sex goddess of the '60s."[22] The film's costumes influenced Jean-Paul Gaultier's designs in The Fifth Element,[57] and Gaultier noted Paco Rabanne's metallic dress which was worn by Fonda.[58]

Barbarella was later called a cult film.[59][60] Author Jerry Lembcke noted the film's popularity; it was available in small video stores, and was familiar beyond the film-buff community.[61] According to Lembcke, any "doubt about its cult status was dispelled when Entertainment Weekly ranked it number 40 on its list of top 50 cult movies" in 2003,[61] he cited the film's popularity on the internet, with fansites ranging from a Barbarella festival in Sweden to memorabilia sales and reviews.[61] Lembcke writes that the websites focus on the character of Barbarella.[61]

Barbarella has influenced popular music, with Duran Duran taking its name from the film's antagonist.[62] The group later released a concert film, Arena (An Absurd Notion), with Milo O'Shea reprising his role in Barbarella.[63][64]

Proposed sequel, remake and TV series[edit]

A sequel to Barbarella was planned in November 1968.[65] Producer Robert Evans said that its working title would be Barbarella Goes Down, with the character having undersea adventures.[65] Terry Southern said that he was contacted by de Laurentiis in 1990 to write a sequel "on the cheap ... but with plenty of action and plenty of sex," and possibly starring Fonda's daughter.[14]

A new version of Barbarella was proposed in the 2000s, and director Robert Rodriguez was interested in developing a version after the release of Sin City.[66] Universal Pictures planned to produce the film, with Rose McGowan playing Barbarella.[66] Dino and Martha De Laurentiis signed on with writers Neal Purvis and Robert Wade, who had worked on Casino Royale.[67] When the film's budget exceeded $80 million, Universal withdrew.[66] According to Rodriguez, he did not want his film to look like Vadim's,[68] he searched for alternate financing when Universal did not meet his budget,[66] and found a studio in Germany which would provide a $70 million budget.[66] Rodriguez eventually left the project, since using that studio would require a long separation from his family.[66] Joe Gazzam was then approached to write a screenplay, with Robert Luketic directing and Dino and Martha De Laurentiis still credited as producers.[69]

In January 2014, Gaumont International Television announced a pilot for a TV series based on the film by Amazon Studios. The pilot would be written by Purvis and Wade, and directed by Nicolas Winding Refn,[70][71] the thriller-action series would be set in Asia.[71]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Barbarella (1968)". BFI. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Hendrick, Kimmis (14 October 1967). "Vadim's 'Barbarella,' a challenging film: A free hand Employs improvisation". The Christian Science Monitor. p. 6. 
  3. ^ "Barbarella". The Numbers. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "All-time Film Rental Champs". Variety. 7 January 1976. p. 6. 
  5. ^ "Roger Vadim Box Office". Box Office Story. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Newman, Kim. "Barbarella Review". Empire. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Lisanti 2003, p. 223.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Curti 2016, p. 85.
  9. ^ Curti 2016, p. 84.
  10. ^ Curtiss, Thomas Quinn (16 January 1966). "And Vadim 'Created' Jane Fonda". New York Times. p. X15. 
  11. ^ Jonas, Gerald (22 January 1967). "Here's What Happened to Baby Jane". The New York Times. p. 91. 
  12. ^ a b c Gerber & Lisanti 2014, p. 53.
  13. ^ a b c Gerber & Lisanti 2014, p. 70.
  14. ^ a b McGilligan 1997, p. 385.
  15. ^ a b "Barbarella". Monthly Film Bulletin. Vol. 38 no. 408. British Film Institute. 1968. pp. 167–168. 
  16. ^ a b McGilligan 1997, p. 168.
  17. ^ a b Radner & Luckett 1999, p. 259.
  18. ^ a b Aba, Marika (10 September 1967). "What Kind of Supergirl Will Jane Fonda Be as Barbarella?". Los Angeles Times. p. C12. 
  19. ^ "Marcel Marceau to Speak". The New York Times. 22 September 1967. p. 54. 
  20. ^ Redmont, Dennis F. (25 October 1967). "First Speaking Role for Marcel Marceau". Los Angeles Times. p. D20. 
  21. ^ Bayley, Stephen (19 January 2008). "Style of the times". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  22. ^ a b Eisner, Lisa; Alonso, Roman (10 March 2002). "Style; Man of Steel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g "Barbarella (1968)". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  24. ^ a b Curti 2016, p. 88.
  25. ^ Bosworth 2011, p. 252.
  26. ^ Godvin, Tara (10 October 2012). "'Barbarella' at 45: David Hurn's Iconic Images of Jane Fonda". Time. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  27. ^ Spencer 2014, p. 108.
  28. ^ a b c d e Bartkowiak & Kiuchi 2015, p. 59.
  29. ^ Bartkowiak & Kiuchi 2015, p. 58.
  30. ^ "La Curée (1965) Roger Vadim" (in French). Bifi.fr. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017. 
  31. ^ "Et Dieu créa la femme (1956) Roger Vadim". Bifi.fr. Retrieved August 8, 2017. 
  32. ^ "Cinée-ressources" (in French). Cineressources.net. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017. 
  33. ^ a b "Barbarella". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  34. ^ "Big Rental Films of 1968". Variety. 8 January 1969. p. 15. This figure is a rental accruing to distributors 
  35. ^ "John Wayne-Money-Spinner". The Guardian. 31 December 1968. p. 3. 
  36. ^ Dillard, Brian J. "Barbarella". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  37. ^ "Barbarella" (in French). unifrance.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  38. ^ Curti 2016, p. 90.
  39. ^ Parks 1999, p. 262.
  40. ^ Simels, Steve (18 February 1994). "Barbarella: Queen of the Galaxy". Entertainment Weekly. p. 210. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  41. ^ a b Webb, Charles (7 February 2012). "Blu-ray Review: 'Barbarella' is Stellar on Blu". MTV. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  42. ^ "Barbarella (1968)". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  43. ^ a b Nashawaty, Chris (29 June 2012). "'Barbarella' and Beyond". Entertainment Weekly (1214). Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  44. ^ a b c Taylor, Charles (6 May 2012). "Barbarella". New York Times. p. MT22. 
  45. ^ a b c Axmaker, Sean. "Barbarella". Video Librarian. Vol. 27 no. 5. p. 43. ISSN 0887-6851. 
  46. ^ R. L. C. (25 October 1968). "Comedy Films in Suburbs; 'Barbarella' in Town: Basbarella [sic] Shows Up As Overlong Serial". The Washington Post. p. C12. 
  47. ^ a b c Adler, Renata (12 October 1968). "Screen: Science + Sex = 'Barbarella':Jane Fonda Is Starred in Roger Vadim Film Violence and Gadgetry Set Tone of Movie". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  48. ^ a b Michener, Wendy (12 October 1968). "Barbarella, the post-atomic bomb". The Globe & Mail. p. 27. 
  49. ^ Willis 1985, p. 240-241: "Review is of 98 minute version published on October 9, 1968"
  50. ^ a b c Bates, Dan (1969). "Short Notices". Film Quarterly. Vol. 22 no. 3. University of California Press. p. 58. 
  51. ^ a b Malcolm, Derek (16 October 1968). "Fast and spurious". The Guardian. p. 8. 
  52. ^ a b Price, James (1968). "Barbarella". Sight & Sound. Vol. 38 no. 1. British Film Institute. pp. 46–47. 
  53. ^ a b c Phipps, Keith (6 December 2016). "Barbarella". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  54. ^ Dillard, Brian J. "Barbarella". AllMovie. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  55. ^ "Barbarella". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  56. ^ Vankin, Deborah; Boucher, Geoff (27 January 2011). "Jane Fonda: I want to star in ‘Barbarella’ sequel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  57. ^ "J.-C. Forest, 68, Cartoonist Who Dreamt Up 'Barbarella'". The New York Times. 3 January 1999. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  58. ^ Gaultier, Jean Paul (3 March 2017). "Vive la difference! Jean Paul Gaultier Reflects on the Great French Fashion Rebels of the 20th Century". CNN. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  59. ^ Akbar, Arifa (2 December 2012). "Barbarella, the queen of cult sci-fi, is reborn for the 21st century". Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  60. ^ French, Sean (11 December 1988). "Mysteries of the cult". The Observer. London. p. A11. 
  61. ^ a b c d Lembcke 2010, p. 73.
  62. ^ Taylor 2008, p. 39.
  63. ^ "Billboard Picks: Music". Billboard. Vol. 116 no. 21. 22 May 2004. p. 33. 
  64. ^ Chilton, Martin (3 April 2013). "Actor Milo O'Shea dies aged 86". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  65. ^ a b Haber, Joyce (28 November 1968). "Film Pair Gets Bum's Rush in Bistros". The Washington Post. p. D15. 
  66. ^ a b c d e f Ditzian, Eric (5 May 2009). "Exclusive: Robert Rodriguez's 'Barbarella' Adaptation is Dead". MTV. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  67. ^ Fleming, Michael (11 April 2007). "‘Barbarella’ back in action". Variety. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  68. ^ Morgan, Spencer (16 October 2007). "Barbar-hella! Robert Rodriguez Is Fonda of Rose McGowan in Queen of the Galaxy Role, But Universal Winces". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007. 
  69. ^ Kit, Borys (6 August 2009). "New 'Barbarella' in works". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  70. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (20 January 2014). "‘Barbarella’ Series Project Lands At Amazon". Deadline.com. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  71. ^ a b Jaafar, Ali (29 January 2016). "Nicolas Winding Refn Teaming With James Bond Scribes Purvis & Wade On New Project". Deadline.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]