The Azelin chandelier is a Romanesque wheel chandelier, made in the 11th century for the Hildesheim Cathedral in Hildesheim, Germany, a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site since 1985. It is the oldest of four extant wheel chandeliers from that period, along with the Hezilo chandelier in Hildesheim, the Barbarossa chandelier in the Aachen Cathedral, the Hartwig chandelier in the Abbey of Comburg, it was believed to be donated by Bishop Azelin, however his predecessor Thietmar is more to be the patron. Therefore, the chandelier is called the Thietmar chandelier. A wheel chandelier is called a corona and circular chandelier. Like the and larger Hezilo chandelier, the Azelin chandelier is a circular hoop of gilt copper and tinplate, decorated with twelve towers and twelve gatehouses. However, the decoration is much sparser, limited to a braided bar in the middle of the hoop and an openwork wreath of foliage on the upper edge of the hoop; the twelve gatehouses, to which the ropes holding the chandelier up are attached, are rectangular in shape with rounded arches and roofing.
It is possible that they once held figures, but these would have had to have been small and flat. The twelve towers are more elaborate, with a hexagonal groundplan. On the outside there are three niches closed with openwork doors, on the inside there is one niche flanked by two towers decorated with battlements and imitation brickwork; the spires of the towers extend above the top of the chandelier's hoop and are alternately round or hexagonal, with openwork windows in imitation of roof lanterns. The Azelin chandelier has been altered by additions and repairs over the centuries; the overall image of the New Jerusalem, lit up and floating in the air, which all works of this type present, has been maintained. An important and meticulous restoration of the chandelier was carried out between 1982 and 1989, repairing damage of World War II; the Azelin chandelier, named for its supposed donor, the bishop Azelin is the predecessor of the Hezilo chandelier, commissioned by Azelin's successor Hezilo. The two wheel chandeliers were planned as a set, just as they hung in the cathedral for centuries: the Hezilo chandelier in the nave, the Azelin chandelier in the choir.
The chandeliers were created after the devastating fire of 1046, in which the cathedral of Altfrid and many nearby buildings in the Domhof were destroyed. Before this, a gold and silver wheel chandelier, gifted by Bernward of Hildesheim had hung in the nave; this earlier chandelier was destroyed in the fire. The chandelier was thought to have been commissioned by Bishop Azelin after this fire, but according to a lost document from the 16th century his predecessor Thietmar of Hildesheim was the patron, it is not clear, in that case, how the chandelier survived the fire of 1046. From 1960, when the cathedral and the adjacent buildings were rebuilt, the chandelier hung in the church of St. Antonius, adjacent to the cloisters of the cathedral. After the completion of extensive restorations of the cathedral, reopened on 15 August 2014, the conversion of St. Antonius to a part of the Cathedral museum, the Azelin chandelier was returned to the cathedral and placed again above the altar in the crossing, while the Hezilo chandelier, which hung there before, was returned to its original location in the nave.
Bernhard Gallistl: Bedeutung und Gebrauch der großen Lichterkrone im Hildesheimer Dom. In: Concilium medii aevi 12, 2009, S. 43–88, online:. Retrieved 18 January 2012 Adolf Bertram, Geschichte des Bisthums Hildesheim, vol. 1, Hildesheim 1899, p. 106. Christine Wulf: Die Inschriften der Stadt Hildesheim. Wiesbaden 2003. Vol. 2. Pp. 213–216
Sermon on the Mount
The Sermon on the Mount is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus Christ, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew. It is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew and takes place early in the Ministry of Jesus after he has been baptized by John the Baptist, had fasted and contemplated in the desert, began to preach in Galilee; the Sermon is the longest continuous discourse of Jesus found in the New Testament, has been one of the most quoted elements of the Canonical Gospels. It includes some of the best known teachings of Jesus, such as the Beatitudes, the recited Lord's Prayer; the Sermon on the Mount is considered to contain the central tenets of Christian discipleship. The Sermon on the Mount is Jesus' longest speech and teaching in the New Testament, occupies chapters 5, 6 and 7 of the Gospel of Matthew; the Sermon has been one of the most quoted elements of the Canonical Gospels. This is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew, the other four being Matthew 10, Matthew 13, Matthew 18 and the Olivet discourse in Matthew 24.
The Sermon is set early in the Ministry of Jesus, after he has been baptized by John the Baptist in chapter 3 of Matthew's Gospel, gathered his first disciples in chapter 4, had returned from a long fast and contemplation in the Judaean Desert where he had been tempted by Satan to renounce his spiritual mission and gain worldly riches. Before this episode, Jesus had been "all about Galilee" preaching, as in Matthew 4:23, "great crowds followed him" from all around the area; the setting for the sermon is given in Matthew 5:1-2. Jesus sees the multitudes, goes up into the mountain, is followed by his disciples, begins to preach; the Sermon is brought to its close by Matthew 8:1, which reports that Jesus "came down from the mountain followed by great multitudes". While the issue of the exact theological structure and composition of the Sermon on the Mount is subject to debate among scholars, specific components within it, each associated with particular teachings, can be identified. Matthew 5:3–12 discusses the Beatitudes.
These describe the character of the people of the Kingdom of Heaven, expressed as "blessings". The Greek word most versions of the Gospel render as "blessed," can be translated "happy". In Matthew, there are eight blessings. In all cases the phrases used in the Beatitudes are familiar from an Old Testament context, but in the sermon Jesus gives them new meaning. Together, the Beatitudes present a new set of ideals that focus on love and humility rather than force and mastery. In Christian teachings, the Works of Mercy, which have corporal and spiritual components, have resonated with the theme of the Beatitude for mercy; these teachings emphasize that these acts of mercy provide both spiritual benefits. Matthew 5:13–16 presents the metaphors of salt and light; this completes the profile of God's people presented in the beatitudes, acts as the introduction to the next section. There are two parts in this section, using the terms "salt of the earth" and Light of the World to refer to the disciples – implying their value.
Elsewhere, in John 8:12, Jesus applies Light of the World to himself. Jesus preaches about hell and what hell is like: "But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother "Raca" shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire." Matthew 5:22 KJV The longest discourse in the Sermon is Matthew 5:17–48, traditionally referred to as the Antitheses or Matthew's Antitheses. In the discourse, Jesus fulfills and reinterprets the Old Covenant and in particular its Ten Commandments, contrasting with what "you have heard" from others. For example, he advises turning the other cheek, to love your enemies, in contrast to taking an eye for an eye. According to most interpretations of Matthew 5:17, 18, 19, 20, most Christian views of the Old Covenant, these new interpretations of the Law and Prophets are not opposed to the Old Testament, the position of Marcion, but form Jesus' new teachings which bring about salvation, hence must be adhered to, as emphasized in Matthew 7:24–27 towards the end of the sermon.
In Matthew 6 Jesus condemns doing what would be "good works" for recognition and not from the heart, such as those of alms and fasting. The discourse goes on to condemn the superficiality of materialism and call the disciples not to worry about material needs, but to "seek" God's kingdom first. Within the discourse on ostentation, Matthew presents an example of correct prayer. Luke places this in a different context; the Lord's prayer contains parallels to 1 Chronicles 29:10–18. The first part of Matthew 7, i.e. Matthew 7:1–6 deals with judging. Jesus condemns those who judge others before first judging themselves: "Judge not, that ye be not judged." In the last part in Matthew 7:7–29 Jesus concludes the sermon by warning against false prophets. The teachings of the Sermon on the Mount have been a key element of Christian ethics, for centuries the sermon has acted as a fundamental recipe for the conduct of the followers of Jesus. Various religious and moral thinkers have admired its message, it has been one of the main sources of Christian pacifism.
In the 5th century, Saint Augustine began his book Our Lord's Sermon on the
Hildesheim Cathedral the Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary or St. Mary's Cathedral, is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral in the city centre of Hildesheim, on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list since 1985, together with the nearby St. Michael's Church; the cathedral church was built between 1020 in the Romanesque style. It follows a symmetrical plan with two apses, characteristic of Ottonian Romanesque architecture in Old Saxony; the cathedral's treasures include world-famous artworks, bronze works from the time of Bishop Bernward, Bernward Doors and Bernward Column, as well as two of the four notable Romanesque wheel chandeliers: the Hezilo chandelier and the Azelin chandelier. After renovations and extensions in the 11th, 12th and 14th centuries, the cathedral was destroyed during an air raid on 22 March 1945 and rebuilt from 1950 to 1960. A thorough renovation of the cathedral began including technical and conservation measures; some of the cathedral's treasures have been shown further afield, including at an exhibition at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The cathedral was reopened on 15 August 2014. After the establishment of the Diocese of Hildesheim in 815 by Louis the Pious, a Chapel of St. Mary was built on the locations of the modern apse. Bishop Gunthar of Hildesheim, in office from 815 to 834, had a small basilica with two round towers built to the south of the chapel, which he dedicated to Saint Cecilia; this served as the original Stift church. The first four bishops were buried there. Only traces of the foundations of these two buildings remain. An older Hildesheim parish church once stood on the site of the Chapel of Saint Stephen next to the gatehouse at the eastern entrance to the chapel of St. Hellweg, which might date back to Hildegrim of Châlons and his expedition to East Saxony; the Cathedral was built in 872 under Bishop Altfrid as a cruciform three-aisled basilica with a two-story westwork. It is an example of Ottonian architecture, with alternating column support and semi circular apses completing the naves; the building suffered severe fire damage in 1046.
Bishop Azelin planned to extend the nave. His successor, Hezilo of Hildesheim, abandoned this plan and instead built on the old foundations, incorporating the surviving walls into the new building. Further important renovations occurred up to the end of the fourteenth century but did not deviate from the ground plan of Bishop Altfrid's basilica; the northern paradise and the north and south side chapels date from the gothic period and the tower above the crossing from the baroque period. In the nineteenth century, the original westwork was replaced by a Neo-Romanesque two-tower facade, which stood until 1945. Hildesheim Cathedral School, which had rooms in the cloisters, was one of the most significant educational institutions of the Ottonian and Salian periods, its library has served as the Cathedral's library since 815. During the aerial bombardment of Hildesheim by the RAF and RCAF in World War II, the main building was entirely destroyed. Of the ancillary buildings, only the Gothic Anne's chapel, erected in 1321 in the middle of the cathedral's courtyard, was undamaged.
It was the only cathedral in Germany that had to be newly consecrated after its reconstruction, on 27 March 1960 by Bishop Heinrich Maria Janssen. The building was rebuilt between 1960 in a simplified form; the baroque elements were abandoned in favour of a form which took its cue from the early Romanesque style. The most visible aspect of this on the exterior was that upper stories, side towers added to the westwork in 1840 were not restored, the westwork was reconstructed closer to its earlier state based on the model of the westwork of Minden Cathedral. In addition, the gatehouse in front of the westwork was reduced by about half. Otherwise, the exterior appeared as it had done before the destruction – in particular, the baroque crossing-tower was rebuilt; the reconstruction was carried out under tight constraints. Because of the lack of sandstone tiles, the floor was relaid in marble; the roofs of the nave and cloisters were cast in concrete and covered with wooden boards on the inside to recall the appearance of ceiling beams.
The interior walls, as well as the walls of the nave, were rebuilt in brick and limestone, hidden from view by a dimension stone coating on the outside and by a coat of smooth plaster on the inside. The ground level was raised by 60 cm, which resulted in the rooms having a squat appearance in the transepts; the columns of the nave were cast in concrete, the pilasters were coated in sandstone. The reconsecration took until 1960 to complete because of various problems, chiefly the "Hildesheim Cathedral construction dispute", an argument between the Diocese of Hildesheim and the Land of Lower Saxony about the cost of the reconstruction and about whether Lower Saxony was one of the legal successors of the Free State of Prussia which had undertaken to cover the cathedral's building expenses in 1803 during the process of German mediatization; the parties reached a settlement in 1957. After many years of planning, a thorough renovation of the cathedral began in January 2010, the first since 1960. Along with technical and conservation measures, there were alterations to the design.
The floor was lowered to the original level, the Hez
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of central Europe during the Early Middle Ages, he was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire, he was canonized by Antipope Paschal III. Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, born before their canonical marriage, he became king in 768 following his father's death as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in December 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, he continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.
He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter's Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the classical era of the Roman Empire and united parts of Europe that had never been under Frankish or Roman rule, his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire, as did the French and German monarchies. However, the Eastern Orthodox Church views Charlemagne more controversially, labelling as heterodox his support of the filioque and the Pope's recognition of him as legitimate Roman Emperor rather than Irene of Athens of the Byzantine Empire; these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for 14 years and as king for 46 years.
He was laid to rest in his imperial capital city of Aachen. He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianised, due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I. Francia, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire. Following the Battle of Tertry, the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have been dubbed the rois fainéants. All government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace. In 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry, he became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom: Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen. Pepin of Herstal was succeeded by his son Charles known as Charles Martel.
After 737, Charles declined to call himself king. Charles was succeeded in 741 by his sons Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery, he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746. Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power; the pope handed down his decision in 749, decreeing that it was better for Pepin to be called king, as he had the powers of high office as Mayor, so as not to confuse the hierarchy. He, ordered him to become the true king. In 750, Pepin was elected by an assembly of the Franks, anointed by the archbishop, raised to the office of king; the Pope ordered him into a monastery. The Merovingian dynasty was thereby replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Charles Martel. In 753, Pope Stephen II fled from Italy to Francia, appealing to Pepin for assistance for the rights of St. Peter.
He was supported in this appeal by Charles' brother. In return, the pope could provide only legitimacy, he did this by again anointing and confirming Pepin, this time adding his young sons Carolus and Carloman to the royal patrimony. They thereby became heirs to the realm that covered most of western Europe. In 754, Pepin accepted the Pope's invitation to visit Italy on behalf of St. Peter's rights, dealing with the Lombards. Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe. Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; the middle kingdom had broken up by 890 and absorbed into the Western kingdom and the Eastern kingdom and the rest developing into smaller "buffer" nations that exist between Fr
The Hezilo chandelier is an 11th-century Romanesque wheel chandelier. It is part of the treasures of the Hildesheim Cathedral in Hildesheim, a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site since 1985; the chandelier was most commissioned by Bishop Hezilo of Hildesheim, who rebuilt the cathedral after a fire. He also influenced the program of imagery and inscriptions, it is the largest of four extant wheel chandeliers of the period. During the restoration of the cathedral, the chandelier was installed in St. Godehard, a basilica since 1963 and the temporary bishop's seat. After the restoration of the cathedral, reopened on 15 August 2014, it was returned to its original location in the cathedral's nave; the Hezilo chandelier is composed of a circular hoop, 6 metres in diameter. The hoop bears Latin inscriptions on the upper and lower edges. Between the inscriptions are three horizontal bands, with the middle band bulging outwards, which are richly decorated with openwork foliage. There are square merlons on top of the hoop holding seventy-two candles.
Twelve towers and twelve gate-houses alternate along the outside of the hoop. The layout of the towers is a Greek cross with a doorway; the upper parts of the towers have a narrower form, extending above the candles on the hoop and topped with large balls. Small statues or lamps originally stood inside these towers; the gatehouses are flat, no higher than the hoop and are closed at the rear - where the ropes which hold up the chandelier are anchored. Each gate is flanked by two small but richly decorated round turrets and is crowned with battlements and the name of an apostle, it is that there were once images of these apostles in the doorways. In the center, a large lamp is hung from a rope; the chandelier called a corona or circular chandelier, hung in the nave until 1944, when it was removed to protect it from bombing. It hung above the altar in the crossing from the reopening of the cathedral in 1960 to 2010, when cathedral restoration work began. Bernward, Bishop of Hildesheim, gifted the first large wheel chandelier to the Hildesheim Cathedral built by Bishop Altfrid, also gave one to the adjacent church of St. Michael.
After Altfrid's cathedral burned down in 1046, Bishop Hezilo had it rebuilt with alterations, rejecting the plan of his predecessor Azelin to build a new cathedral, in the nave he hung a "crown chandelier of shimmering gold", now known by his name as the Hezilo chandelier. It is not clear what influence the earlier chandelier of Bernward had on the design of this replacement; the model for a chandelier as the symbol of the New Jerusalem was the great wheel chandelier in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre above Golgotha. Elements of Islamic art in the ornamentation of the chandelier support the identification with Jerusalem; the idea of the chandelier is the image of a floating city: according to the inscription, the Heavenly Jerusalem as target of the old and new covenants, fragrant with the scent of virtue, populated by the saints, lit by God himself, the source of all light. The Hezilo chandelier was at the liturgical center of the cathedral until the nineteenth century, with services held under its crown of light.
Its location marked the beginning and end of the great processions of the cathedral chapter on Sundays and holidays. The chandelier served as a symbol of righteousness. Violations of the sovereignty of the diocese were solemnly resolved beneath it. Restoration work was carried out in the 16th century and again at the beginning of the 19th and 20th centuries, During the Second World War, the Hezilo chandelier was dismantled and removed from the cathedral —, destroyed by Allied bombing in March 1945. After the cathedral was rebuilt during the 1950s, the 900-year-old chandelier was placed in the crossing, it underwent extensive conservation work from 2002 until 2007. In 2010, when restoration work on the cathedral began, it was moved to St. Godehard, a Romanesque church in Hildesheim and the temporary seat of the bishop. Due to early modern restorations, the verse inscription has been altered; the donor's name, "Hezilo" was written in a script. The oldest version is in a manuscript from around 1500: Willmuth Arenhövel.
Der Hezilo-Radleuchter im Dom zu Hildesheim: Beiträge zur Hildesheimer Kunst des 11. Jahrhunderts unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ornamentik. Mann, Berlin 1975, ISBN 3-7861-4099-5. Norbert Bergmann. "Der Hezilo-Leuchter – Eine Systemanalyse und ihre Folgen," in Ursula Schädler-Saub, Weltkulturerbe Deutschland. Präventative Konservierung und Erhaltungsperspektiven, internationale Fachtagung des Deutschen Nationalkomitees von ICOMOS. Hildesheim, 23.–25. November 2006. Regensburg 2008 Adolf Bertram. Geschichte des Bisthums Hildesheim, Vol. I, Hildesheim 1899, pp. 116f & 120f. Bernhard Gallistl. "Bedeutung und Gebrauch der großen Lichterkrone im Hildesheimer Dom" in Concilium medii aevi 12, 2009, pp. 43–88, online:. Retrieved 18 January 2012 Ulrich Knapp, Karl Bernhard Kruse. Der Hezilo-Leuchter im Hildesheimer Dom. Schnell und Steiner, Regensburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-7954-2755-9 Ch. Wulf. Die Inschriften der Stadt Hildesheim. Ges. und bearb. von Ch. Wulf. Wiesbaden 2003. Vol 2. Pp. 213–216 The Hezilo-candlesticks in: Restoration of the World Cultural Heritage Hildesheim Cathedral
Palatine Chapel, Aachen
The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne's Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral, it is a central monument of the Carolingian Renaissance. The chapel held the remains of Charlemagne, it was appropriated by the Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531. As part of Aachen Cathedral, the chapel is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Charlemagne began the construction of the Palatine Chapel around 792, along with the building of the rest of the palace structures, it was consecrated in 805 by Pope Leo III in honour of the Virgin Mary. The building is a domed chapel; the east end had a square apse, was flanked by two basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology. The chapel was entered to the west; the plan and decoration of the building combines elements of Classical and Pre-Romanesque, opulent materials as the expression of a new royal house, ruled by Charlemagne.
The architect responsible, Odo of Metz, is named in a tenth-century inscription around the dome: Insignem hanc dignitatis aulam Karolus caesar magnus instituit. Nothing more is known of him; the building he designed has a simple exterior and a complex interior, with a double shell octagonal dome resting on heavy piers, a two-story elevation, elaborate revetment and decoration. In 936 Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Ottonian dynasty, took advantage of the chapel's close association with Charlemagne and held his coronation as King of Germany there. Holy Roman Emperors continued to be crowned in the Palatine Chapel until 1531. In 1000, in what was most a symbolic exhibition, Otto III placed the tomb of Charlemagne in the chapel and paid homage to his remains; the original tomb was a sepulchral niche, afterwards known as the "Karlsmemorie", but destroyed in 1788. There is a sixteen-sided ambulatory with a gallery overhead encircling the central octagonal dome; the plan and decoration owe much to the sixth-century Basilica of Ravenna.
Indeed, Charlemagne visited Ravenna three times, the first in 787. In that year he wrote to Pope Hadrian I and requested "mosaic and other materials from floors and walls" in Rome and Ravenna, for his palace; the construction, including barrel and groin vaults and an octagonal cloister-vault in the dome, reflects late Roman, or Pre-Romanesque, practices rather than the Byzantine techniques employed at San Vitale, its plan simplifies the complex geometry of the Ravenna building. Multi-coloured marble veneer is used to create a sumptuous interior; the chapel makes use of ancient spolia, conceivably from Ravenna, as well as newly carved materials. The bronze decoration is of extraordinarily high quality the doors with lions heads and the interior railings, with their Corinthian order columns and acanthus scrolls; the dome was decorated with a fresco, with mosaic. In the Baroque period, it was replaced by stucco; the original mosaic was reproduced in the 19th century with the same iconography as the original.
It depicts the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse bearing crowns and standing around the base of the dome. Above the main altar, facing the royal throne, is an image of Christ in Majesty; the upper gallery of the chapel was the royal space, with a special throne area for the king emperor, which let onto the liturgical space of the church and onto the atrium outside as well. The main entrance is dominated by a westwork comprising the western facade including the entrance vestibule, rooms at one or more levels above, one or more towers; these overlook the atrium of the church. The addition of a westwork to churches is one of the Carolingian contributions to Western architectural traditions. Aachen penny of Charlemagne Carolingian architecture History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes Bayer, Clemens M. M.. "Das Grab Karls des Grossen". In Pohle, Frank. Karl der Grosse: Orte der Macht: Essays. Dresden: Sandstein Verlag. Pp. 382–91. ISBN 978-3-95498-092-5. Conant, Kenneth J.. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture.
New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-3000-5298-7. LCCN 78149801. Garrison, Eliza. Ottonian Imperial Art and Portraiture: The Artistic Patronage of Otto III and Henry II. Farnham, UK: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-6968-5. LCCN 2011013779. Gould, Andrew. "Marble Revetments". Orthodox Arts Journal. Retrieved 15 May 2015. Jeep, John M. ed.. Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Garland Pub. ISBN 978-0-8240-7644-3. LCCN 00061780. McClendon, Charles B.. The Origins of Medieval Architecture: Building in Europe: A. D 600-900. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Pp. 108–119. ISBN 0-3001-0688-2. LCCN 2004023967. UNESCO. "Aachen Cathedral". UNESCO. World Heritage List. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015. Official Website of Aachen Cathedral Aachen Cathedral, inː Sacred Destinations