Barbarous radiates are imitations of the antoninianus, a type of coin issued during the Roman Empire, which are so named due to their crude style and prominent radiant crown worn by the emperor. Barbarous radiates were issued primarily during the Crisis of the Third Century in the western provinces, they are not regarded as forgeries since they were smaller than standard issues and functioned as small change. Although earlier numismatists, notably Philip V. Hill, theorized that barbarous radiates were produced long after their prototypes and into the Dark Ages and Saxon period, more recent works argue that they were contemporary to their prototypes. According to Hill, in England, although barbarous radiates were produced at several different locations, hoard evidence demonstrate local styles. For example, in northern England there was a greater affinity towards producing barbarous radiates with reverse figures with relief-less outlines, while in southern England bolder, high relief figures were more common.
Similar "schools of art" exist for pieces produced in continental Europe. Due to their unofficial manufacture, barbarous radiates exhibit many peculiarities. Reverse types portray a certain deity or personification, for example Spes, might feature a reverse legend instead for Pietas. On some specimens the devices associated with one deity or personification is shown with a different deity or personification. For example, the sceptre, a device of Pax, is instead shown with Pietas; the result is deity. Legends of barbarous radiates range from correct and exact copies of the prototype, to a jumble of unintelligible, meaningless letters and symbols. Smaller pieces known as minims, which are less than 10 mm in diameter, are anepigraphic. For degraded barbarous imitations, there is a tendency to emphasize a particular feature of the prototype, in this case the radiate crown; the most imitated prototypes are of the Gallic emperors the Tetrici, Tetricus I and his son, Tetricus II. The next most frequent are those of Claudius II the posthumous issue with the altar reverse, Victorinus.
Imitations of Postumus antoniniani are scarce, although imitations of his large bronzes are common. Other uncommon to rare types in order of frequency are Gallienus, Probus and Tacitus. Numismatic Notes and Monographs number 112. "Barbarous Radiates": Imitations of Third-Century Roman Coins", 1949, by Philip V. Hill, published by the American Numismatic Society Warren Esty on some references
Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami Maharaja known as Dr. Thoudam Damodara Singh, was a Gaudiya Vaishnava spiritual leader, scientist and poet. In 1971 he received spiritual initiation from A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. A few years he became one of the religious leaders of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. For more than thirty years he was the international director of the Bhaktivedanta Institute which promotes the study of the relationship between science and Vedanta. Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami Maharaja was a pioneer in "advancing the dialogue on synthesis of science and spirituality throughout the world", he was a co-founder and regional director of United Religions Initiative, a member of Metanexus Institute and founding rector of University of Bhagavata Culture in the State of Manipur. He authored and edited several books and organised a number of significant conferences and world congresses around the world, where a number of prominent scientists and religious leaders including several Nobel Laureates participated.
He was the Editor-in-chief of the Journal of the Bhaktivedanta Institute entitled, Savijnanam: Scientific Exploration for a Spiritual Paradigm. Thoudam Damodar was born in Toubul, part of the Bishnupur district, India, on 9 December 1937 to Sri Thoudam Yogendra Singh and Srimati Kanyahanbi Devi. During World War II on 10 May 1942, the Japanese began the Capital of Manipur. Yogendra Singh took his family to shelter in a barrack on the banks of the Yangoi river. In 1944, Yogendra died of typhoid; the war came to end, his uncle Thoudam Ibomcha Singh struggled through tough times to support him and shortly thereafter Thoudam Damodar was separated from his mother and younger sister. His elder sister Srimati Ahanbi Devi began to look after him; as a young boy, he learned how to till the land left by his father to help maintain himself and his sister. In 1949, his sister got married and he was left alone. Not wanting to burden anyone, he used to cultivate paddy for his livelihood. Living through hardships, Thoudam Damodar planned to give up schooling.
Seeing his adversity, Sri Thokchom Yadav Singh, his primary school teacher, approached his colleague Sri Thoudam Kerani Singh and requested to help Thoudam Damodar. Sri Thoudam Kerani Singh agreed, Thoudam Damodar moved into Sri Kerani's home. Thoudam Damodar received his BSc with honours from Gauhati University in 1961, his Master of Technology degree with honours from the University of Calcutta in 1964, his MSc in chemistry from Canisius College, New York in 1969, in 1974 completed his PhD in physical organic chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. Since he has been involved in dialogues with prominent scientists and religious leaders such as the Dalai Lama in the quest for a scientific understanding of the world through the vedantic paradigm. Thoudam Damodar Singh as a student at the University of California, Irvine had a good friend in Ray Ramananda Dasa, who became a student of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Ray Ramananda Dasa inspired T D Singh to meet Swami Prabhupada. After coming into contact with Swami Prabhupada and students of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Thoudam Damodar received spiritual initiation from him at the Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Los Angeles, on 30 June 1971, was given the name Svarupa Damodar das.
He studied the philosophy and practice of Vaishnavism for the following 8 years under the guidance of his spiritual master. Swami Prabhupada appointed Svarupa Damodar das as International Director of the Bhaktivedanta Institute in 1974 and a member of Governing Body Commission in March 1977. In 1980 he took sannyasa from Kirtanananda Swami. In 1982 he began to accept disciples. During his life, he provided a spiritual guidance to over a thousand of his disciples around the world, he is well known as Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Goswami Maharaja. On Srila Sripad Maharaja's 75th divine appearance day, one of his scientist disciple Bhakti Niskama Shanta Swami, Ph. D. wrote a summary of the services of Srila Sripad Maharaja under the banner of Bhaktivedanta Institute. In the honor of Srila Sripad Maharaja his scientist disciples are organizing an annual international conference series "Is Science Able to Explain the Scientist?" under the guidance of Sripad Bhakti Madhava Puri Maharaja, Ph. D.. Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami has contributed many papers in the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the Journal of Organic Chemistry in the field of fast proton transfer kinetics in model biological systems using stopped-flow technique and NMR spectroscopy.
He worked on gas phase reaction mechanisms using Ion Cyclotron Resonance spectroscopy. For more than thirty years he was the international director of the Bhaktivedanta Institute which promotes the study of the relationship between science and Vedanta. Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Goswami Maharaja was a pioneer in "advancing the dialogue on synthesis of science and spirituality throughout the world", he was a co-founder and regional director of United Religions Initiative and a member of Metanexus Institute. He authored and edited several books and organised several International conferences on science and religion, where a number of prominent scientists and religious leaders including several Nobel Laureates participated: First and Second World Congress for the Synthesis of Science and Religion, First International Conference on the Study of Consciousness within Science, "Second International Congress on
Francis de Wolff was an English character actor. Large and beetle-browed, he was cast as villains in both film and television. Born in Essex, he made his film debut in Flame in the Heather, made many other appearances in such films as Fire Over England, Treasure Island, Scrooge, as the Ghost of Christmas Present, Moby Dick, Saint Joan, From Russia with Love, Carry On Cleo, he is best remembered, however, as a supporting player in horror movies of the 1950s and 1960s, many of them for Hammer Films. These include Corridors of Blood, The Hound of the Baskervilles, The Man Who Could Cheat Death, The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll, Devil Doll, The Black Torment, his last film appearance was in The Three Musketeers. His television appearances include The Avengers, Richard the Lionheart, Danger Man, Doctor Who, The Saint, Rookery Nook, Paul Temple, Dixon of Dock Green, The Tomorrow People, the miniseries Jesus of Nazareth. Francis de Wolff at Find a Grave Francis de Wolff on IMDb