Corsican red deer
Corsican red deer known as Corsican or Sardinian deer, is a subspecies of the red deer, endemic to the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica. The Corsican deer is smaller than most of the 16 subspecies of red deer; the antlers are simplified and shorter less than 80 cm in length. Coat is brownish. Life expectancy is 13–14 years. Males reach a weight of 100 to 110 kg; the subspecies reach sexual maturity at 2 years of age. Mating can involve mortal battles; the dominant male secures most of the mature females a dozen per male. After gestation, in May–July, females hide alone in the maquis to deliver a single birth per female. Males leave the matriarchal group following the reproductive period; the Corsican red deer is an introduced species, brought to the islands some 8000 years ago. Today it lives in the wild in sanctuaries on both islands, for example it is bred in the Monte Arcosu Forest in Sardinia and in the Parc Naturel Régional de Corse, which covers 40% of the island, where it was reintroduced from Sardinia after its extinction in the 1970s.
The subspecies gets its name from the island of Corsica, from where it was however extirpated in the early 1970s. At that time, the less than 250 animals that still existed on Sardinia were protected and plans were elaborated for a reintroduction on Corsica. Captive breeding on the latter island began in 1985 and the population increased from 13 founders to 186 captive animals. Reintroduction could begin in 1998, as of 2007, the Corsican population was about 250 individuals with a total of about 1,000 for the subspecies which has therefore been downgraded to near threatened on the IUCN Red List. Insular dwarfism Sardinian dhole Hughes, Holly. "Regional Nature Park of Corsica: Welcome Home, Deer". Frommer's 500 Places to See. Frommer's. ISBN 0-470-18986-X. Kidjo, Nicolas. "Extirpation and reintroduction of the Corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus in Corsica". Oryx. Cambridge University Press: 488–494. Doi:10.1017/S0030605307012069
The even-toed ungulates are ungulates - hoofed animals - which bear weight on two of the five toes: their third and fourth toes. The other three toes are either present, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on one of the five toes: the third toe. Another difference between the two is that even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do; the aquatic cetaceans evolved from even-toed ungulates, so modern taxonomic classification sometimes combines the Artiodactyla and Cetacea into the Cetartiodactyla. The 220 land-based even-toed ungulate species include pigs, hippopotamuses, llamas, mouse deer, giraffes, sheep and cattle. Many of these are of great dietary and cultural importance to humans; the oldest fossils of even-toed ungulates date back to the early Eocene. Since these findings simultaneously appeared in Europe and North America, it is difficult to determine the origin of artiodactyls.
The fossils are classified as belonging to the family Dichobunidae. These were small animals, some as small as a hare, with a slim build, lanky legs, a long tail, their hind legs were much longer than their front legs. The early to middle Eocene saw the emergence of the ancestors of most of today's mammals. Two widespread, but now extinct, families of even-toed ungulates were Enteledontidae and Anthracotheriidae. Entelodonts existed from the middle Eocene to the early Miocene in North America, they had a stocky body with short legs and a massive head, characterized by two humps on the lower jaw bone. Anthracotheres had a large, porcine build, with an elongated muzzle; this group appeared in the middle Eocene up until the Pliocene, spread throughout Eurasia and North America. Anthracothereres are thought to be the ancestors of hippos, probably led a similar aquatic lifestyle. Hippopotamuses appeared in the late Miocene and occupied Africa and Asia – they never got to the Americas; the camels were, during large parts of the Cenozoic, limited to North America.
Among the North American camels were groups like the short-legged Merycoidodontidae. They first developed a great diversity of species in North America. Only in the late Miocene or early Pliocene did they migrate from North America into Eurasia; the North American varieties became extinct around 10,000 years ago. Suina have been around since the Eocene. In the late Eocene or the Oligocene, two families stayed in Africa. South America was settled by even-toed ungulates only in the Pliocene, after the land bridge at the Isthmus of Panama formed some three million years ago. With only the peccaries and various species of capreoline deer, South America has comparatively fewer artiodactyl families than other continents, except Australia, which has no native species; the classification of artiodactyls was hotly debated because the ocean-dwelling cetaceans evolved from the land-dwelling even-toed ungulates. Some semiaquatic even-toed ungulates are more related to the ocean-dwelling cetaceans than to the other even-toed ungulates.
This makes the Artiodactyla as traditionally defined a paraphyletic taxon, since it includes animals descended from a common ancestor, but does not include all of its descendants. Phylogenetic classification only recognizes monophyletic taxa. To address this problem, the traditional order Artiodactyla and infraorder Cetacea are sometimes subsumed into the more inclusive Cetartiodactyla taxon. An alternative approach is to include both land-dwelling even-toed ungulates and ocean-dwelling cetaceans in a revised Artiodactyla taxon. Order Artiodactyla/Clade CetartiodactylaSuborder Tylopoda Family †Anoplotheriidae? Family †Cainotheriidae Family †Merycoidodontidae Family †Agriochoeridae Family Camelidae: camels and lamoids or llamas Family †Oromerycidae Family †Xiphodontidae Clade Artiofabula Suborder Suina Family Suidae: pigs Family Tayassuidae: peccaries Family †Sanitheriidae Clade Cetruminantia Clade CetancodontamorphaGenus †Andrewsarchus? Family †Entelodontidae Suborder Whippomorpha Family †Raoellidae Superfamily Dichobunoidea – paraphyletic to Cetacea and Raoellidae Family †Dichobunidae Family †Helohyidae Family †Choeropotamidae Family †Cebochoeridae Family †Mixtotheriidae Infraorder Ancodonta Family †Anthracotheriidae – paraphyletic to Hippopotamidae Family Hippopotamidae: hippos Infraorder Cetacea: whales Parvorder †Archaeoceti Family †Pakicetidae Family †Ambulocetidae Family †Remingtonocetidae Family †Basilosauridae Parvorder Mysticeti: baleen whales Superfamily Balaenoidea: right whales Family Balaenidae: greater right whales Family Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whale Superfamily Balaenopteroidea: large baleen whales Family Balaenopteridae: slender-back rorquals and humpback whale Family Eschrichtiidae: gray whale Parvorder Odontoceti: toothed whales Superfamily Delphinoidea: oceanic dolphins and others Family Delphinidae: oceanic t
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process; as of 2018, Secretary-General of the CITES Secretariat is Ivonne Higuero. CITES is one of sustainable use agreements in existence. Participation is voluntary, countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention are known as Parties. Although CITES is binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws.
Rather it provides a framework respected by each Party, which must adopt their own domestic legislation to implement CITES at the national level. Domestic legislation is either non-existent, or with penalties with the gravity of the crime and insufficient deterrents to wildlife traders; as of 2002, 50% of Parties lacked one or more of the four major requirements for a Party: designation of Management and Scientific Authorities. Funding for the activities of the Secretariat and Conference of the Parties meetings comes from a Trust Fund derived from Party contributions. Trust Fund money is not available to Parties to improve compliance; these activities, all those outside Secretariat activities must find external funding from donor countries and regional organizations such as the European Union. Although the Convention itself does not provide for arbitration or dispute in the case of noncompliance, 36 years of CITES in practice has resulted in several strategies to deal with infractions by Parties.
The Secretariat, when informed of an infraction by a Party, will notify all other parties. The Secretariat will give the Party time to respond to the allegations and may provide technical assistance to prevent further infractions. Other actions the Convention itself does not provide for but that derive from subsequent COP resolutions may be taken against the offending Party; these include: Mandatory confirmation of all permits by the Secretariat Suspension of cooperation from the Secretariat A formal warning A visit by the Secretariat to verify capacity Recommendations to all Parties to suspend CITES related trade with the offending party Dictation of corrective measures to be taken by the offending Party before the Secretariat will resume cooperation or recommend resumption of tradeBilateral sanctions have been imposed on the basis of national legislation. Infractions may include negligence with respect to permit issuing, excessive trade, lax enforcement, failing to produce annual reports.
CITES addressed depletion resulting from demand for luxury goods such as furs in Western countries, but with the rising wealth of Asia in China, the focus changed to products demanded there those used for luxury goods such as ivory or shark fins or for superstitious purposes such as rhinoceros horn. As of 2013 the demand was massive and had expanded to include thousands of species considered unremarkable and in no danger of extinction such as manta rays or pangolins; the text of the Convention was finalized at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D. C. United States, on 3 March 1973, it was open for signature until 31 December 1974. It entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory country, on 1 July 1975. Countries that signed the Convention become Parties by accepting or approving it. By the end of 2003, all signatory countries had become Parties. States that were not signatories may become Parties by acceding to the Convention; as of October 2016, the Convention has 183 parties, including the European Union.
The CITES Convention includes rules for trade with non-Parties. All member states of the United Nations are party to the treaty, with the exception of Andorra, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, South Sudan, East Timor, Tonga and Tuvalu. UN observer the Holy See is not a member; the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country in the Kingdom of Denmark, is treated as a non-Party to CITES. An amendment to the text of the Convention, known as the Gaborone Amendment allows regional economic integration organizations, such as the European Union, to have the status of a member state and to be a Party to the Convention; the REIO can vote at CITES meetings with the number of votes representing the number of members in the REIO, but it does not have an additional vote. In accordance with Article XVII, paragraph 3, of the CITES Convention, the Gaborone Amendment entered into force on 29 November 2013, 60 days after 54 (tw
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia, central Asia, it inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Peru, Uruguay and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat from red deer is used as a food source. Red deer are ruminants, characterized by a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a species group, rather than a single species, although it remains disputed as to how many species the group includes; the related and larger American elk or wapiti, native to North America and eastern parts of Asia, had been regarded as a subspecies of red deer, but it has been established as a distinct species. It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia and resembled sika deer.
Although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction. Reintroduction and conservation efforts, such as in the United Kingdom and Portugal, have resulted in an increase of red deer populations, while other areas, such as North Africa, have continued to show a population decline; the red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind moose and sambar deer. It is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an number of toes on each hoof, like camels and cattle. European red deer have a long tail compared to their Asian and North American relatives. Subtle differences in appearance are noted between the various subspecies of red deer in size and antlers, with the smallest being the Corsican red deer found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and the largest being the Caspian red deer of Asia Minor and the Caucasus Region to the west of the Caspian Sea; the deer of central and western Europe vary in size, with some of the largest deer found in the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe.
Western European red deer grew to large size given ample food supply, descendants of introduced populations living in New Zealand and Argentina have grown quite large in both body and antler size. Large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are much smaller than their male counterparts; the male red deer is 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg. The tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. In Scotland, stags average 201 cm in head-and-body length and 122 cm high at the shoulder and females average 180 cm long and 114 cm tall. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer weighs about 80 to 100 kg, although red deer in poor habitats can weigh as little as 53 to 112 kg. European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats.
The males of many subspecies grow a short neck mane during the autumn. The male deer of the British Isles and Norway tend to have most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer and Spanish red deer do not carry neck manes. Male deer of all subspecies, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which may give them an appearance of having neck manes. Red deer hinds do not have neck manes; the European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlers, which start growing in the spring and are shed each year at the end of winter. Antlers measure 71 cm in total length and weigh 1 kg, although large ones can grow to 115 cm and weigh 5 kg. Antlers, which are made of bone, can grow at a rate of 2.5 cm a day. A soft covering known as velvet helps to protect newly forming antlers in the spring. European red deer antlers are distinctive in being rather straight and rugose, with the fourth and fifth tines forming a "crown" or "cup" in larger males. Any tines in excess of the fourth and fifth tine will grow radially from the cup, which are absent in the antlers of smaller red deer, such as Corsican red deer.
Western European red deer antlers feature "bez" tines that are either absent or smaller than the brow tines. However, bez tines occur in Norwegian red deer. Antlers of Caspian red deer carry large bez tines and form less-developed cups than western European red deer, their antlers are thus more like the "throw back" top tines of the wapiti, known as maraloid characteristics. A stag can have antlers with no tines, is known as a switch. A stag that does not grow antlers is a hummel; the antlers are testosterone-driven and as the stag's testosterone levels drop in the autumn, the velvet is shed and the antlers stop growing. With the approach of autumn, the antlers begin to calcify and the stags' testosterone production builds for the approaching rut. During the autumn, all red deer subspecies grow thicker coats of hair, which helps to insulate them during the winter. Autumn is when some of the stags grow their neck manes; the autumn/winter coat of most subspecies are most
An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected
Cervus is a genus of deer that are native to Eurasia, although one species occurs in northern Africa and another in North America. In addition to the species presently placed in this genus, it has included a whole range of other species now placed in other genera, but some of these should be returned to Cervus. Additionally, the species-level taxonomy is in a state of flux; until the 1970s, Cervus included the members of the genera Axis, Dama and Hyelaphus, until the late 1980s, it included members of Przewalskium and Rusa. With the exception of the chital, Schomburgk's deer, members of the genus Dama, genetic evidence suggests all should be returned to Cervus. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World from 2005, only the red deer and sika deer were recognized as species in the genus Cervus. Genetic and morphological evidence suggest. For example, the subspecies C. e. canadensis is considered by some to be a separate species. Within the red deer species group, some sources have recommended the elk or wapiti and central Asian red deer should be treated as species.
If the central Asian red deer is recognized as a species, it includes the Yarkand deer and Bactrian deer, but it could also include the Kashmir stag, which has not been sampled in recent studies. If it is included in the Central Asian red deer, the scientific name of that species is C. hanglu. If it is not included, the scientific name of that species is C. yarkandensis, the Kashmir stag may represent a separate monotypic species. Others members of the red deer group, which may represent separate species, are C. corsicanus, C. wallichii and C. xanthopygus. If so, C. corsicanus includes the subspecies C. c. barbarus, is restricted to Maghreb in North Africa and Sardinia. C. wallichii would include the subspecies C. w. kansuensis and C. w. macneilli, would be found from Tibet to central China. C. xanthopygus would include the subspecies C. x. alashanicus, would be found from the Russian Far East to northeastern China. This would restrict the "true" red deer to Europe, Anatolia and northwestern Iran, the elk/wapiti to North America and the Asian regions of Tian Shan and Great Khingan.
Alternatively, the barbarus group species are subspecies of the "true" red deer, while the C. wallichii and C. xanthopygus groups are subspecies of the elk/wapiti. The sika deer should be split into four species based on genetics and voice, although this may be premature based on the presently available evidence. If split, the potential species are C. yesoensis from northern and central Japan, C. nippon of southern Japan, C. hortulorum of mainland Asia, C. taiouanus of Taiwan. Members of the genus Cervus have polygynous mating systems within harems; these harems consist of several males, numerous females and their young offspring 1–3 years in age Members of this genus have a yearly breeding season where they display sensory exploitation, intrasexual competition, weaponry. Females will fight for optimal mating opportunities and sexually selection for males with larger antler size and/or greater roar quality; the degree of polygyny and female aggregation is dependent on the level of food distribution.
Females aggregating in areas with more food leading to larger harems Female distribution influences the level of polygyny. Female-female competition has been observed within harems in the red deer species prior to and during the mating season. Aggression is displayed through nose threats and displacements. Elevated aggression has only been observed during the breeding season. Competition can be for access to reproductive resources such as food, or nesting areas. Female-female aggression in ungulates is overlooked because it is not as extravagant as male antler combat. Female conflicts occur so the winner has first access to the harem male at the start of the mating season before he is exhausted or low on sperm storage. While an emphasis in observations of sexual selection is placed on combat using antlers, males with higher roaring rates are being selected for. During the breeding season males will make calls to compete with other males. Like antler size, mating call quality is an indicator of mate potential.
Red deer can distinguish the calls of the males in their harem and their offspring. Females select for males with larger antlers. Large antler size in males is a sign of strength; the visual display is a reliable indicator of mate quality. The females are not directly affected by these characteristics, but they will produce more viable and fit offspring. Males with large antlers sire more offspring than smaller, younger males. Large antler size is correlated with overall health, fitness and an increase in sperm production and quality. "Cervus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System