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Barbed tape

Barbed tape or razor wire is a mesh of metal strips with sharp edges whose purpose is to prevent passage by humans. The term "razor wire", through long usage, has been used to describe barbed tape products. Razor wire is much sharper than the standard barbed wire; the points are sharp and made to rip and snag clothing and flesh. The multiple blades of a razor-wire fence are designed to inflict serious cuts on anyone attempting to climb through and therefore have a strong psychological deterrent effect. Razor wire is used in many high-security applications because, although it can be circumvented quickly by humans with tools, penetrating a razor-wire barrier without tools is slow and difficult, giving security forces more time to respond. Starting in the late 1960s, barbed tape was found in prisons and secure mental hospitals, where the increased breaching time for a poorly equipped potential escapee was a definite advantage; until the development of reinforced barbed tape in the early 1980s, it was used for military purposes or genuine high security facilities because, with the correct tools, it was easier to breach than barbed wire.

Since some military forces have replaced barbed wire with barbed tape for many applications because it is lighter for the same effective coverage and it takes up little space compared to barbed wire or reinforced barbed tape when stored on drums. More barbed tape has been used in more commercial and residential security applications; this is primarily a visual deterrent since a well-prepared burglar can breach barbed wire and barbed tape barriers in similar amounts of time, using simple techniques such as cutting the wire or throwing a piece of carpet over its strands. Due to its dangerous nature, razor wire/barbed tape and similar fencing/barrier materials is prohibited in some locales. Norway prohibits any barbed wire except in combination with other fencing, in order to protect domesticated animals from exposure. Razor wire has a central strand of high tensile strength wire, a steel tape punched into a shape with barbs; the steel tape is cold-crimped to the wire everywhere except for the barbs.

Flat barbed tape is similar, but has no central reinforcement wire. The process of combining the two is called roll forming. Like barbed wire, razor wire is available as either straight wire, spiral coils, concertina coils, flat wrapped panels or welded mesh panels. Unlike barbed wire, available only as plain steel or galvanized, barbed tape razor wire is manufactured in stainless steel to reduce corrosion from rusting; the core wire can be galvanized and the tape stainless, although stainless barbed tape is used for permanent installations in harsh climatic environments or under water. Barbed tape is characterized by the shape of the barbs. Although there are no formal definitions short barb barbed tape has barbs from 10-mm to 12-mm long, medium barb tape has barbs 20-mm to 22-mm long, long barb tape has barbs from 60 to 66-mm long. Helical type: Helical type razor wire is the most simple pattern. There are no concertina attachments and each spiral loop is left, it shows a natural spiral freely.

Concertina type: It is the most used type in the security defense applications. The adjacent loops of helical coils are attached by clips at specified points on the circumference, it shows an accordion-like configuration condition. Blade type: The razor wire are produced in straight lines and cut into a certain length to be welded onto the galvanized or powder coated frame, it can be used individually as a security barrier. Flat type: A popular razor wire type with flat and smooth configuration. According to different technology, it can be the welded type. Welded type: The razor wire tape are welded into panels the panels are connected by clips or tie wires to form a continuous razor wire fence. Flattened type: A transformation of single coil concertina razor wire; the concertina wire is flattened to form the flat-type razor wire. Single coil: Commonly seen and used type, available in both helical and concertina types. Double coil: A complex razor wire type to supply higher security grade. A smaller diameter coil is placed inside of the larger diameter coil.

It is available in both helical and concertina types. Access control Environmental design Physical security Wire obstacle Concertina wire Media related to Barbed tapes at Wikimedia Commons

Federalist No. 70

Federalist No. 70, titled "The Executive Department Further Considered", is an essay written by Alexander Hamilton arguing for the unitary executive provided for in the United States Constitution. It was published on March 15, 1788 in The New York Packet under the pseudonym Publius as part of The Federalist Papers and as the fourth in Hamilton's series of eleven essays discussing executive power. Hamilton argues that unity in the executive branch is a main ingredient for both safety. Energy arises from the proceedings of a single person, characterized by, "decision, activity and dispatch," while safety arises from the unitary executive's unconcealed accountability to the people. Before ratifying the Constitution in 1787, the thirteen states were bound by the Articles of Confederation, which authorized the Continental Congress to conduct foreign diplomacy and granted sovereignty to the states. By 1787, both Congress and the states had accumulated considerable debt from the Revolutionary War, but the Articles of Confederation denied Congress the powers of taxation and regulation of foreign and interstate commerce.

Alexander Hamilton, along with many other Framers, believed the solution to this and problems of federal law enforcement could be solved with a strong general government. Alexander Hamilton admired the British monarchy, sought to create a strong unitary executive in the United States. One of the major influences on his thinking was political theorist, Jean-Louis de Lolme who praised the English monarchy for being "sufficiently independent and sufficiently controlled." In Federalist No. 70, Hamilton cites De Lolme to support his argument that a unitary executive will have the greatest accountability to the people. Hamilton was inspired by William Blackstone and John Locke, who favored an executive who would act on his own prerogative while maintaining respect for constitutional obligations. Montesquieu and Aristotle, all of whom argued for strength in the executive served as inspiration for the arguments in Federalist No. 70. In fact, Hamilton's call for energy in the executive. 70, mirrors Montesquieu's preference for a "vigor" in the executive.

During the Constitutional Convention in May 1787, Hamilton proposed a plan of government, dubbed the "British Plan," featuring a powerful unitary executive serving for life, or during good behavior. Though this plan was rejected, James Wilson's proposal for a unitary executive, which Hamilton supported, was upheld with a vote of seven to three; as part of the Federalists' effort to encourage the ratification of the Constitution, Hamilton published Federalist No. 70 to convince the states of the necessity of unity in the executive branch. Federalist No. 70 argues in favor of the unitary executive created by Article II of the United States Constitution. According to Alexander Hamilton, a unitary executive is necessary to: ensure accountability in government enable the president to defend against legislative encroachments on his power ensure "energy" in the executive. Hamilton argues that a unitary executive structure will best permit purpose and flexibility in the executive branch—especially necessary during times of emergency and warfare.

According to Hamilton, a unitary executive is best-suited to promoting accountability in government because it is easier to point blame at one person than to distinguish fault among members of a group. Because a unitary executive cannot "cloak" his failings by blaming council members, he has a strong incentive towards good behavior in office. Accountability, made easier by the existence of a unitary executive, thus promotes effective and representative governance. Hamilton bolsters his argument by claiming that misconduct and disagreements among members of the council of Rome contributed to the Empire's decline, he warns at the end of Federalist No. 70 that America should be more afraid of reproducing the plural executive structure of Rome than of the "ambition of a single individual." Beyond supporting a unitary executive, Hamilton recommends strength in the executive branch. Hamilton justifies executive strength by claiming that the slow-moving Congress, a body designed for deliberation, will be best-balanced by a quick and decisive executive.

Hamilton maintains that governmental balance can only be achieved if each branch of government has enough autonomous power such that tyranny of one branch over the others cannot occur. Alexander Hamilton writes that energy in the executive is "the leading character in the definition of good government." Some scholars equate Hamiltonian "energy" to presidential "activity," while others describe energy as a president's eagerness to act on the behalf on his constituents. In Federalist No. 70, Hamilton lists four ingredients that constitute this energy: unity duration an adequate provision for its support competent powers Hamilton's core argument revolves around unity in the executive, meaning the Constitution's vesting of executive power in a single president by Article II of the United States Constitution. His argument centers upon unity's promotion of executive energy. In Federalist No. 70, Alexander Hamilton writes: Those politicians and statesmen who have been the most celebrated for the soundness of their principles and for the justice of their views, have declared in favor of a single Executive....

They have with great propriety, considered energy as the most necessary qualification and have regarded this as most applicable to power in a single hand... According to Hamilton, unity contributes to energy by permitting necessary "decision, activity and dispatch" in the executive branch. At the same time, a unitary executive is incentivized to act on behalf of his con

St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception Church (Wilmington, Delaware)

St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception is a historic Roman Catholic church located at 600 E Sixth St. in Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware. St. Mary's is the only church in Delaware associated with Saint John Neumann, Bishop of Philadelphia 1852-1860, who consecrated it in 1858; the church and adjacent St. Mary's school were the principal institutions for worship and the education and integration of thousands of Irish immigrants in Wilmington, most of whom lived in the parish upon first arriving; the church was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. The original church property was purchased by Bishop Francis Kenrick in 1848 while the Wilmington area was part of the Diocese of Philadelphia. In 1858, the church was consecrated by Bishop John Nepomucene Neumann CSsR of Philadelphia. Father Patrick Reilly was the first pastor; the church is a brick building trimmed in limestone and measuring about 100 feet long and 60 feet wide. The front facade features three brick towers.

The dome on the center tower replaced an original wooden belfry and smaller dome destroyed by fire in March 1966. The parochial Catholic school, St. Mary's, was built on the adjacent property in 1866. St. Mary's parish became part of the Catholic Diocese of Wilmington at its inception in 1868. Bishop Neumann was beatified during the Second Vatican Council on October 13, 1963, was canonized on June 19, 1977 by Blessed Pope Paul VI. In commemoration of his canonization, the parish secured a life-sized image of the new saint from the well-known local sculptor Charles Parks; the small, close-knit, racially mixed parish continues to be an oasis of faith on the East Side of the city