Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Hi Tech Expressions
Hi Tech Expressions was an American video game publisher and developer headquartered in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The company was established in 1988. During the course of its existence, the company published juvenile-oriented games. While it published a few adolescent-oriented games including The Hunt for Red October and War in Middle Earth, it could not shake its reputation for publishing games marketed towards children. Beethoven's 2nd The Hunt for Red October Mickey's Ultimate Challenge Tom and Jerry Tom and Jerry: Frantic Antics We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story Barbie Super Model Barbie: Vacation Adventure A Dinosaur's Tale Tom and Jerry: Frantic Antics Barbie The Chessmaster City Connection Fun House The Hunt for Red October Mickey's Adventures in Numberland Mickey's Safari in Letterland Muppet Adventure: Chaos at the Carnival Orb-3D Remote Control Rollerblade Racer Sesame Street: 1-2-3 Sesame Street: A-B-C Sesame Street: A-B-C/1-2-3 Sesame Street: Big Bird's Hide and Speak Sesame Street: Countdown Tom and Jerry Twin Peaks War in Middle Earth Win, Lose or Draw Barbie Super Model Beethoven: The Ultimate Canine Caper Bobby's World Harley's Humongous Adventure The Hunt for Red October Mickey's Ultimate Challenge Tom and Jerry We're Back!
A Dinosaur's Story Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? Barbie Bugs Bunny: The Hare-Brained Adventure Chip & Dale Rescue Rangers: Adventures in Nimnul's Castle Daffy Duck PI: Case of the Missing Letters Gremlins 2: The New Batch Mega Man Mega Man III Ninja Gaiden Street Fighter II Tom and Jerry Tom and Jerry: Yankee Doodle's CAT-astrophe Beethoven's 2nd The Flintstones: Dino: Lost in Bedrock The Jetsons: By George, in Trouble Again
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere and undergo changes on the Earth's surface. It pertains to frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size and accumulate on surfaces metamorphose in place, melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles and rime; as snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering and freeze-thaw. Where the climate is cold enough for year-to-year accumulation, a glacier may form. Otherwise, snow melts seasonally, causing runoff into streams and rivers and recharging groundwater. Major snow-prone areas include the polar regions, the upper half of the Northern Hemisphere and mountainous regions worldwide with sufficient moisture and cold temperatures.
In the Southern Hemisphere, snow is confined to mountainous areas, apart from Antarctica. Snow affects such human activities as transportation: creating the need for keeping roadways and windows clear. Snow affects ecosystems, as well, by providing an insulating layer during winter under which plants and animals are able to survive the cold. Snow develops in clouds; the physics of snow crystal development in clouds results from a complex set of variables that include moisture content and temperatures. The resulting shapes of the falling and fallen crystals can be classified into a number of basic shapes and combinations, thereof; some plate-like and stellar-shaped snowflakes can form under clear sky with a cold temperature inversion present. Snow clouds occur in the context of larger weather systems, the most important of, the low pressure area, which incorporate warm and cold fronts as part of their circulation. Two additional and locally productive sources of snow are lake-effect storms and elevation effects in mountains.
Mid-latitude cyclones are low pressure areas which are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild snow storms to heavy blizzards. During a hemisphere's fall and spring, the atmosphere over continents can be cold enough through the depth of the troposphere to cause snowfall. In the Northern Hemisphere, the northern side of the low pressure area produces the most snow. For the southern mid-latitudes, the side of a cyclone that produces the most snow is the southern side. A cold front, the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, can produce frontal snowsqualls—an intense frontal convective line, when temperature is near freezing at the surface; the strong convection that develops has enough moisture to produce whiteout conditions at places which line passes over as the wind causes intense blowing snow. This type of snowsquall lasts less than 30 minutes at any point along its path but the motion of the line can cover large distances. Frontal squalls may form a short distance ahead of the surface cold front or behind the cold front where there may be a deepening low pressure system or a series of trough lines which act similar to a traditional cold frontal passage.
In situations where squalls develop post-frontally it is not unusual to have two or three linear squall bands pass in rapid succession only separated by 25 miles with each passing the same point in 30 minutes apart. In cases where there is a large amount of vertical growth and mixing the squall may develop embedded cumulonimbus clouds resulting in lightning and thunder, dubbed thundersnow. A warm front can produce snow for a period, as warm, moist air overrides below-freezing air and creates precipitation at the boundary. Snow transitions to rain in the warm sector behind the front. Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward shores; the same effect occurs over bodies of salt water, when it is termed ocean-effect or bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the moving air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores.
This uplifting can produce narrow but intense bands of precipitation, which deposit at a rate of many inches of snow each hour resulting in a large amount of total snowfall. The areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts; these include areas east of the Great Lakes, the west coasts of northern Japan, the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, areas near the Great Salt Lake, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Baltic Sea, parts of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Orographic or relief snowfall is caused when masses of air pushed by wind are forced up the side of elevated land formations, such as large mountains; the lifting of air up the side of a mountain or range results in adiabatic cooling, condensation and precipitation. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier, warmer air on the leeward side; the resulting enhanced productivity of snow fall and the decrease in temperature with elevation means that snow depth
Barbie as Rapunzel
Barbie as Rapunzel is a 2002 American-Canadian direct-to-DVD computer-animated fairytale film directed by Owen Hurley. It is the 2nd entry in the Barbie film series, features the voice of Kelly Sheridan as Barbie; the film is adapted from the Brothers Grimm fairy tale "Rapunzel". This was the first Barbie direct-to-video release to be distributed by Right Entertainment in the UK. Barbie tells a story to her little sister Kelly, who doesn't have confidence in her painting abilities. Rapunzel lives as a servant to the evil witch Gothel, she grows up believing. Rapunzel finds companionship in Penelope, an outgoing dragon, Hobie, a worrisome and anxious rabbit. Rapunzel spends what free time she has painting beautiful pictures of places she dreams of going when she is free one day. However, Gothel disapproves of Rapunzel's hobbies and accuses her of not appreciating everything that Gothel has done for her. While preparing tea for Gothel, Penelope accidentally finds a secret staircase which leads to an old room below the manor.
In it they discover a gift from her parents who deserted her: a silver hairbrush engraved with a message from her biological parents. She discovers a tunnel leading to the nearby village. Rapunzel takes this path to the small kingdom and is able to rescue a young princess named Katrina from a pitfall. Soon after, Rapunzel is introduced to Prince Stefan, he explains to her that the trap Katrina managed to escape was put there by King Wilhelm, the ruler of an opposing kingdom. Enchanted by the mysterious maiden, Stefan asks to meet her again, to which she agrees, though their meeting is ended abruptly before Stefan can tell her his name. Rapunzel rushes back to the woods to avoid being discovered by Gothel. Unknown to Rapunzel, Gothel's pet ferrett, has witnessed the entire exchange. A furious Gothel demands Rapunzel to tell her the prince's name. Rapunzel insists that she does not know it, but Gothel does not believe her, thinking Rapunzel has been lying. Rapunzel tells her. Gothel destroys Rapunzel's paints and paintings before transforming the bedroom into a more secure escape-proof tower and stations Hugo, Penelope's father, outside.
Gothel refuses to let Rapunzel go. That night, Rapunzel has a dream, he came up by climbing her long hair. When up there, they are about to kiss. Rapunzel wakes up and reads the engraving on the hairbrush, she realizes. Going back to sleep, a shower of light turns the hairbrush into a paintbrush. Rapunzel is left alone with Hobie and Penelope, who cheer her up with new paint to replace the ones taken away from by Gothel. Hobie discovers the paintbrush, Rapunzel begins to paint, it soon becomes clear that she doesn't need paint, whatever she paints becomes real. Rapunzel paints the village and uses the painting as a portal, arriving at the palace gardens and meeting Stefan, she shows him the brush and asks for help to find its maker, but insists that he never tell her his name, worrying that Gothel will find out. She meets a silversmith; the silversmith has not seen his brother in years, making him upset. Stefan realizes. Afterward, Stefan asks Rapunzel to a masked ball, she replies. He tells that her hair is a'beautiful give-away.'
Penelope soon arrives via the painting and explains that Gothel is coming, they must leave so that Hugo will not be punished. Rapunzel leaves; when back at the tower, Rapunzel uses the paintbrush to paint herself a beautiful costume. Hobie and Penelope provide a mask; the paintbrush's magic light can be seen and Otto sneaks in. He steals the invitation without their notice and presents it to Gothel. Gothel arrives at the tower, cuts off Rapunzel's hair, shatters the paintbrush, she manages to destroy the painting of the village. Because she thinks Rapunzel refused to tell the truth, Gothel angrily puts a spell on her tower, which eternally holds people who lie. Gothel storms to King Fredrick and Stefan's castle. Back at the tower, Rapunzel manages to escape with the help of Penelope and Hugo, as the spell only works if the prisoner is a liar, which Rapunzel is not, so it allows her to leave, she rushes to save Stefan and his family by riding on Penelope who overcome her fear of heights. Stefan is lured away from the party by Gothel, disguised as Rapunzel.
Gothel begins her attack. King Wilhelm comes before King Fredrick, hoping to end the feud by force, it is revealed that the source of the feud is that Wilhelm believes Fredrick kidnapped his daughter, missing since she was an infant. Fredrick replies that he planned nothing of the sort and he has no idea where Wilhelm's daughter is, to which Gothel reveals that she took Rapunzel because Wilhelm "loved" her but married another woman. Rapunzel arrives just in time to stop them from fighting, King Wilhelm recognizes her as his daughter; the witch attacks Rapunzel with magic. As Rapunzel runs into the royal maze, she remembers the magic painting of the tower, still there and tricks Gothel into running into it. Gothel finds herself in Rapunzel's tower, where Hugo reminds her she can't escape, as she has a lying heart. Rapunzel is reunited with her biological
Roller skating is the traveling on surfaces with roller skates. It is a form of recreational activity as well as a sport, can be a form of transportation. In fact, as the United States readied for World War II, the government entertained the notion to add roller skates as essential equipment to move infantry around Europe to save gas. Skates come in three basic varieties: quad roller skates, inline skates or blades and tri-skates, though some have experimented with a single-wheeled "quintessence skate" or other variations on the basic skate design. In America, this hobby was most popular first between 1935 and the early 1960s and in the 1970s, when polyurethane wheels were created and disco music oriented roller rinks were the rage and again in the 1990s when in-line outdoor roller skating, thanks to the improvement made to inline roller skates in 1981 by Scott Olson, took hold. Roller skating has had a checkered past over its nearly-three century history. Given its ebb and flow of popularity over the past century, writers labeled each generation's attraction a "craze!"
The caption in a 1904 Decatur newspaper read, "Old Craze Comes Back," adding, "Roller skating promises to be as popular as it was twenty years ago." Reported on October 11, 1904, the statement announced the opening events of a new Decatur, Illinois roller rink. In 1906, with the opening of another Chicago rink, the Inter Ocean newspaper complained that "after twenty years of exemption from the affliction the desire to roll is again taking possession of American adults...the mania has struck Chicago!" Nearly forty years Charlie Tyler would write, "This current roller skating'craze' is nothing new." Tyler wrote for Chicago's Herald-American in September 1941 and described the opening of Chicago's Madison Gardens Rink's thirty-fifth season on the eve of World War II. Tyler was referring to the first roller skate craze at the turn of the twentieth century, when ball bearings revolutionized roller technology and roller skaters staged spectacle events and speed-skating marathons. Clamp-on skates were mass-produced for those with great aspirations.
Tyler's reporting attempted to temper the rebirth of enthusiasm for the new roller styles that had become popular, including roller derby and dancing on rollers, suggesting that we had seen this before. Today, the acceptance for roller skating is not unlike a waning moon but the sport persists. Roller skating continues to thrive as a part of pop culture in the form of recreation for leisure and sport. Rollers and present are diehards. 1743: First recorded use of roller skates, in a London stage performance. The inventor of this skate is unknown. 1760: First recorded skate invention, by John Joseph Merlin, who created a primitive inline skate with small metal wheels. 1818: Roller skates appeared on the ballet stage in Berlin. 1819: First patented roller skate design, in France by M. Petitbled; these early skates were similar to today's inline skates, but they were not maneuverable. It was difficult with these skates to do anything but move in a straight line and make wide sweeping turns. Rest of the 19th century: inventors continued to work on improving skate design.
1823: Robert John Tyers of London patented a skate called the Rolito. This skate had five wheels in a single row on the bottom of a boot. 1857: Finally, roller skating had gained enough momentum to warrant the opening of the first public skating rinks. The Strand and Floral Hall had these first roller rinks. 1863: The four-wheeled turning roller skate, or quad skate, with four wheels set in two side-by-side pairs, was first designed, in New York City by James Leonard Plimpton in an attempt to improve upon previous designs. The skate contained a pivoting action using a rubber cushion that allowed the skater to skate a curve just by pressing his weight to one side or the other, most by leaning to one side, it was a huge success, so much so that the first public roller skating rinks were opened in 1866, first in New York City by Plimpton in his furniture store and in Newport, Rhode Island with the support of Plimpton. The design of the quad skate allowed easier turns and maneuverability, the quad skate came to dominate the industry for more than a century.
1875 Roller skating rink in Plymouth, England held its first competition.) 1876: William Brown in Birmingham, patented a design for the wheels of roller skates. Brown's design embodied his effort to keep the two bearing surfaces of an axle and moving, apart. Brown worked with Joseph Henry Hughes, who drew up the patent for a ball or roller bearing race for bicycle and carriage wheels in 1877. Hughes' patent included all the elements of an adjustable system; these two men are thus responsible for modern roller skate and skateboard wheels, as well as the ball bearing race inclusion in velocipedes—later to become motorbikes and automobiles. This was arguably the most important advance in the realistic use of roller skates as a pleasurable pastime. 1876: The toe stop was first patented. This provided skaters with the ability to stop promptly upon tipping the skate onto the toe. Toe stops are still used today on some types of inline skates. 1877: The Royal Skating indoor skating ring building is erected rue Veydt, Brussels.
1880s: Roller skates were being mass-produced in America from then. This was the sport's first of several boom periods. Micajah C. Henley of Richmond, Indiana produced thousands of skates every week during peak sales. Henley skates were the first skate with adjustable tension via a screw, the ancestor of the kingbolt mechanism on modern quad skates. 1884: Levant M. Richardson received a patent for the use of steel ball bearings in skate wheels to reduce friction, allowing skaters to increase speed
The Barbie Basics is a line of collector's edition Barbie dolls. They were created by Mattel designer Bill Greening and were introduced in late 2009 to be released in the spring of 2010. From their name, the dolls are dressed in "basic" clothing that women have in their closets; the debut collection featured the best-known fashion staple: the little black dress. The dolls have the so-called collector-only ModelMuse body sculpt; the posing of the arms varies from doll to doll and some have different stances. All the dolls have differing head molds, skin tones and ethnicities; the male dolls introduced in Collection 002 feature the MaleMuse body created for the Twilight Edward Cullen doll in 2009. In Collection 002.5, female Basics dolls featured an articulated ModelMuse body. The dolls are part of the Black Label collection which, unlike some Barbie lines, is for adult collectors only; the first collection featured 12 dolls wearing 4 accessory packs. The second wave of the collection only featured 4 dolls and showcased little black dresses with pink ribbon accents, along with another 2 new accessory packs.
The third wave was a Target store exclusive which featured 3 dolls wearing little red dresses and a new accessory pack. Collection 002 debuted in the spring of 2011. In the collection, there are 12 dolls and the theme is jeans and T-shirts. Collection 002.5 was announced to collectors in February 2011 and featured three dolls and two accessory sets. These dolls feature a first for the Basics line; the dolls are dressed in jeans with metallic-finish earrings. A second version of Collection Red was released with 1 new accessory pack and 3 dolls wearing red shirts and white jeans. Collection 003, the third and final collection, debuted in the spring of 2012. There are 6 dolls and 2 new accessory packs and the theme is colorful swimsuits; the featured dolls are numbered instead. Each of the dolls has a different head mold; some of the molds are popularly used in the Barbie Collector line. Mattel's head molds are but not always, named after the doll/character/line in which they debuted. "Model No. 1" has pale skin and bleached blond hair in Collection 001, Collection Red and Collection Red 2.
She appeared as a raven-haired brunette in Collection 001.5. She reappeared in Collection 002 with sandy blond hair and a tanner skin tone, she uses the Mackie head mold. Her head mold is by far the most popular of all the molds in the line and has been used for the character of Barbie for both the main and collector lines since its creation. "Model No. 2" has peach skin and long chestnut brown hair in Collection 001. She reappears in Collection 002 with shorter hair, she becomes an African-American doll in Collection Red 2 with light-brown curly hair. She is revamped in Collection 003, where she has wine-red hair and the same skin tone as in Collection 001, she uses the Lara head mold, used for the collector line's designer Barbie dolls. The head mold was named after Lara, one of Barbie's friends from the Generation Girl line back in 1999. "Model No. 3" has peach skin and long auburn hair in Collection Red. She appeared with curly red hair in Collection 001.5. In Collection 002, her whole look is revamped and she has pale skin and curly blond hair.
In Collection Red 2, she has long black hair in a ponytail. She uses the Steffie head mold, it was first used for Barbie's friend Steffie back in 1971. Other notable characters who used the head mold are PJ, Midge and Summer. "Model No. 4" has cropped curly black hair and has the darkest skin tone in Collection 001. She is revamped in Collection 002, where she has tan skin and long red hair, she is featured with a light tan skin tone and dark brown hair. She is, revamped in Collection 003, where she has tan skin and long golden-blond hair, she uses the Goddess head mold, first used on the Fantasy Goddess of Africa doll from the Bob Mackie International Beauty Collection in 1999 and for the Classical Goddess line of dolls in 2000. "Model No. 5" is an East Asian doll with long black hair in Collection 001 and Collection 002. She is featured with the same look in Collection 003, she uses the Kayla/Lea head mold, named after two of Barbie's friends of the same name. This popular head mold has been used for Barbie's ethnic Asian friends in the main line as well as for several Asian-themed dolls in the collector line.
"Model No. 6" has tan skin and long golden-blond hair in both Collection 001 and Collection 001.5. Her head mold was first used for the LeAnn Rimes doll in 2003 and for the David's Bridal Eternal doll in 2004. Despite this, the head mold is named Carnaval after the 2006 Carnaval Barbie doll from the Dolls of the World line. Mattel calls it the BeBe sculpt. "Model No. 7" has peach skin and long ginger hair in Collection 001. She reappeared in Collection 002 with the same skin tone, she is revamped in Collection 003 where she has pale skin and