North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nationss definition of Northern Africa is, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, the countries of Algeria, Morocco and Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, which is the Arabic word for sunset. Egypt lies to the northeast and encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia. North Africa includes a number of Spanish possessions, the Canary Islands and Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region. From 3500 BC, following the abrupt desertification of the Sahara due to changes in the Earths orbit. The Islamic influence in the area is significant, and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration.
The Atlas Mountains extend across much of Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia, are part of the mountain system that runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, the sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of which is more than four billion years old. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, a wide variety of valuable crops including cereals and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs and citrus fruits, the Nile Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve yields on the desert margins. The inhabitants of Saharan Africa are generally divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa, the Maghreb, the Nile valley. The edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt has mainly been inhabited by Nubians, Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber, as well as Nubians from the south.
They have contributed to the Arabized Berber populations, the official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa is Arabic. The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic, the Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are more conservative than those of the coastal cities. Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with cultures, Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, Europeans
Marj is an administrative division of northeastern Libya, lying on the Mediterranean Sea coast. Its administrative seat is the city of Marj, which was known as Barca. Marj is situated on the Cyrenaica Plateau at the edge of the Jebel Akhdar. In the 2007 administrative reorganization part of the territory formerly in Al Hizam al Akhdar District was transferred to Al Marj, in the north, Marj has a shoreline on the Mediterranean Sea. On land, it borders Jabal al Akhdar in the east, Al Wahat in south, per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans. The average size of the household in the country was 6.9, there were totally 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones. The population density of the district was 1.86 persons per sq. km, per 2006 census, there were totally 13,313 economically active people in the district. Libya has mostly an undulating plain and occasional plateau, with an average elevation of around 423 m. Around 91 per cent of the land is covered by desert, the major resources are petroleum and natural gas.
Along the coastal regions, the climate is Mediterranean in coastal areas, dust storms lasting four to eight days is pretty common during Spring. Triplotania is the northwest region, while it is Cyrenacia in the east, Cyrenacia is the largest region in Libya, which is mostly semi arid in nature. The region receives a rainfall of 5 in. There are no rivers in the region, but the region is abundant with groundwater aquifers. Per the census of 2012, the population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans. The average size of the household in the country was 6.9, there were totally 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones. The population density of the district was 1.86 persons per sq. km, per 2006 census, there were totally 13,313 economically active people in the district. There were 6,295 government employees,2,178 employers,6,454 first level workers and 001 second level workers, the total enrollment in schools was 17,364 and the number of people above secondary stage and less than graduation was 875.
Islam is the state and major religion of the country, Libya became independent in 1951 from the colonial empire and generally known for its oil rich resources
A caliphate is an area containing an Islamic steward known as a caliph —a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet, and a leader of the entire Muslim community. During the history of Islam after the Rashidun period, many Muslim states, the Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt, before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root. The term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means successor, however, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phrase was successor selected by God. There was no specified procedure for this shura or consultation, candidates were usually, but not necessarily, from the same lineage as the deceased leader. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual heir, Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr was chosen by the community and that this was the proper procedure.
Sunnis further argue that a caliph should ideally be chosen by election or community consensus, the Shia believe that Ali, the son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad, was chosen by Muhammad as his spiritual and temporal successor as the Mawla of all Muslims in the event of Ghadir Khumm. The caliph was often known as Amir al-Muminin, Muhammad established his capital in Medina, after he died, it remained the capital during the Rashidun Caliphate, before Kufa was reportedly made the capital by Caliph Ali. At times there have been rival claimant caliphs in different parts of the Islamic world, according to Sunni Muslims, the first caliph to be called Amir al-Muminin was Abu Bakr, followed by Umar, the second of the Rashidun. Uthman and Ali were called by the title, while the Shia consider Ali to have been the only truly legitimate caliph. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk officially abolished the system of Caliphate in Islam as part of his secular reforms, the Kings of Morocco still label themselves with the title Amir al-Muminin for the Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate.
Some Muslim countries, including Somalia and Malaysia, were never subject to the authority of a Caliphate, with the exception of Aceh, these countries had their own, sultans or rulers who did not fully accept the authority of the Caliph. Abu Bakr, the first successor of Muhammad, nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, the second caliph, was killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. His successor, was elected by a council of electors, Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Ali took control but was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt and he faced two major rebellions and was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Khawarij. Alis tumultuous rule lasted only five years and this period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. The followers of Ali became the Shia minority sect of Islam, the followers of all four Rashidun Caliphs became the majority Sunni sect. Under the Rashidun each region of the Caliphate had its own governor, Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor of Syria, succeeded Ali as Caliph
Catechetical School of Alexandria
The Catechetical School of Alexandria was a school of Christian theologians and priests in Alexandria. The teachers and students of the school were influential in many of the theological controversies of the Christian church. It was one of the two centers of the study of biblical exegesis and theology during Late Antiquity, the other being the School of Antioch. According to Jerome the Alexandrian school was founded by Mark the Apostle, the earliest recorded dean was supposedly Athenagoras. He was succeeded by Pantaenus 181, who was succeeded as head of the school by his student Clement of Alexandria in 190, other notable theologians with a connection to the school include Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Dionysius the Great, and Didymus the Blind. Others, including Jerome and Basil, made trips to the school to interact with the scholars there, continuity with the ancient school is claimed by the Coptic Theological Seminary, Cairo. The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world, Jerome records that the Christian School of Alexandria was founded by St.
Mark himself and the first manager appointed by Saint Mark was Saint Justus, who became the sixth bishop of Alexandria. There is another opinion that the school was founded mid-second century, many scholars, such as Jerome, visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars. The scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects, apart from subjects like theology, Christian philosophy and the Bible, science and Greek & Roman literature and the arts were taught. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, and,15 centuries before Braille, blind students at the school were using wood-carving techniques to read, Alexandrian school Christian Universalism Coptic Orthodox Church List of prominent Copts Middle Platonism Wickert, Ulrich. In The Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, ISBN0802824137 Coptic Orthodox Theological Seminary the United States Books Fr. Malaty The School of Alexandria — Deans Before Origen/BOOK1 The School of Alexandria & Origens Theology/BOOK2 Origen was excommunicated by the Coptic Orthodox Church in early church history
The Italian Empire comprised the colonies, concessions and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic. The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869 and this was taken over by the Italian government in 1882, becoming Italys first overseas territory. Over the next two decades the pace of European acquisitions in Africa increased, causing the so-called Scramble for Africa. By the start of the First World War in 1914, Italy had acquired in Africa alone a colony on the Red Sea coast, outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China and the Dodecanese Islands off the coast of Turkey. During the First World War, Italy occupied southern Albania to prevent it falling to Austria-Hungary. In 1917, it established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920, the Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire and to satisfy the claims of Italian irredentists.
In 1935–36, in its invasion of Ethiopia Italy was successful. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and incorporated it into the Fascist state and it was forced in the final peace to relinquish sovereignty over all its colonies. It was granted a United Nations trust to administer former Italian Somaliland in 1950 under United Nations supervision, when Somalia became independent in 1960, Italys eight-decade experience with colonialism ended. The unification of Italy brought with it a belief that Italy deserved its own empire, alongside those of the other powers of Europe. Italy had long considered the Ottoman province of Tunisia, where a community of Tunisian Italians lived. It did not consider annexing it until 1879, when it became apparent that Britain, Italys search for colonies continued until February 1886, when, by secret agreement with Britain, it annexed the port of Massawa in Eritrea on the Red Sea from the crumbling Egyptian Empire. Italian annexation of Massawa denied the Ethiopian Empire of Yohannes IV an outlet to the sea, at the same time, Italy occupied territory on the south side of the horn of Africa, forming what would become Italian Somaliland.
However, Italy coveted Ethiopia itself and, in 1887, Italian Prime Minister Agostino Depretis ordered an invasion and this invasion was halted after the loss of five hundred Italian troops at the Battle of Dogali. Depretiss successor, Prime Minister Francesco Crispi signed the Treaty of Wuchale in 1889 with Menelik II, the new emperor. This treaty ceded Ethiopian territory around Massawa to Italy to form the colony of Eritrea, Relations between Italy and Menelik deteriorated over the next few years until the First Italo-Ethiopian War broke out in 1895, when Crispi ordered Italian troops into the country. Outnumbered and poorly equipped, the result was a defeat for Italy at the hands of Ethiopian forces at the Battle of Adwa in 1896. On 7 September 1901, a concession in Tientsin was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy by Imperial China and it was administered by the Italian consul in Tientsin
Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. A faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt, the current holder of this position is Theodoros II or Tawadros II, who was selected as the 118th pope on November 4,2012. Following the traditions of the church, the pope is chairman and this organization is the highest authority in the Church of Alexandria, which has between 12 and 18 million members worldwide,10 to 14 million of whom are in Egypt. It formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of the organization, faith. The pope is the chairman of the churchs General Congregation Council, although historically associated with the city of Alexandria, the residence and Seat of the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria has been located in Cairo since 1047. The pope is currently established in Saint Marks Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, inside a compound includes the Patriarchal Palace. After the death of Shenouda III on March 17,2012 the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church voted, the names of the three candidates who received most votes were put in a glass chalice.
The name picked became the new Patriarch of Alexandria and it is believed the name is picked by Divine Choice, by a blindfolded boy. He is believed to be guided by the hand of God, the liturgy of the Altar Ballot took place on November 4,2012. The 60-year-old Bishop Tawadoros, Auxiliary Bishop of Beheira, assistant to Metropolitan Pachomios of Beheira, was chosen as the 118th Pope of Alexandria and he chose the name of Theodoros II. He was formally enthroned on November 18,2012, the early Christian Church recognized the special significance of several cities as leaders of the worldwide catholic Church. The development of the Pentarchy granted recognition to these religious leaders. Because of this split, the leadership of church is not part of this system. The leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is known as Pope of Alexandria, the Successor of St. Mark the Evangelist, Holy Apostle and Martyr, on the Holy Apostolic Throne of the Great City of Alexandria. Mark the Evangelist, the Holy Apostle and Martyr, in being so, he is considered to be, Father of Fathers.
Hierarch of all Hierarchs Honorary titles attributed to the Hierarch of the Alexandrine Throne are, The Pillar and Defender of the Holy, Apostolic Church, the Dean of the Great Catechetical School of Theology of Alexandria. The Ecumenical Judge of the Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church, the Thirteenth among the Holy Apostles. “Pope and Lord Archbishop of the Great City of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa on the Holy Apostolic Holy See of St. Mark the Evangelist, the appellation of pope has been attributed to the Bishop of Alexandria since the episcopate of Heraclas, the thirteenth Bishop of Alexandria
Ptolemais was one of the five cities that formed the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica, the others being Cyrene, Tauchira/Teuchira, and Apollonia. Its ruins are at a village in modern Libya called Tolmeita. The city was founded by and named one of the kings of Ptolemaic Egypt. However, the term Pentapolis continued to be used, Ptolemais became a Roman possession in 96 BC. It was soon included in the Roman province of Creta et Cyrenaica, with Diocletians alteration of the administrative structure, Ptolemais became the capital of the province of Libya Superior or Libya Pentapolis. It decayed and was replaced as capital of the province by Apollonia, the 365 Crete earthquake struck the region and destroyed all the five major cities of the Pentapolis. Ptolemais survived the tragedy in relatively good condition and it served as capital of Cyrenaica until 428. The city was destroyed by the Vandals after they established their kingdom in 439, during the reign of Justinian I the city was rebuilt, but it never regained its powers and was again destroyed by the Arabs in the 7th century.
Buried in the sands, the ruins have been remarkably well preserved. Excavation of the began in the 1930s, revealing a planned city of rectangular shape, some 1650 by 1400 metres. It held a hippodrome, an amphitheatre and three theatres, the smallest of which, used as an odeon, was adapted for water spectacles in the 4th or 5th century. These were rediscovered during the Italian occupation, when they were found to be used as a place for rebels. West of the city stands a conspicuous and tower-like Hellenistic mausoleum, there are many chamber tombs in the quarries east and west of the city, which have yielded a few tombstones and numerous inscriptions. Important sculptures and inscriptions have found within the city. In 2001 an archaeological mission from Warsaw University started excavations on the site, in May 2011, a number of objects excavated from Ptolemais in 1937 and held in the vault of the National Commercial Bank in Benghazi were stolen. Looters tunnelled into the vault and broke into two safes that held the artefacts which were part of the so-called Benghazi Treasure, the objects have not been traced.
Another early bishop of Ptolemais is Saint Theodorus, martyred during the anti-Christian persecutions, the First Council of Nicaea confirmed the custom whereby the bishop of Alexandria held authority over the churches in the Pentapolis, although they were not situated in the same Roman province. Accordingly, none of the bishoprics in the Pentapolis was a metropolitan see for the others, Ptolemais was the home of Arius, after whom the Arianism condemned at Nicaea in 325 was named
Apollonia in Cyrenaica was founded by Greek colonists and became a significant commercial centre in the southern Mediterranean. It served as the harbour of Cyrene,20 km to the southwest. D and it became the capital of the Roman province of Libya Superior or Libya Pentapolitana. The city became known as Sozusa, which explains the name of Marsa Susa or Susa. Sozusa was a see and is included in the Catholic Churchs list of titular sees. The existence of buildings in the sea was noted by Beechey, with rough drawings. The results of work were published, complete with maps. Carlo Beltrame and colleagues have made an underwater photographic survey of some of the buildings. The Crete earthquake and tsunami of 21 July 365 AD apparently caused extensive damage to the city, the Apollonia Museum houses many artifacts found on the ancient site. Apollonia is particularly known for its ruins of three churches dating from the Byzantine period, the Palace was last used as the Byzantine Dukes Palace and contains over 100 rooms.
The previous use was as a Roman military commanders house, the well-preserved Greek theatre stands facing the sea outside the old city walls. The cavea has 28 seat levels, barca Ptolemais, Cyrenaica This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Proceedings of an Expedition to Explore the North African coast, geographical Magazine, v.31, pp. 497–508. Doubleday, New York,222 pp, New English Library, flemming, N. C. and Webb, C. O,1986. Tectonic and eustatic coastal changes during the last 10,000 years derived from archaeological data, Suppl – Bd62, p.129
The Achaemenid Empire, called the Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. The empires successes inspired similar systems in empires and it is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes, Alexander, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered the empire in its entirety by 330 BC. Upon his death, most of the former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire. The Persian population of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire, the historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social and religious influences as well.
Many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange. The impact of Cyruss edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, the empire set the tone for the politics and history of modern Iran. Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details Due to the duration of their reigns, Xerxes II. The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here, the Pasargadae and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished, they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as by 6th century BC another group of ancient Iranian peoples had established the short lived Median Empire. The Iranian peoples had arrived in the region of what is today Iran c.1000 BC and had for a number of centuries fallen under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia.
However, the Medes and Persians, Cimmerians and Chaldeans played a role in the overthrow of the Assyrian empire. The term Achaemenid means of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes, despite the derivation of the name, Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, and a vassal of Assyria. At some point in 550 BC, Cyrus rose in rebellion against the Medes, eventually conquering the Medes and creating the first Persian empire
Arian teachings were first attributed to Arius, a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt. The teachings of Arius and his supporters were opposed to the views held by Homoousian Christians, regarding the nature of the Trinity. The Arian concept of Christ is that the Son of God did not always exist but was begotten by God the Father, there was a dispute between two interpretations based upon the theological orthodoxy of the time, both of them attempted to solve its theological dilemmas. So there were, two equally orthodox interpretations which initiated a conflict in order to attract adepts and define the new orthodoxy, homoousianism was formally affirmed by the first two Ecumenical Councils. All mainstream branches of Christianity now consider Arianism to be heterodox, the Ecumenical First Council of Nicaea of 325 deemed it to be a heresy. According to Everett Ferguson, The great majority of Christians had no clear views on the Trinity, at the regional First Synod of Tyre in 335, Arius was exonerated.
Constantine the Great was baptized by the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, after the deaths of both Arius and Constantine, Arius was again anathemised and pronounced a heretic again at the Ecumenical First Council of Constantinople of 381. The Roman Emperors Constantius II and Valens were Arians or Semi-Arians, as was the first King of Italy and the Lombards till the 7th century. Arius had been a pupil of Lucian of Antioch at Lucians private academy in Antioch and he taught that God the Father and the Son of God did not always exist together eternally. A verse from Proverbs was used, The Lord created me at the beginning of his work, the Son was rather the very first and the most perfect of Gods creatures, and he was made God only by the Fathers permission and power. Controversy over Arianism arose in the late 3rd century and persisted throughout most of the 4th century and it involved most church members—from simple believers and monks to bishops and members of Romes imperial family. Two Roman emperors, Constantius II and Valens, became Arians or Semi-Arians, as did prominent Gothic, such a deep controversy within the Church during this period of its development could not have materialized without significant historical influences providing a basis for the Arian doctrines.
Of the roughly three hundred bishops in attendance at the Council of Nicea, two bishops did not sign the Nicene Creed, which condemned Arianism, Arians do not believe in the traditional doctrine of the Trinity. The letter of Arian Auxentius regarding the Arian missionary Ulfilas gives a picture of Arian beliefs. Arian Ulfilas, who was ordained a bishop by Arian Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to work as a missionary, God, the Father, always existing, the Son of God, Jesus Christ, begotten before time began and who is Lord/Master. By the 8th century it had ceased to be the tribes mainstream belief as the tribal rulers gradually came to adopt Nicene orthodoxy. This trend began in 496 with Clovis I of the Franks, Reccared I of the Visigoths in 587, the remaining tribes – the Vandals and the Ostrogoths – did not convert as a people nor did they maintain territorial cohesion. Having been militarily defeated by the armies of Emperor Justinian I, the Vandalic War of 533–534 dispersed the defeated Vandals
The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya, the other large city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age, the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire, Libya was an early center of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1943.
During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign, the Italian population went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951, a military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I, beginning a period of sweeping social reform. Since then, Libya has experienced a period of instability, the European Union is involved in an operation to disrupt human trafficking networks exploiting refugees fleeing from wars in Africa for Europe. At least two political bodies claim to be the government of Libya, the Council of Deputies is internationally recognized as the legitimate government, but it does not hold territory in the capital, instead meeting in the Cyrenaica city of Tobruk. Parts of Libya are outside of either governments control, with various Islamist, the United Nations is sponsoring peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based factions. An agreement to form an interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council, the leaders of the new government, called the Government of National Accord, arrived in Tripoli on 5 April 2016.
Since the GNC, one of the two governments, has disbanded to support the new GNA. The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the name for Northwest Africa. The name was based on use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911