H. M. S. Pinafore, it opened at the Opera Comique in London, on 25 May 1878 and ran for 571 performances, the second-longest run of any musical theatre piece up to that time. H. M. S. Pinafore was Gilbert and Sullivan's fourth operatic collaboration and their first international sensation; the story takes place aboard the ship HMS Pinafore. The captain's daughter, Josephine, is in love with a lower-class sailor, Ralph Rackstraw, although her father intends her to marry Sir Joseph Porter, the First Lord of the Admiralty, she abides by her father's wishes at first, but Sir Joseph's advocacy of the equality of humankind encourages Ralph and Josephine to overturn conventional social order. They declare their love for each other and plan to elope; the captain discovers this plan, but, as in many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a surprise disclosure changes things near the end of the story. Drawing on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, Gilbert imbued this plot with mirth and silliness; the opera's humour focuses on love between members of different social classes and lampoons the British class system in general.
Pinafore pokes good-natured fun at patriotism, party politics, the Royal Navy, the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority. The title of the piece comically applies the name of a garment for girls and women, a pinafore, to the fearsome symbol of a warship. Pinafore's extraordinary popularity in Britain and elsewhere was followed by the similar success of a series of Gilbert and Sullivan works, including The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado, their works known as the Savoy operas, dominated the musical stage on both sides of the Atlantic for more than a decade and continue to be performed today. The structure and style of these operas Pinafore, were much copied and contributed to the development of modern musical theatre. In 1875, Richard D'Oyly Carte, managing the Royalty Theatre for Selina Dolaro, brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to write their second show, a one-act opera entitled Trial by Jury; this proved a success, in 1876 D'Oyly Carte assembled a group of financial backers to establish the Comedy Opera Company, devoted to the production and promotion of family-friendly English comic opera.
With this theatre company, Carte had the financial resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert and Sullivan opera. This next opera was The Sorcerer, which opened in November 1877, it too was successful. Sheet music from the show sold well, street musicians played the melodies. Instead of writing a piece for production by a theatre proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert and Carte produced the show with their own financial support, they were therefore able to choose their own cast of performers, rather than being obliged to use the actors engaged at the theatre. They chose talented actors, most of whom were not well-known stars and did not command high fees, to whom they could teach a more naturalistic style of performance than was used at the time, they tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. The skill with which Gilbert and Sullivan used their performers had an effect on the audience. For until no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, yet intensely human beings....
Conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight." The success of The Sorcerer paved the way for another collaboration by Sullivan. Carte agreed on terms for a new opera with the Comedy Opera Company, Gilbert began work on H. M. S. Pinafore before the end of 1877. Gilbert's father had been a naval surgeon, the nautical theme of the opera appealed to him, he drew on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, including "Captain Reece" and "General John". Some of the characters have prototypes in the ballads: Dick Deadeye is based on a character in "Woman's Gratitude". On 27 December 1877, while Sullivan was on holiday on the French Riviera, Gilbert sent him a plot sketch accompanied by the following note: I have little doubt whatever but that you will be pleased with it.... There is a good deal of fun in it. Among other things a song for the First Lord – tracing his career as office-boy... clerk, junior partner and First Lord of Britain's Navy.... Of course there will be no personality in this – the fact that the First Lord in the Opera is a Radical of the most pronounced type will do away with any suspicion that W. H. Smith is intended.
Despite Gilbert's disclaimer, audiences and the Prime Minister identified Sir Joseph Porter with W. H. Smith, a politician, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty despite having neither military nor nautical experience. Sullivan was delighted with the sketch, Gilbert read a first draft of the plot to Carte in mid-January. Following the example of his mentor, T. W. Robertson, Gilbert strove to ensure that the costumes and sets were as realistic as possible; when preparing the sets for H. M. S. Pinafore and Sullivan visited Portsmouth in Ap
In music, an aria is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrumental or orchestral accompaniment part of a larger work. The typical context for arias is opera, but vocal arias feature in oratorios and cantatas, sharing features of the operatic arias of their periods; the term was used to refer to any expressive melody but not always, performed by a singer. The term, which derives from the Greek ἀήρ and Latin aer first appeared in relation to music in the 14th century when it signified a manner or style of singing or playing. By the end of the 16th century, the term'aria' refers to an instrumental form. By the early 16th century it was in common use as meaning a simple setting of strophic poetry. In the context of staged works and concert works, arias evolved from simple melodies into structured forms. In such works, the sung and structured aria became differentiated from the more speech-like recitative – broadly, the latter tended to carry the story-line, the former carried more emotional freight and became an opportunity for singers to display their vocal talent.
The aria evolved in one of two forms. Binary form arias were in two sections. In the da capo aria the'B' episode would be in a different key – the dominant or relative major key. Other variants of these forms are found in the French operas of the late 17th century such as those of Jean-Baptiste Lully which dominated the period of the French baroque. In the Italian school of composers of the late 17th and early 18th century, the da capo form of aria came to be associated with the ritornello, a recurring instrumental episode, interspersed with the elements of the aria and provided, in early operas, the opportunity for dancing or entries of characters; this version of aria form with ritornelli became a dominant feature of European opera throughout the 18th century. It is thought by some writers to be the origin of the instrumental forms of concerto and sonata form; the ritornelli became essential to the structure of the aria – "while the words determine the character of a melody the ritornello instruments decided in what terms it shall be presented."
By the early 18th century, composers such as Alessandro Scarlatti had established the aria form, its da capo version with ritornelli, as the key element of opera seria. "It offered balance and continuity, yet gave scope for contrast. The regularity of its conventional features enabled deviations from the normal to be exploited with telling effect." In the early years of the century, arias in the Italian style began to take over in French opera, giving rise to the French genre of ariette in a simple ternary form. Types of operatic aria became known by a variety of terms according to their character – e.g.aria parlante, aria di bravura, aria buffa, so on. M. F. Robinson describes the standard aria in opera seria in the period 1720 to 1760 as follows: The first section began with an orchestral ritornello after which the singer entered and sang the words of the first stanza in their entirety. By the end of this first vocal paragraph the music, if it were in a major key as it was, had modulated to the dominant.
The orchestra played a second ritornello shorter than the first. The singer sang the same words through a second time; the music of this second paragraph was slightly more elaborate than that of the first. There were more repeats of words and more florid vocalisations; the key worked its way back to the tonic for the final vocal cadence after which the orchestra rounded the section off with a final ritornello. The nature and allocation of the arias to the different roles in opera seria was formalized. According to the playwright and librettist Carlo Goldoni, in his autobiography, The three principal personages of the drama ought to sing five arias each; the second actress and the second soprano can only have three, the inferior characters must be satisfied with a single aria each, or two at the most. The author of the words must take care, he must distribute with the same precaution the bravura arias, the arias of action, the inferior arias, the minuets and rondeaus. He must, above all things, avoid giving impassioned arias, bravura arias, or rondeaus, to inferior characters.
By contrast, arias in opera buffa were specific in character to the nature of the character being portrayed. By in the century it was clear that these formats were becoming fossilized. Christoph Willibald Gluck thought that both opera buffa and opera seria had strayed too far from what opera should be, seemed unnatural; the jokes of opera buffa were
Jacques Offenbach was a German-French composer and impresario of the romantic period. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann, he was a powerful influence on composers of the operetta genre Johann Strauss, Jr. and Arthur Sullivan. His best-known works were continually revived during the 20th century, many of his operettas continue to be staged in the 21st; the Tales of Hoffmann remains part of the standard opera repertory. Born in Cologne, the son of a synagogue cantor, Offenbach showed early musical talent. At the age of 14, he was accepted as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but found academic study unfulfilling and left after a year. From 1835 to 1855 he earned his living as a cellist, achieving international fame, as a conductor, his ambition, was to compose comic pieces for the musical theatre. Finding the management of Paris' Opéra-Comique company uninterested in staging his works, in 1855 he leased a small theatre in the Champs-Élysées.
There he presented a series of his own small-scale pieces. In 1858, Offenbach produced his first full-length operetta, Orphée aux enfers, exceptionally well received and has remained one of his most played works. During the 1860s, he produced at least 18 full-length operettas, as well as more one-act pieces, his works from this period included La belle Hélène, La Vie parisienne, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein and La Périchole. The risqué humour and gentle satiric barbs in these pieces, together with Offenbach's facility for melody, made them internationally known, translated versions were successful in Vienna and elsewhere in Europe. Offenbach became associated with the Second French Empire of Napoleon III. Napoleon III granted him French citizenship and the Légion d'Honneur. With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Offenbach found himself out of favour in Paris because of his imperial connections and his German birth, he remained successful in London, however. He re-established himself in Paris during the 1870s, with revivals of some of his earlier favourites and a series of new works, undertook a popular U.
S. tour. In his last years he strove to finish The Tales of Hoffmann, but died before the premiere of the opera, which has entered the standard repertory in versions completed or edited by other musicians. Offenbach was born Jacob or Jakob Offenbach to a Jewish family, in the German city of Cologne, a part of Prussia, his birthplace in the Großen Griechenmarkt was a short distance from the square, now named after him, the Offenbachplatz. He was the second son and the seventh of ten children of Isaac Juda Offenbach né Eberst and his wife Marianne, née Rindskopf. Isaac, who came from a musical family, had abandoned his original trade as a bookbinder and earned an itinerant living as a cantor in synagogues and playing the violin in cafés, he was known as "der Offenbacher", after his native town, Offenbach am Main, in 1808 he adopted Offenbach as a surname. In 1816 he settled in Cologne, where he became established as a teacher, giving lessons in singing, violin and guitar, composing both religious and secular music.
When Jacob was six years old, his father taught him to play the violin. As he was by the permanent cantor of the local synagogue, Isaac could afford to pay for his son to take lessons from the well-known cellist Bernhard Breuer. Three years the biographer Gabriel Grovlez records, the boy was giving performances of his own compositions, "the technical difficulties of which terrified his master", Breuer. Together with his brother Julius and sister Isabella, Jacob played in a trio at local dance halls and cafés, performing popular dance music and operatic arrangements. In 1833, Isaac decided that the two most musically talented of his children and Jacob needed to leave the provincial musical scene of Cologne to study in Paris. With generous support from local music lovers and the municipal orchestra, with whom they gave a farewell concert on 9 October, the two young musicians, accompanied by their father, made the four-day journey to Paris in November 1833. Isaac had been given letters of introduction to the director of the Paris Conservatoire, Luigi Cherubini, but he needed all his eloquence to persuade Cherubini to give Jacob an audition.
The boy's age and nationality were both obstacles to admission. Cherubini had several years earlier refused the 12-year-old Franz Liszt admission on similar grounds, but he agreed to hear the young Offenbach play, he listened to his playing and stopped him, saying, "Enough, young man, you are now a pupil of this Conservatoire." Julius was admitted. Both brothers adopted French forms of Julius becoming Jules and Jacob becoming Jacques. Isaac failed to do so and returned to Cologne. Before leaving, he found a number of pupils for Jules. At the conservatoire, Jules was a diligent student. By contrast, Jacques was bored by ac
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
Out of Doors (Bartók)
Out of Doors is a set of five piano solo pieces, Sz.. 81, BB 89, written by Béla Bartók in 1926. Out of Doors is among the few instrumental compositions by Bartók with programmatic titles. Out of Doors contains the following five pieces with approximate duration based on metronome markings: "With Drums and Pipes" – Pesante. 1 min 45s "Barcarolla" – Andante. 2 min 17 s "Musettes" – Moderato. 2 min 35 s "The Night's Music" – Lento – più andante. 4 min 40 s "The Chase" – Presto. 2 min – 2 min 12 s After World War I, Bartók was prevented from continuing his folk music field research outside Hungary. This increased the development of his own personal style, marked by a sublimation of folk music into art music. Bartók composed Out of Doors in the'piano year' of 1926, together with his Piano Sonata, his First Piano Concerto, Nine Little Pieces; this fruitful year followed a period of little compositional activity. The main trigger to start composing again was Bartók's attendance on 15 March 1926 of a performance of Stravinsky's Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments in Budapest with the composer as pianist.
This piece and Bartók's compositions of 1926 are marked by the treatment of the piano as a percussion instrument. Bartók wrote in early 1927: It seems to me that the inherent nature becomes expressive only by means of the present tendency to use the piano as a percussion instrument. Another influence on the style of his piano compositions of 1926 was his study and editing of French and Italian -Baroque keyboard music in the early 1920s, he wrote the work for his new wife, the pianist Ditta Pásztory-Bartók, whom he had married in 1923 shortly after divorcing his first wife, who had given him his second son in 1924. Although the set is referred to as a suite, Bartók did not play the set in its entirety, he premièred the first and fifth pieces on the Hungarian radio on 8 December 1926, played the fourth piece separately on numerous occasions. He referred to the set in a letter to his publisher as "five difficult piano pieces", i.e. not as a suite. An arch form in the set has been proposed, with successive tonal centers of E-G-A-G-E, but different tonal centers have been suggested, e.g. D-G-D-G-F.
Nissman shows how individual pieces' motives and endings lead logically into the following piece within the set. Out of Doors was published in two volumes: one contained the first three pieces and the other the last two; the compositional process sheds some light on the interrelation of the five pieces. Bartók's first sketches show pieces 1 and 2 as published; the third piece was added based on unused material for the third movement of the Piano Sonata. Notably, the two final pieces, 4 and 5, form one continuous piece, numbered "3" in the sketches. Bartók applied this juxtaposition of "The Night's Music" in a slow tempo with a presto section in a single piece/movement in the second movement of his Second Piano Concerto; this is the only piece in the set which can be traced to a specific folk song, Gólya, gólya, gilice. Bartók called his piece in Hungarian Síppal, dobbal... translated With a whistle, with a drum... which for Hungarians is up to this day an obvious quote from this folk song. The main motive of Bartók's piece is found in bars 9 and 10.
This motive is taken from bars 6 of the folk song. The only change Bartók made was to accommodate the syncopation; the song text in literal translation: Stork, what made your leg bloody? A Turkish child cut a Hungarian child cured it. With a whistle, with a drum, with a reed violin. Károly Viski quotes this song in reference to the shamanistic origin of the text: If we remember that the Hungarians, like many other people, were adherents of Shamanism in a certain period of their ancient history, these remnants can be understood, but the Shaman, the priest of the pagan Shamanism, is not only a fortune teller, he is a doctor and magician, who drives away illnesses and cures them not with medicines, but with magic spells and songs. And if “he wants to hide”-that is in modern parlance- if he wants to fall into trance, besides other things, he prepares himself by dancing, singing and by performing to the accompaniment of drums ceremonial exercises Traces of this can be found to this day in Hungarian folklore.
The quotation from the folk song that Bartók used contains only the trichord on the second degree of the tonal center in the song: E, F♯, G. In Bartók's piece, this motive makes the tonal center E. Yet, just like the folk song, the piece comes home to the first degree: the tonal center D appears in the piece at the end of the legato B section and the repeat of the A section; the piece is in ternary form with a coda. The opening and coda sections consist of imitations of drums and lower wind instruments—"pipes". A less percussive, legato treatment of the piano is called for in the middle section in the middle and higher register, imitating gentler wind instruments. Bartók made a sketch of an orchestration for this piece in 1931, using for the opening section timpani and gran cassa and -bassoons and trombones; the title refers to a type of small bagpipe. Bartók's was inspired by Couperin; the piece consists of imitating the sound effects of a poorly tuned pair of musettes. There is little
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, pianist and critic, was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon influenced the development of the Romantische Oper in Germany. Der Freischütz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera, Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique to an unprecedented degree, while Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and, at the same time, revealed Weber's lifelong interest in the music of non-Western cultures; this interest was first manifested in Weber's incidental music for Schiller's translation of Gozzi's Turandot, for which he used a Chinese melody, making him the first Western composer to use an Asian tune, not of the pseudo-Turkish kind popularized by Mozart and others. A brilliant pianist himself, Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor, which influenced composers such as Chopin and Mendelssohn.
The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections, was acknowledged by Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra. Weber's shorter piano pieces, such as the Invitation to the Dance, were orchestrated by Berlioz, while his Polacca Brillante was set for piano and orchestra by Liszt. Weber's compositions for clarinet and horn occupy an important place in the musical repertoire, his compositions for the clarinet, which include two concertos, a concertino, a quintet, a duo concertante, variations on a theme from his opera Silvana, are performed today. His Concertino for Horn and Orchestra requires the performer to produce two notes by humming while playing—a technique known as "multiphonics", his bassoon concerto and the Andante e Rondo ungarese are popular with bassoonists. Weber's contribution to vocal and choral music is significant, his body of Catholic religious music was popular in 19th-century Germany, he composed one of the earliest song cycles, Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten.
Weber was notable as one of the first conductors to conduct without a piano or violin. Weber's orchestration has been praised and emulated by generations of composers – Berlioz referred to him several times in his Treatise on Instrumentation while Debussy remarked that the sound of the Weber orchestra was obtained through the scrutiny of the soul of each instrument, his operas influenced the work of opera composers in Germany, such as Marschner and Wagner, as well as several nationalist 19th-century composers such as Glinka. Homage has been paid to Weber by 20th-century composers such as Debussy, Stravinsky and Hindemith. Weber wrote music journalism and was interested in folksong, learned lithography to engrave his own works. Weber was born in Eutin, Bishopric of Lübeck, the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber and his second wife, Genovefa Weber, a Viennese singer; the "von" was an affectation. Both his parents were Catholic and came from the far south of Germany. Franz Anton began his career as a military officer in the service of the Duchy of Holstein, after being fired, went on to hold a number of musical directorships.
In 1787 Franz Anton went on to Hamburg. Franz Anton's half-brother, married Cäcilia Stamm and had four musical daughters, Aloysia and Sophie, all of whom became notable singers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart attempted composing several pieces for her, but after she rejected his advances, Mozart went on to marry Constanze. A gifted violinist, Franz Anton had ambitions of turning Carl into a child prodigy like Franz's nephew-by-marriage, Mozart. Carl did not begin to walk until he was four, but by he was a capable singer and pianist. Weber's father gave him a comprehensive education, however interrupted by the family's constant moves. In 1796, Weber continued his musical education in Hildburghausen, where he was instructed by the oboist Johann Peter Heuschkel. On 13 March 1798, Weber's mother died of tuberculosis; that same year, Weber went to Salzburg to study with Michael Haydn, the younger brother of Joseph Haydn, who agreed to teach Carl free of charge. That year, Weber traveled to Munich to study with the singer Johann Evangelist Wallishauser and organist Johann Nepomuk Kalcher.
1798 saw the twelve-year-old Weber's first published work, six fughettas for piano, published in Leipzig. Other compositions of that period, among them a mass, his first opera, Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins, are lost. In 1800, the family moved to Freiberg in Saxony, where Weber 14 years old, wrote an opera called Das stumme Waldmädchen, produced at the Freiberg theatre, it was performed in Vienna and Saint Petersburg. The young Weber began to publish articles as a music critic, for example in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung in 1801. In 1801, the fa
Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music, his major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, the Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759, the three last piano sonatas, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise. Born to immigrant parents in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, Schubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age, his father gave him his first violin lessons and his older brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. In 1808, at the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of Haydn and Beethoven, he left the Stadtkonvikt at the end of 1813, returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher.
In 1821, Schubert was granted admission to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry. He gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in March 1828, the only time he did so in his career, he died eight months at the age of 31, the cause attributed to typhoid fever, but believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of the 19th century, his music continues to be popular. Franz Peter Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund, Archduchy of Austria on 31 January 1797, baptised in the Catholic Church the following day, he was the twelfth child of Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz.
Schubert's immediate ancestors came from the province of Zukmantel in Austrian Silesia. His father, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a well-known parish schoolmaster, his school in Lichtental had numerous students in attendance, he was appointed schoolmaster two years later. His mother was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith and had been a housemaid for a Viennese family before marriage. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children, nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, a year was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. Ignaz recalled: I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, that for the future he would make his own way, and in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had distanced and out stripped me, whom I despaired of overtaking.
His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Soon after, Schubert was given his first lessons outside the family by Michael Holzer and choirmaster of the local parish church in Lichtental. Holzer would assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert, the lessons may have consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Holzer gave the young Schubert instruction in organ as well as in figured bass. According to Holzer, however, he did not give him any real instruction as Schubert would know anything that he tried to teach him; the boy seemed to gain more from an acquaintance with a friendly apprentice joiner who took him to a neighbouring pianoforte warehouse where Schubert could practise on better instruments. He played viola in the family string quartet, with his brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on first and second violin and his father on the cello.
Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri Vienna's leading musical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognised. In November 1808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt through a choir scholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart, the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn, the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven, a composer for whom he developed a significant admiration, his exposure to these and other works, combined with occasional visits to the opera, laid the foundation for a broader musical education. One important musical influence came from the songs by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, an important composer of Lieder; the precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun, Schub