The Carnac stones are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany, consisting of alignments, dolmens and single menhirs. More than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones were hewn from rock and erected by the pre/proto-Celtic people of Brittany. Most of the stones are within the Breton village of Carnac, the stones were erected at some stage during the Neolithic period, probably around 3300 BCE, but some may date to as early as 4500 BCE. Brittany has its own versions of the Arthurian cycle. Local tradition claims that the reason they stand in such perfectly straight lines is that they are a Roman legion turned to stone by Merlin. In recent centuries, many of the sites have been neglected, with reports of dolmens being used as sheep shelters, even more commonly, stones have been removed to make way for roads, or as building materials. The continuing management of the remains a controversial topic. There are three groups of stone rows — Ménec and Kerlescan — which may have once formed a single group.
Eleven converging rows of menhirs stretching for 1,165 by 100 metres, there are what Alexander Thom considered to be the remains of stone circles at either end. According to the tourist office there is a cromlech containing 71 stone blocks at the western end and this fan-like layout recurs a little further along to the east in the Kermario alignment. It consists of 1029 stones in ten columns, about 1,300 m in length, a stone circle to the east end, where the stones are shorter, was revealed by aerial photography. A smaller group of 555 stones, further to the east of the two sites. It is composed of 13 lines with a length of about 800 metres. At the extreme west, where the stones are tallest, there is a circle which has 39 stones. There may be another stone circle to the north, a much smaller group, further east again of Kerlescan, falling within the commune of La Trinité-sur-Mer. These are now set in woods, and most are covered with moss, there are several tumuli, mounds of earth built up over a grave.
In this area, they feature a passage leading to a central chamber which once held neolithic artefacts. Saint-Michel The tumulus of Saint-Michel was constructed between 5000 BC and 3400 BC, at its base it is 125 by 60 m, and is 12 m high
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of large stones without the use of mortar or concrete. For periods, the monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος, megalith denotes an item consisting of rock hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of stones are seen as megaliths, with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral. The construction of these took place mainly in the Neolithic and continued into the Chalcolithic. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered and they belong to the incipient phases of agriculture and animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved megalithic orthostats are a feature, e. g.
at Nevalı Çori. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, at Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20. Some measure up to 30 metres across, as well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, lions, birds and scorpions. Dolmens and standing stones have been found in areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo. They can be encountered in Lebanon, Iran, Jordan, the largest concentration can be found in southern Syria and along the Jordan Rift Valley, however they are being threatened with destruction. They date from the late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age, megaliths have been found on Kharg Island and pirazmian in Iran, at Barda Balka in Iraq, and at Jaintapur in Bangladesh. A semicircular arrangement of megaliths was found in Israel at Atlit Yam and it is a very early example, dating from the 7th millennium BC. The most concentrated occurrence of dolmens in particular is in an area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side.
They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, and in Jordan, in Saudi Arabia, only very few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz. They seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, the standing stone has a very ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian times
The Lancken-Granitz dolmens are a group of seven megalith tombs in the Lancken-Granitz municipality on Rügen, northern Germany. Erected during the middle Neolithic, when they were used by the Funnelbeaker culture, three of them are encircled by solitary rocks forming either rectangles or a stone circle, one has a solitary guardian stone on its eastern side. The dolmens were constructed from glacial boulders and red sandstone. In part subdivided into up to four compartments as common for the region, one showed a subdivision into six such compartments. A group of seven dolmens is lined up northwest of the road between Lancken and Klein Stresow, numbered 1 to 7 from the northeast to the southwest and this numbering follows Schmidt, other publications use different numeration codes. Dolmen Nr.6 and Nr.5 and Nr.6, the dolmens are part of a series built between 3,500 and 3,200 BC, during the Neolithic. As of 2001, about 400 of those are preserved in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,55 of which are located on the isle of Rügen.
Initially their number had been larger, but many were destroyed when their boulders were used for church, housing. This was part of a series of 106 excavations conducted by Schuldts team on megalith sites in present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern between 1964 and 1972, both Hünenbett shapes are oriented from east to west, and their long sides measure 20.5 metres and 20 metres, respectively. At the Hünenbett around dolmen Nr,3, only 16 boulders are still in place, while initially each long side had comprised 13 boulders. A guardian stone is placed adjacent to its narrow side. The stone circle around dolmen Nr.6 has a diameter of 12 metres, the dolmens are located in the center of their respective encirclements or at its western end. All dolmens were constructed from glacial boulders, with the gaps filled with plates of red sandstone. The entrance was made from two upright sandstone plates covered by another rock. Similar sandstone plates were used to subdivide the interior of some of the dolmens into a hallway with adjacent compartments,1, the largest one, had three such chambers on each side of the hallway, while a subdivision could not be demonstrated for dolmen Nr.2.
Division into one to four compartments is common for dolmens, yet dolmen Nr.1 with its six compartments is noted as a rare exception, common Neolithic funerary goods found in the dolmens of the region are tools and amber pearls. It is assumed that the pots were filled with groceries, most probably, a magic function was ascribed to the amber pearls, especially the ones of a double axe shape. Funerary goods found in each dolmen near Lancken include flint hatches, amber pearls, and pottery, an abundance of arrowheads were found in dolmens Nr.1 through 5
Beltany stone circle
Beltany is a neolithic stone circle just south of Raphoe town in County Donegal, Ireland. It dates from around 1400-800 BC and comprises 64 stones around a low earth platform or tumulus, one stone is decorated with cup marks and many of the stones stand at an angle after being disturbed around a hundred years ago. There may originally have been about 80 stones, a single stone about 2 metres high stands to the southeast of the circle. It probably had some related to the rites or ceremonies in the circle. A stone head was found at Beltany, probably carved between 400 BC and 400 AD and this may indicate that the stone circle was used for many centuries. In Irish the name for the day is Lá Bealtaine, in Scottish Gaelic Là Bealltainn
Metsamor Castle, is the remains of an old fortress located to the southwest of the Armenian village of Taronik, in the Armavir Province. It has been populated starting from the 5th millennium BC until the 18th century AD, the excavations of the tombs of Metsamor Castle began in 1965. The site is noted for its observatory and temple complexes consisted of seven sanctuaries, neolithic stone circles dating back to ca.5000 BC stand within the historical site, interpreted by enthusiasts of archaeoastronomy as an astronomical observatory. The Museum of History and Archeology at Metsamor Site was opened in 1968 and it is the repository of more than 22,000 items, almost all uncovered at the site
Aberffraw is a small village and community on the south west coast of the Isle of Anglesey, in Wales, by the west bank of the Afon Ffraw. Access by road is by way of the A4080 and the nearest rail station is Bodorgan, in the early Middle Ages Aberffraw was the capital of the Kingdom of Gwynedd from c.860 AD until c.1170. Under the eponymous Aberffraw Dynasty it came to be the most important political centre in medieval Wales, the Llys remained the symbolic throne of the Kings of Gwynedd from the 9th century to the 13th century. The Royal Annals of Edward I of England show the Llys was dismantled in 1315 to provide building materials for nearby Beaumaris Castle, at the 2011 census, Aberffraw had a population of 620, of which 67. 5% are able to speak Welsh. Attractions near Aberffraw village include Llyn Coron, Barclodiad y Gawres, a Neolithic burial chamber, the church still holds services in the summer and is sometimes used for weddings, with access by boat. The village has a beach, which was awarded the Blue flag rural beach award in 2005.
There is a post office in the village, st Beunos Church, dates from the 12th century and is a Grade II* listed building. The village has an association football team. An electoral ward in the name exists. This ward includes the community of Llanfaelog, aberffraws population was 620, according to the 2011 census, a 1. 97% increase since the 608 people noted in 2001. The 2011 census showed 67. 5% of the population could speak Welsh, in Welsh mythology, Aberffraw features as the site of Branwen and Matholwchs wedding festival, where Efnysien maimed Matholwchs horses. A Vision of Britain Through Time British Listed Buildings Aberffraw and genealogical information at GENUKI, geograph Office for National Statistics Ysgol Aberffraw
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
Megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
In the area of present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, up to 5,000 megalith tombs were erected as burial sites by people of the Neolithic Funnelbeaker culture. More than 1,000 of them are preserved today and protected by law, though megaliths are distributed throughout the state, their structure differs between regions. Most megaliths are dolmens, often located within a circular or trapezoid frame of singular standing stones, the dolmens are known as Hünengräber or Großsteingräber, their framework is known as Hünenbett if trapezoid or Bannkreis if circular. The materials used for their construction are glacial erratics and red sandstones,144 tombs have been excavated since 1945. The megaliths were used not only by the bearers of the TRB culture, but by their successors, the megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were erected as burial sites in the Neolithic, by the bearers of the Funnelbeaker culture, between 3,500 and 3,200 BC. Initially, the TRB people buried their dead in pits, often covered with mounds of clay, they erected dolmens for this purpose, but continued the use of flat graves.
The dolmens were built from glacial erratics, with the gaps filled with red sandstone, after removing the clay from the interior, a barrow was raised on top of the dolmen, which remained accessible through a passage made from smaller stones. In addition, single standing stones were placed around the dolmen, forming either a rectangular or trapezoidal shape. Sometimes, large singular guardian stones were placed adjacent to these shapes, the interior of the dolmen was usually divided into small compartments by slabs of red sandstone, standing upright. His aim was to provide a classification and naming of the present in this field of research. In doing so it utilised a classification by Ernst Sprockhoff, which in turn was based on an older Danish model, Holtorf counted 1,193 in the same area. Both Schuldts and Holtorfs counts include 31 long mounds without chambers and 44 stone cists, Holtorf estimated that in the Neolithic, up to 5,000 megalithic monuments were built in present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
144 megaliths have been excavated since 1945,106 of these were excavated and afterwards restored by archaeologist Ewald Schuldt and his team between 1964 and 1972. The type of megalithic structures varies between different, overlapping regions, while the orientation of the megaliths varies, many have entrances facing southwards. Of 99 dolmens studied by Schuldt,46 are oriented toward the apex of the sun,26 toward the spring equinox,14 toward the midsummer sunrise. Disarticulated bones from up to twenty individuals have been discovered in excavated dolmens, the dead were first laid down in the open, and their bones were buried in the dolmens once the body was skeletonized. Few dolmens contain only TRB finds, as most were used by the contemporary and subsequent Globular Amphora and Single Grave cultures. The bearers of the Globular Amphora culture removed and demolished skeletons, the earth-filled megaliths and the mounds raised to cover them were used for secondary burials
It consists of dolmens and tumuli. Site 1 is a 45 m long dolmen, most of which has been destroyed, site 3 is the remains of the earth embankment, still 43 m long. Most of its stones are still there, either in situ or overturned. The chamber must have located in the section that no longer exists. Site 4 is an 80 m long dolmen and it originally had about 100 external stones,14 of which are still in situ, the remainder were put back during its restoration. The passage grave consisted of a roughly 8 m long chamber with 12 upright supporting stones, the original five capstones of the chamber as well as the capstone for the passage are missing. Site 2 is a tumulus about 20 m in diameter in the centre of which the remains of a passage grave are located, sites 5 and 6 are Bronze Age tumuli. Inside the chamber of site 2 and 4 were found relicts of Funnelbeaker, Globular amphora, die Steingräber von Oldendorf an der Luhe In, Körner G. Dokumentation zur Archäologie Niedersachsens in Denkmalpflege und Forschung,1975 The Oldendorf Totenstatt at www. oldendorf-luhe. de
Gobustan National Park
It is located west of the settlement of Gobustan, about 40 miles southwest of the centre of Baku on the west bank of the Caspian Sea. The territory of Gobustan is cut up with numerous, sometimes rather deep ravines and that is a suggested origin of the Gobustan geographical name. In 1966 Gobustan was declared a historical landmark of Azerbaijan in an attempt to preserve the ancient carvings, relics. The mountains Boyukdash, Kichikdash and the Yazili hill were taken under government protection. These mountains are located near the Caspian Sea, in the southeast part of Gobustan, the archeological value of Gobustan was discovered when a group of men went in to mine for gravel in 1930. While the zone is abundant in boulders and stone formations, one mine employee noticed the sacred carvings on the rocks and they discovered man-made caves wherein more of the drawings can be found. Gobustan is very rich in archaeological monuments, the reserve has more than 6,000 rock engravings dating back between 5, 000–40,000 years.
The site, which covers an area of 537 ha, is part of the larger protected Gobustan Reservation, iskhag Jafarzadeh who was one of the pioneers of Azerbaijan archaeology and ethnography, excavated over seventy artifacts on Azerbaijans territory and studied the Gobustan rock paintings. In 1948 during the Gobustan expedition, he discovered the Latin rock inscription near mountain Boyukdash, some 70 km far from Baku, petroglyphs from Gobustan are depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 5 manat banknote issued since 2006. As of 2011, The Petroglyph Museum functions in the park, today Gobustan is the most popular state reserve and is an invaluable treasure-house of Azerbaijan. For other state reserves see State Reserves of Azerbaijan, some of notable features among other animal rock arts are marine species that can not be found in todays Caspian Sea, such as baleen whales, beaked whales or dolphins, and auks. The climate of Gobustan is a dry one, with rather mild winters. An atmospheric precipitation is small and so are the springs of Big Caucasus area, in the remote past, the flora and fauna of Gobustan were incomparably richer.
Its landscape represented a kind of savanna with corresponding climate, here were large herds of wild bulls, deer, wild horses, wild boars, and gazelles hunted by asiatic lions, gray wolves and leopards. The vegetative world of Gobustan has a character that is common for deserts and semi-deserts and it consists of ephemeris grasses and bushes and similar long-term plants. The fauna of Gobustan has strongly grown poor for the last decades of years. The natural inhabitants of Gobustan now are rare foxes, wolves and wild cats, giant ditch frogs, wild pigeons and its Caspian coastline are home to nearly 400 mud volcanoes, more than half the total throughout the world. In 2001, one mud volcano 15 kilometers from Baku made world headlines when it started ejecting flames 15 meters high