Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the world by revenue and number of professionals. Deloitte provides audit, consulting, enterprise risk and financial advisory services with more than 286,200 professionals globally. In FY 2018, the network earned a record $43.2 billion USD in aggregate revenues. As of 2017, Deloitte is the 4th largest owned company in the United States; as of 2015, Deloitte has the highest market share in auditing among the top 500 companies in India. Deloitte has been ranked number one by market share in consulting by Gartner, for the fourth consecutive year, Kennedy Consulting Research and Advisory ranks Deloitte number one in both global consulting and management consulting based on aggregate revenue. In 1845, William Welch Deloitte opened an office in United Kingdom. Deloitte was the first person to be appointed an independent auditor of a public company, namely the Great Western Railway.
He went on to open an office in New York in 1880. In 1890, Deloitte opened a branch office on Wall Street headed by Edward Adams and P. D. Griffiths as branch managers; that was Deloitte's first overseas venture. Other branches were soon opened in Chicago and Buenos Aires. in 1898 P. D. Griffiths became a partner in the London office. In 1896, Charles Waldo Haskins and Elijah Watt Sells formed Sells in New York, it was described as "the first major auditing firm to be established in the country by American rather than British accountants". In 1898, George Touche established an office in London and in 1900, joined John Ballantine Niven in establishing the firm of Touche Niven in the Johnston Building at 30 Broad Street in New York. On 1 March 1933, Colonel Arthur Hazelton Carter, President of the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants and managing partner of Haskins & Sells, testified before the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Carter helped convince Congress. In 1947, Detroit accountant George Bailey president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, launched his own organization.
The new entity enjoyed such a positive start that in less than a year, the partners merged with Touche Niven and A. R. Smart to form Touche, Bailey & Smart. Headed by Bailey, the organization grew in part by creating a dedicated management consulting function, it forged closer links with organizations established by the co-founder of Touche Niven, George Touche: the Canadian organization Ross and the British organization George A. Touche. In 1960, the firm was renamed Touche, Bailey & Smart, becoming Touche Ross in 1969. In 1968 Nobuzo Tohmatsu formed Tohmatsu Aoki & Co, a firm based in Japan, to become part of the Touche Ross network in 1975. In 1972 Robert Trueblood, Chairman of Touche Ross, led the committee responsible for recommending the establishment of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. In 1952, Deloitte's firm merged with Sells to form Deloitte Haskins & Sells. In 1989, Deloitte Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross in the USA to form Touche; the merged firm was led jointly by Edward A. Kangas.
Led by the UK partnership, a smaller number of Deloitte Haskins & Sells member firms rejected the merger with Touche Ross and shortly thereafter merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte. Some member firms of Touche Ross rejected the merger with Deloitte Haskins & Sells and merged with other firms. In UK, Touche Ross merged with Spicer & Oppenheim in 1990. At the time of the US-led mergers to form Deloitte & Touche, the name of the international firm was a problem, because there was no worldwide exclusive access to the names "Deloitte" or "Touche Ross" – key member firms such as Deloitte in the UK and Touche Ross in Australia had not joined the merger; the name DRT International was therefore chosen, referring to Deloitte and Tohmatsu. In 1993, the international firm was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. In 1995, the partners of Deloitte & Touche decided to create Touche Consulting Group. In 2000, Deloitte acquired Eclipse to add Internet design-based solutions to its consulting capabilities.
Eclipse was separated into Deloitte Online and Deloitte Digital. In 2002, Arthur Andersen's UK practice, the firm's largest practice outside the US, agreed to merge with Deloitte's UK practice. Andersen's practices in Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Mexico and Canada agreed to merge with Deloitte; the spinoff of Deloitte France's consulting division led to the creation of Ineum Consulting. In 2005, Deloitte acquired Beijing Pan-China CPA to become the largest accountancy firm in China. Just prior to this acquisition Deloitte China had about 3,200 employees; this acquisition was part of a five-year plan to invest $150 million in China. Deloitte has had a presence in China since 1917. In 2007, Deloitte began hiring former employees of the Central Intelligence Agency for their competitive intelligence unit known as Deloitte Intelligence. In 2009, Deloitte purchased the North American public service practice of BearingPoint for $350 million after it filed for bankruptcy protection. Deloitte LLP took over the UK property consultants Drivers Jonas in January 2010.
As of 2013, this business unit was known as Deloitte Real Estate. In 2011, Deloitte acquired DOMANI Sustainability Consulting and ClearCarbon Consulting in orde
Norwegian State Railways
Norges Statsbaner AS, trading as NSB AS and known in English as the Norwegian State Railways, is a government-owned railway company which operates most passenger train services in Norway. Owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications, it is engaged in real estate through Rom Eiendom, bus transport through Nettbuss, cargo trains through CargoNet and Swedish train transport through Tågkompaniet. NSB transported 52 million train passengers and 104 million bus passengers in 2009; the current company was established on 1 December 1996, when the former Norwegian State Railways was split into the new NSB, the infrastructure company the Norwegian National Rail Administration and the Norwegian Railway Inspectorate. In 2002 the freight operations were split to the subsidiary CargoNet, the maintenance department became Mantena. On 1 December 1996 the largest structural change in Norwegian railway history in the 20th century occurred; the old Norwegian State Railways was split into three separate governmental agencies.
The ownership and construction of the track was transformed to the newly created government agency Norwegian National Rail Administration while a new Norwegian Railway Inspectorate was created to supervise all railway operations in the country. NSB was renamed NSB BA and created as a limited company, wholly owned by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. NSB was made a concern, with NSB Biltrafikk and NSB Eiendom made subsidiaries of NSB. In 1998 the new Oslo Airport, Gardermoen opened, replacing the old Oslo Airport, Fornebu, too small since the 1980s. Part of the political compromise to build the new airport was a twofold consequence for NSB. First of all it was decided that the new airport was to have an as environmentally friendly ground infrastructure as possible, resulting in the decision to build a high speed railway on the 56-kilometre stretch from Oslo Central Station to the airport, which would only take 19 minutes, but at the same time it was a political demand that the new airport not cost the tax payers any money, it was decided that the entire construction was to be financed with loans.
The result was that the airport was to be financed and operated by the Civil Aviation Administration subsidiary Oslo Lufthavn AS while the rail connection was to be financed and operated by the NSB subsidiary NSB Gardermobanen. But problems arose during the construction of the Gardermoen Line because of a leak in the tunnel Romerike Tunnel, resulting in major budget overruns and a delay in the opening of the tunnel. Still, Norway's first high speed railway line opened on time on 8 October 1998 at the same time as the new airport, though Romeriksporten was not opened until 22 October 1999, more than a year after its scheduled opening; the service is operated using 16 custom built Class 71 electric multiple units, with a capacity for 168 passengers and maximum speed of 210 kilometres per hour. NSB tried to modernize itself in the late 1990s through the acquisition of new rolling stock and a new brand image; the first stock to be delivered were 22 El 18 electric locomotives. These were to take over the passenger train traffic in Southern Norway while the El 16s and El 14s were moved to the freight division and the El 17s were scrapped, relegated to shunting or sold to the Flåm Line.
The new locomotives were capable of speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour. For the diesel lines NSB attempted to buy 12 Di 6 from Siemens, but had to return them after they failed to operate sufficiently in the Northern Norwegian cold. NSB decided to re-brand itself with three district brands: NSB Signatur, NSB Agenda and NSB Puls. At the same time NSB ordered new electric multiple units, first of all for the new Airport Express Train service, Class 71; this was followed up with 16 new Signatur trains of Class 73 that were to be used on the express services on the Bergen Line, the Dovre Line and the Sørlandet Line and equipped with tilting technology. This was an attempt to create a high speed railway service using existing rail track, though the operating times between Oslo and the termini were only reduced by about 10 minutes; these trains were painted blue and grey, were the first non-red trains to be operated by NSB in decades. At the same time NSB announced the introduction of the Agenda concept, to replace the NSB InterCity Express services and the diesel services.
While the Class 70s were repainted, the diesel services on the Nordland Line, the Rauma Line and the Røros Line were upgrades with 15 new Class 93 units in 2001, though criticized for lack of comfort, have increased the speed on the railways. NSB discontinued night train services on the Rauma Line and Røros Line. NSB received, starting in 2002 36 new electrical local trains, Class 72; these were put in the Oslo Commuter Rail and Jæren Commuter Rail. NSB has now discontinued the use of brand names on its rail products. By 2002 the Bondevik's Second Cabinet wanted to further deregulate the Norwegian railway sector, made NSB a limited company NSB AS on 1 July. NSB had been through a process of making the company more of a corporation, with the IT section made the subsidiary Arrive and the maintenance transformed to Mantena. NSB purchased part of the Swedish Tågkompaniet while the old freight train section NSB Gods was transformed to CargoNet. 45% of the subsidiary was sold to the Statens Järnvägar successor Green Cargo.
In 2004 the government split NSB Gardermobanen in two, deleting the companies debt, transferring the track it owned to Jernbaneverket and the train operations to a new, government-own
Aftenposten is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation. It is based in Oslo, it estimated 1.2 million readers. It converted from broadsheet to compact format in March 2005. Aftenposten's online edition is at Aftenposten.no. Aftenposten is a private company wholly owned by the public company Schibsted ASA. Norway's second largest newspaper, VG, is owned by Schibsted. Norwegian owners held a mere 42% of the shares in Schibsted at the end of 2015; the paper has around 740 employees. Espen Egil Hansen is editor-in-chief and CEO as of 2016. Aftenposten was founded by Christian Schibsted on 14 May 1860 under the name Christiania Adresseblad; the following year, it was renamed Aftenposten. Since 1885, the paper has printed two daily editions. A Sunday edition was published until 1919, was reintroduced in 1990; the Friday-morning edition carries the A-magasinet supplement, featuring articles on science and the arts. In 1886, Aftenposten bought a rotary press. Aftenposten labelled itself as "independent, conservative", most aligning their editorial platform with the Norwegian Conservative Party.
This manifested itself in blunt anticommunism during the interwar era. During World War II, due to its large circulation, was put under the directives of the German occupational authorities, a Nazi editorial management was imposed. Aftenposten is based in Oslo. In the late 1980s, Egil Sundar served as the editor-in-chief and attempted to transform the paper into a nationally distributed newspaper. However, he was forced to resign from his post due to his attempt. In addition to the morning edition, Aftenposten publishes; this edition was published on weekdays and Saturdays until the Sunday morning edition was reintroduced in 1990. The evening edition is only circulated in the central eastern part of Norway, i.e. Oslo and Akershus counties. Thus, it focuses on news related to this area, in contrast with the morning edition, which focuses on national and international news; the evening edition was converted to tabloid format in 1997. From April 2006, the Thursday edition of Aften includes a special edition with news specific to a part of Oslo or Akershus, called Lokal Aften.
This edition has eight versions, with each subscriber receives the version, most relevant to the area in which he or she lives. In areas not covered by any of the eight versions, the version for central Oslo is distributed. From May 2009, Aften is only distributed Tuesday through Thursday; the publication of Aften ended on 20 December 2012. Aftenposten started its online edition in 1995. Aftenposten opposed the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to German pacifist Carl von Ossietzky in 1935. In 1945, Aftenposten published an obituary of Adolf Hitler in which the 86-year-old Nobel-laureate novelist Knut Hamsun referred to Hitler as “a warrior for humankind and a preacher of the gospel of justice for all nations”. However, Aftenposten was at the time under the censorship of the German occupying forces. Aftenposten has not received the same number of lawsuits or as much attention from the Norwegian Press Complaints Commission as some of the larger tabloids. However, there are exceptions. In 2007, Aftenposten alleged that Julia Svetlichnaya, the last person to interview the murdered Russian national Alexander Litvinenko, was a Kremlin agent.
London correspondent Hilde Harbo admitted having allowed herself to be fed disinformation emanating from the Russian emigrant community without investigating the matter properly. Aftenposten had to apologize and pay Svetlichnaya's legal costs. Aftenposten has a conservative stance and supported the political party Høyre until the breakdown of party press system in the country. Following this, the paper redefined itself as an independent centre-left. Right-leaning critics have pointed out that the paper has become mainstream social-democratic since the end of the Cold War and thus in essence politically aligned with a large majority of Norway's press. From its establishment in 1860 until 1923, Aftenposten was published in the common Dano-Norwegian written language used in both Norway and Denmark, known as Danish in Denmark and as Norwegian in Norway, which only included minor differences from each other in vocabulary or idiom. In 1923 Aftenposten adopted the Norwegian spelling standard of 1907, which replaced the "soft" consonants characteristic of Danish pronunciation with "hard" consonants characteristic of Eastern Central Norwegian pronunciation, but, otherwise identical with Danish.
In 1928 Aftenposten adopted the most conservative variant of the spelling standard of 1917, similar to the "moderate Bokmål" or "Riksmål" standard used today. During the Norwegian language struggle from the early 1950s, Aftenposten was the main newspaper of the Riksmål variety of Norwegian, maintained close ties to the Riksmål movement's institutions, recognising the Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature as the sole authoritative body for regulating the Norwegian language as used by the newspaper. Due to its status as the country's largest and most influential newspaper, Aftenposten therefore had a significant influence on the developments that took place during the Norwegian language struggle; the "moderate" or "conservative" Riksmål language used by Aftenposten was as
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
The Oslofjord is an inlet in the south-east of Norway, stretching from an imaginary line between the Torbjørnskjær and Færder lighthouses and down to Langesund in the south to Oslo in the north. It is part of the Skagerrak strait, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea; the Oslofjord is not a fjord in the geological sense — in Norwegian the term fjord can refer to a wide range of waterways. The bay is divided into the inner and outer Oslofjord at the point of the 17 by 1 kilometre Drøbak Sound. In the period 1624–1925 the name of the fjord was Kristianiafjorden, since Christiania was the name of the capital in this period; the old Norse name of the fjord was Fold, giving names to the counties of Vestfold and Østfold — and the district Follo. Each of the islands in the innermost part of the fjord has its own identity and distinguishing history. Among them are Hovedøya, Lindøya, Bleikøya, Langøyene; these islands can be reached with the Oslo-boats from Aker Brygge.
Hovedøya contains monastery ruins, Gressholmen for its rabbits, Bleikøya, Lindøya for their cosy cabins at the water’s edge, Langøyene for its camping possibilities and beach. The inner part of the Oslofjord has forest covered hill slopes down towards the fjord; the Oslofjord has Norway’s highest all year temperature: 7.5 degrees Celsius. February is the coldest month in the fjord with -1.3 degrees Celsius, while July has 17.2 degrees Celsius. The islands in the middle of the fjord are among Norway’s warmest with high summer temperatures and moderate winters. Oslofjord’s high temperatures enable various flora to flourish; the oldest settlements in the area surrounding the Oslofjord date from the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. It was here on the eastern and western shores that three of the best preserved Viking ships were unearthed. In historical times, this bay was known by the current name of Viken. Oslofjord has been an important body of water strategically due to its proximity to Oslo. During WWII, there were German installations at several points on its coastline.
One installation in Hovedøya held 1,100 Wehrmacht soldiers and women deemed Nazi collaborators at the National Internment Camp for Women in Hovedøya. Norwegian painter Edvard Munch had a cottage and studio in Åsgårdstrand on the fjord and the Oslofjord appears in several of his paintings, including The Scream and Girls on the Pier; the fjord was the scene of a key event in the German invasion of Norway in April 1940, the Battle of Drøbak Sound. The invasion included a planned landing of 1,000 troops transported by ship to Oslo. Colonel Eriksen, Commander of the Oscarsborg fortress near Drøbak maintained for historical purposes, sank the German heavy cruiser Blücher in the Drøbak narrows; the fortress's resistance blocked the route to Oslo, thus delaying the rest of the group long enough for the royal family, government and national treasury to be evacuated. The result was that Norway never surrendered to the Germans, leaving the Quisling government illegitimate and permitting Norway to participate as an ally in the war, rather than as a conquered nation.
The entire population situated around the Oslofjord including Oslo is about 1.96 million, the total population of all the counties situated around the fjord is 2.2 million. More than 40% of Norway’s population resides under 45 minutes of driving from the Oslofjord; the Oslofjord has Norway’s busiest traffic of ferries and cargo boats. Although the Oslofjord contains hundreds of populated islands, most of the population of the fjord resides on the mainland. In the summer there are boats of all sizes on the fjord, it is possible to go kayaking, canoeing and sailing; the Oslofjord is one of the nine venues of the Class 1 World Powerboat Championship
Oslo Central Station
Oslo Central Station is the main railway station in Oslo, the largest railway station within the entire Norwegian railway system. It is the terminus of Gardermoen Line, Gjøvik Line, Hoved Line and Østfold Line, it serves express and local rail services by four companies. The railway station is operated by Bane NOR while its real estate subsidiary, Bane NOR Eiendom owns the station, was opened in 1980. Oslo Central was built on the site of the older Oslo East Station, the combining of the former east and west stations being made possible by the opening of the Oslo Tunnel. Oslo Central has nineteen tracks; the station has two buildings, the original Oslo East building and the newer main building for Oslo Central. Each building houses a large shopping centre; the square in front of the station is called Jernbanetorget. When the first railway line, was built between Oslo and Eidsvoll in 1854, the terminus in Oslo was constructed as an ad-hoc solution located at Gamlebyen. Alternate sites included Grünerløkka and Vaterland Bridge.
In 1852 an architectural competition was held, a plan based on Crown Street Station in Liverpool won. The station was located east of the river Akerselva, but could not serve as a permanent solution, as it was close to neither the city centre nor the port. In 1859 the freight section of the station was expanded with the purchase of land between Loelva and the port, part of Bjørvika. From the beginning, rail traffic increased after the expansion of the Trunk Line to Hamar in 1862, the opening of the Kongsvinger Line in 1865. In 1872 Oslo got its second terminal station, located at Pipervika near Aker Brygge and the city hall. Oslo West Station was built to allow the narrow-gauged Drammen Line between Drammen and Oslo to terminate in downtown Oslo; the two stations were located about 2 km apart and were not connected by rail until 1907 when the Oslo Port Line was built. There had been discussions about building a central station to connect the Drammen Line with the eastern station, but this idea involved building it via Majorstuen and Grefsen.
Oslo V always remained a secondary railway station in Oslo, since it served local traffic to Buskerud and Vestfold in addition to the Sørland Line. The year after the western station opened, in 1873, the Norwegian legislature, the Storting, decided to build a new railway from Kornsjø at the Swedish border through Østfold to Oslo, the Smaalenene Line. Traffic at the station was expected to explode due to this railway and it was decided that a new station had to be built; the engineers within NSB wanted to locate this new station west of the river Akerselva, between Jernbanetorget and Bjørvika. But a conflict arose between Carl Abraham Pihl, director of NSB at the time, the City of Oslo. While Pihl wanted a separate station for the Smaalenene Line, the city wanted to concentrate the stations in one place in Oslo; the engineers insisted on moving the station closer to the city. The architect Georg Andreas Bull drafted four plans for a new station with nine tracks over the river Akerselva. In 1878 the legislature decided to build the smallest suggested station—with only seven tracks over the river, claiming that the station was oversized.
Oslo East Station opened in 1882. But it was soon recognized; the population of Oslo doubled to 150,000 between 1875 and 1890 and from the opening of the station to 1890, the traffic increased from 400,000 passengers annually to more than a million. The most critical part was the freight section, where the trains had to use the main railway for switching. One of the proposed solutions was to build the line from Østfold on a viaduct into the station and elevate it on a level above the other tracks. Another problem arose in 1893; some suggested a station at Grefsen with one via Majorstuen to Oslo West. The Storting decided in 1895. To start the expansion of the station, the Storting announced a competition in 1896, won by Sam Eyde, his plan was to move the freight section away from the passenger sections to Lodalen. The plan was put to the Storting in 1899, with 70 against 39 votes, the new station was delayed because of the high projected costs. A committee was appointed to look at other possible solutions.
The committee split in its final decision, but both factions agreed that a new railway had to be built between the two stations, proposed a line past the city hall in a tunnel under Akershus Fortress. But again the plan was weakened by the Storting and the only construction to take place was new extensions of the Smaalenene Line and Gjøvik Line and some minor changes to the freight section; the new Oslo Port Line that connected the two stations opened in 1907. Another committee was created in 1938 to work out plans for a central station; this was the first project to propose a tunnel under the entire city that would branch off from the Drammen Line before Oslo West. The committee proposed two plans, one where all traffic was directed to the new central station and one where the suburban traffic went to Oslo West, it considered construction of a line north of the city via Grefsen to Oslo East, but this was not recommended. The proposed tunnel below the city was to be 1,660 metres long; the plan included a twelve-story building for NSB's administration at the station, which at the time was spread around at 14 different locations in the city.
The committee delivered its
Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port, it has a population of 633,471. Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage; the near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the industrialized Ruhr; the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was located at the present-day Hoogstraat. On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands and Germany, to urbanize; the port of Rotterdam grew but into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success; when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe; some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad; the statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s, it remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by: the Beneluxtunnel. The former railway lift bridge De Hef is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland and the south of Rotterdam; the city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid. From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built behind di