The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany, active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away into völkisch nationalism. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes. Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race.
The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich.
Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war. Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat. Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria. Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.
Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and was brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, the term is not considered slang, has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In 1918, a league called the Freier Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden was created in Bremen, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith, a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler emphasised the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism, in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism and internationalist politics; these were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart, a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer, a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. In 1918, Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel; the members met perio
Bardufoss is an urban area and commercial centre in Målselv Municipality in Troms county, Norway. The three villages of Andselv and Heggelia together form the Bardufoss area. Bardufoss is located in the Målselvdalen valley near the confluence of the Barduelva and Målselva rivers, it is located about 82 kilometres north of the town of Narvik and about 70 kilometres south of the city of Tromsø. Bardufoss Airport is located here; the 2.96-square-kilometre urban area has a population of 2,545 which gives it a population density of 860 inhabitants per square kilometre. Bardufoss has a civilian and military airport, Bardufoss Air Station, suitable for landing bomber aircraft, fighter jets such as F-16s, other heavy planes. Bardufoss was the home of the Norwegian Army's 6th division. There is a street in Bardufoss, named General Fleischers Veg in honour of Carl Gustav Fleischer; the airport was renamed Snowman International on 19 March 2011 by a Norwegian Minister after a commercial flight landed from Manchester, England, to join the celebrations.
Bardufoss is covered in flora. The natural forest is made up of Downy birch, Scots pine and Grey alder. However, Norway spruce has been planted in plantations since the middle part of the 20th century for economic reasons. Although not far from the coast, Bardufoss and Målselvdalen is known for a somewhat more continental climate, hence, colder winters compared to the coastal areas. There is a reliable snow cover in winter, while summer days are warmer than in Tromsø. There is on average 93 days each winter with daily low −10 °C or colder, 28 days with low −20 °C or colder; the winter season sees on average 68 days with at least 50 centimetres snow cover on the ground, 126 days with at least 25 centimetres snow cover, 179 days with at least 5 centimetres snow cover. In the warm season there is on average 116 days per year when the daily average high reaches 10 °C or warmer and 22 days with daily average high above 20 °C. Precipitation is moderate, there is on average 75 days each year with at least 3 millimetres precipitation and 15 days per year with at least 10 millimetres precipitation.
This is based on data from Met.no with 1971-2000 as base period. Recent years have seen warming. Six of the monthly record highs are from after 2000; the most recent record low is from 1988. SAS: About Bardufoss Exercise Cold Response yr.no: Weather and climate statistics for Bardufoss
Glossary of Nazi Germany
This is a list of words, terms and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime. Some words were coined by other Nazi Party members. Other words and concepts were borrowed and appropriated, other terms were in use during the Weimar Republic; some are taken from Germany's cultural tradition. 25-point programme – The Nazi Party platform and a codification of its ideology. 581 Abel autobiography – Weimar period Nazi Party membership data source. Abbeförderung – dispatching, removal. Abgeräumt – cleared away. Abhörverbrecher – Germans and others in the occupied countries who illegally listened to foreign news broadcasts Abkindern – an intended colloquial designation for the cancellation of a marriage loan through the production of offspring. In German, ab means "off" and Kind means "child". Ablieferungspflicht – delivery duty on farm products and other goods which had to be contributed to the state to be sold on the German market Abrechnung mit den Juden – "the settling of accounts with the Jews".
SS-Abschnitt – SS district or district headquarters. Absiedlung – resettlement. After 4 February 1938, its name in title was Foreign Affairs/Defence Office of the Armed Forces High Command. Abwehrangelegenheiten – counterespionage issues Abwehrpolizei – counter-espionage police. A function of the border police controlled by the Gestapo Abwehrstelle – Military Intelligence Center Achsenmächte – Axis powers "Achtung, Feind hört mit!" – "Watch out, the enemy is listening!". In the eyes of radical National Socialists, Hitler's Legality Oath had conceded too much to his political enemies, in the same way as had the Duke of Orléans, who adopted the name Philippe Égalité during the French Revolution. Agrarpolitischer Apparat – Agrarian Apparatus. Leadership hierarchy: Reichsleitungsfachberater held by Richard Walther Darré. Ahnenerbe Forschungs- und Lehrgemeinschaft – Society for Research and the Teaching of Ancestral Heritage Ahnennachweise – genealogical tree used to prove ancestry Ahnenpass – an identification card, supposed to be carried by all Germans to demonstrate one's Aryan race lineage.
Ahnenschein – a document used to show correct Aryan descent. Akademiker – a member of those professions whose exercise required university study as a prerequisite; the term was avoided because it fostered caste mentality and contradicted the ideal of the Volk community. The proportion of academics from a working-class background increased during the Nazi era, but remained minuscule in actual numbers. A. Kr. – abbreviation of Auf Kriegsdauer, which means "for the duration of the war". It was added to a title to indicate the limited promotion prospects for bureaucrats. Aktion — euphemism for a mass-murder operation. Aktion 1005 – called the Sonderaktion 1005 or Enterdungsaktion, was the 1942–44 secret Nazi operation for concealing evidence of their own largest mass-killings. Laborers—facetiously called "Sonderkommando 1005" —would be taken under guard to a closed death camp to clear the site of structures while a sub-unit, the "Leichenkommandos", were forced to exhume bodies from mass graves, burn the remains, sometimes to grind down larger bone pieces in portable bone-crusher mills.
Some Einsatzgruppen mass graves were cleared out. Aktion Reinhardt – code name given on 4 June 1942 for the assignment to exterminate all Polish Jews in honor of SS Deputy Chief Reinhard Heydrich, assassinated during a covert operation. Aktion T4 – code name for the extermination of mentally ill and handicapped patients by the Nazi authorities. Aktivismus – political maxim of National Socialism as a "fighting movement", as opposed to "bourgeois p
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Grini detention camp
Grini prison camp was a Nazi concentration camp in Bærum, which operated between 1941 and May 1945. Ila Detention and Security Prison is now located here. Grini was built as a women's prison, near an old croft named Ilen, on land bought from the Løvenskiold family by the Norwegian state; the construction of a women's prison started in 1938, but despite being more or less finished in 1940, it did not come into use for its original purpose: Nazi Germany's invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940, during World War II, instead precipitated the use of the site for detention by the Nazi regime. At first, the Nazis used the prison to detain Norwegian officers captured during the Norwegian Campaign fighting; this use was discontinued in June 1940. The prison was used to house Wehrmacht soldiers until a concentration camp was established on 14 June 1941; the first detainees were sent from Åneby concentration camp, the use of, at the same time discontinued. Shortly afterwards, the ranks of prisoners were increased by Soviet troops captured during Operation Barbarossa.
The camp was run by Schutzstaffel and Gestapo personnel, who renamed the camp Polizeihäftlingslager Grini. The name corresponds to a nearby farm and surrounding residential district located a short distance southeast of the camp, but the area at Ilen had no connection to Grini farm. At first inmates were detained on the premises of the original prison, but in 1942 an extra barracks had to be built to enlarge capacity. In August 1942, the Veidal Prison Camp was created as a subunit of the camp. Grini was used for Norwegian political prisoners, but the detention of more regular criminals followed. Many were held at Grini before being shipped to camps in Germany. Many teachers who took part in the civil disobedience of 1942 were held at Grini for one day before being taken to Kirkenes via Jørstadmoen. A small number of foreign citizens were held there. Altogether, 19,247 prisoners passed through Grini, at most there were 6,208. Among these were the survivors of Operation Checkmate, a 1942 British commando raid, including their leader, John Godwin, RN.
They were subsequently sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp where they were executed in February 1945. The total number killed at Grini is unknown, though the Gestapo and police used the area for purposes of torture and at least eight people were executed there. British airborne troops sent by glider to sabotage the Norsk Hydro heavy-water plant during Operation Freshman crashed in Norway due to foul weather; the five uninjured survivors were taken prisoner and held at Grini concentration camp until 18 January 1943, when they were taken to nearby woods and shot in the back of the head by the Gestapo. This was a war crime, in breach of the Geneva Convention. Executions took place at Akershus Fortress or Trandumskogen. Camps in other parts of Norway, including Fannrem, Kvænangen and Bardufoss, were organized as part of the Grini system. German forces maintained a military camp at Huseby, not far from Grini. Other than guards, the German occupiers devoted few personnel to the camp. Since many politicians and cultural personalities were detained at Grini, a certain level of internal organization was established.
Prisoners worked in manufacturing and other manual labor. Much of this manual labor took place outside the camp; some detainees maintained their pre-war specialties, such as literary historian Francis Bull who secretly held several lectures, managed to publish three books with material written during his three-year stay at Grini. The diet at Grini was poor. After the war, it caused a certain stir in the populace when it was perceived that Nazi prisoners of the liberated Norway were treated better than prisoners of the Nazi regime. On the other hand, Grini was more hospitable to resistance prisoners than the similar camps in Germany. On 7 May 1945 Harry Söderman, in charge of the education of the Norwegian police troops in Sweden, arrived in the camp and ordered commander Zeidler to arrange an assembly, first for the 5,000 male prisoners, for the 500 females; the women were released while the male detainees were asked to stay in the camp for a few days until transport could be arranged, leadership of the camp was handed over to the prisoners' representatives.
Prisoners from Møllergata 19 and Victoria Terrasse were transferred to Grini the same day. After the liberation of Norway in May 1945, the prison was used for Norwegians tried or convicted of treason or collaboration, as a part of the legal purge in Norway after World War II. Since the name "Grini" was now associated with the Norwegian resistance movement, hence seen as heroic, the camp was renamed Ilebu; the new name reflected the actual location of the camp better. 3,440 people were imprisoned here in July 1945. The conditions in the camp were unhealthy, with beri-beri breaking out in the summer. A guard reported. On 13 October 1945 the National Mobile Police Service conducted a razzia. During the razzia, prosecutor Lauritz Jenssen Dorenfeldt and the wife of camp commandant Helge Gleditsch were wrongly rounded up in the yard, it was closed in 1951 but reopened in the same year under the name Ila as a "landsfengsel og sikringsanstalt", a prison for criminals serving long-term sentences. Much of the camp, including the barracks, has been torn down.
One preserved barracks building t
Falstad concentration camp
Falstad concentration camp was situated in the village of Ekne in what was the municipality of Skogn in Norway. It was used for political prisoners from Nazi-occupied territories; the boarding school for boys at Falstad was founded as part of the general movement in Europe and Norway in particular, to reform the penal system for children. Prison director Anders Daae took the initiative in founding a private institution in Trøndelag, to be modeled after similar schools in Europe, he raised funds through the Trondhjems Brændevinssamlag and Trondhjems Sparebank and acquired the farm known as Nedre Falstad for 80,000 kr in 1895, along with the farm buildings. It was explicitly originated to serve the needs of the "misguided" rather than criminal youth through education, a "Christian spirit."The main building burned down the same year the institution was established. New buildings were constructed, in 1910, the Norwegian government took over the operations of the school. In 1921, there was another fire, the new brick structures that followed were based on 19th century prison designs, with a courtyard in the middle of a rectangular building.
Nazi German authorities first visited Falstad in August 1941 with the hope of making it a center for the Lebensborn program in Norway, but found it unsuitable for this task. However, they decided to put it to use as a prison camp in September 1941; the inhabitants of Ekne were put under severe restrictions, the first prisoners—about 170 Danes who had volunteered and reneged on being a part of the Todt Organisation. The Danish inmates spent three months in the camp, using the time to start construction of the barbed wire fence and watch towers. Within the command structure of the German occupying authorities in Norway, Falstad came under the civilian authority of Reichskommissar Josef Terboven through Wilhelm Rediess, in charge of all German police, including the SS and Gestapo, Heinrich Fehlis, "Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des Sicherheitsdienst," conveniently abbreviated to BdS. For reasons that remain unclear, Falstad was part of the Fifth Section, known as the "Kriminalpolizei," or criminal police.
For all practical purposes, Falstad became the personal prison of Gerhard Flesch, the leader of the regional Einsatzkommando V, with the title KdS Drontheim. The camp inmate population grew new buildings were erected. Prison barracks were built southeast of the main building, utility buildings were constructed around the center, the commander's quarters were erected nearby on the other side of the river. In all, the grounds were monitored from three watchtowers; the camp authorities burned what documents they could before the liberation of 1945, but it is estimated that at least 4,500 prisoners passed through Falstad. Citizens of at least 13 countries were among these inmates. Although the camp was intended for political prisoners, several thousand prisoners of war were kept there. Most of them were sent to other camps in Germany or Poland, or to Grini concentration camp, in Norway; the camp became notorious for its use as a transit camp for the deportation of Norwegian Jews to Auschwitz. Forty-seven Jewish men were imprisoned at Falstad at another.
One, Ephraim Wolff Koritzinsky, died of cancer at Levanger Hospital on 15 May 1942. At least eight were murdered at Falstad; the main characteristic of the camp was forced and meaningless labor. Degradations and abuse were commonplace under the administration of SS-Hauptscharführer Gogol and Edward F. Lambrecht, a prison guard known among the prisoners as Gråbein —an appellation used in reference to wolves; the camp commanders used the nearby forest as a site for extrajudicial executions of POWs, following show trials of political and Jewish prisoners. The first executions took place on 7 March 1942, when Olav Sverre Benjaminsen, Abel Lazar Bernstein, David Isaksen, Wulf Isaksen, David Wolfsohn were shot. All of these, except Benjaminsen, were Jewish. In June 1942, Ljuban Vukovic, a Yugoslav POW, was made the first grave digger in the forest, he became an important witness in the post-war trials. On 6 October 1942, the Nazi authorities imposed martial law on sections of central Norway, at least 170 non-Norwegian prisoners and 34 Norwegian political prisoners were put to death in the forest just south of Falstad.
On 13 November 1942, Moritz Abrahamsen, Kalman Glick, Herman Schidorsky, all Jewish, were put to death. On 16 February 1943, Toralf Berg—a resistance fighter—was executed. During the summer of 1943, a change in the command of the camp led to improved conditions for the remaining prisoners. Throughout all this, more than 150 unnamed POWs were shot in the forest. During 4–5 May 1945, the camp authorities sought to exhume and hide the bodies of their victims, sinking about 25 in the fjord near the camp. Efforts to find, exhume and bury the victims are ongoing; the original estimate of 202 dead is considered low. There were six camp commandants at Falstad during the war: Paul Schöning, Paul Gogol, Werner Jeck, Georg Bauer, Karl Denk. None of these were prosecuted for war crimes in Norway, though Denk may have faced trial in Germany for unrelated charges. Gerhard Flesch, Kommandeur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD Trondheim 1941 to 1945 was sentenced to death during the Legal purge in Norway after World War II.
Walter Hollack, Gestapo officer who acted as "prosecutor" during the tribunals in 1942, was sentenced to a life term of hard labor, but was pardoned in 1953 and
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978, when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norway's two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, respectively; the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The slump in sales for paperbased encyclopedias around the turn of the 21st century hit Kunnskapsforlaget hard, but a fourth edition of the paper encyclopedia was secured by a grant of 10 million Norwegian kroner from the foundation Fritt Ord in 2003; the fourth edition consisted of a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries. First edition, 1978-1981, 12 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås Second edition, 1986-1989, 15 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås.
Third edition, 1995-1998, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen. Fourth edition, 2005-2007, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen; the online edition of SNL was launched in 2000, had both private and institutional subscribers. The paywall was removed on 25 February 2009, the online encyclopedia became free. On 12 March 2010, Kunnskapsforlaget announced that they would close the online encyclopedia because of lacklustre sales and failing revenue, it was announced that the articles would not be given to the Wikimedia Foundation, with chief-editor Petter Henriksen stating that: "It is important that the people behind the articles remain visible". In 2011, the foundations Fritt Ord and Sparebankstiftelsen DNB acquired the encyclopedia, hired Anne Marit Godal as the new chief editor and established a new organisation, assisted by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers and Translators Association. In 2014 the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association took over the encyclopedia.
In 2016 Erik Bolstad became the new chief editor. As of 2018, the SNL has around 200,000 articles online, updated by 750 affiliated academics; the SNL accepts contributions from users, but all changes to the articles are verified by a topic expert before publication. The online encyclopedia are among the most-read Norwegian published sites, with around 2 million unique visitors per month; the online version of Store norske leksikon