Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Galoshes known as dickersons, rubbers, or overshoes, are a type of rubber boot, slipped over shoes to keep them from getting muddy or wet. In the United States, the word galoshes may be used interchangeably with boot a rubberized boot. In the United Kingdom, however, a galosh is an overshoe made of a weatherproof material to protect a more vulnerable shoe underneath and keep the foot warm and dry; the word comes through French and Latin from Greek and meant a shoemaker's last. By the 14th century it had been transferred to English style clogs, those with a wooden sole and fabric upper. By 1572 the term applied to "a Gallage or Patten". In Turkey, the word refers to a polythene overshoe, worn temporarily when visiting homes or offices, to protect the floors against dirt from the outside."Goloshes" appears to be the older spelling of galoshes used in Great Britain. The spelling changed around 1920 to the present-day spelling; the transition from a traditional wooden sole to one of vulcanized rubber may be attributed to Charles Goodyear and Leverett Candee.
The qualities of rubber, though fascinating to Goodyear, were dependent on temperature: it was tacky when hot, brittle when cold. Vulcanization of rubber tempered its properties so that it was molded and tough. A rubberized elastic webbing made Goodyear's galoshes easy to pull off. Galoshes are now universally made of rubber. In the bootmakers' trade, a "galosh" is the piece of leather, of a make stronger than, or different from, that of the "uppers", which runs around the bottom part of a boot or shoe, just above the sole. A more modern term for galoshes could be bad weather shoes. Overshoes have evolved in the past decades and now are being made with more advanced features, such as high traction outsoles. An unconfirmed legend states, he wanted to keep his feet dry. While reading De Bello Gallico by Julius Caesar he noticed a description of protective cloth overshoes "gallicae" and decided to capitalize on the idea, he patented. There are records of an inventor by the name of Alvin Longo Rickman, who received a patent for an overshoe in 1898There are two basic types.
One is like an oversize shoe or low boot made of thick rubber with a heavy sole and instep, designed for heavy-duty use. The other one is of much thinner, more flexible material, more like a rubber slipper, designed for protection against the wet rather than for extensive walking. Russian FM radio station Silver Rain Radio has presented a "Silver Galosh Award" for the most dubious achievements in show business every year since 1996; this references the Russian idiom "to sit into a galosh", which means "to embarrass oneself" or "to screw up". Gummo Marx, the fifth of the Marx brothers, who quit the act during the family's vaudeville days and thus never appeared in a Marx Brothers film, was nicknamed by Art Fisher based on his habit of always wearing gumshoes. While all the other performers wore street shoes, thus made a loud noise when they walked on a hardwood stage, Milton was known for startling people by appearing from out of nowhere, because the gumshoes on his feet gave him a nearly soundless footfall.
Hans Christian Andersen wrote a fairy tale The Goloshes of Fortune about magic galoshes which made every wish of their bearers true, but this didn't bring them real fortune or happiness. There are children's movies based on The Magic Galoshes and Russian Galoshi schastya. James Joyce's short story "The Dead" discusses "goloshes"; the anti-Bolshevik scientist of Mikhail Bulgakov's story Heart of a Dog traces the downfall of Russian civilization to the disappearance of all the galoshes from the front hall of his apartment building one fine day of March 1917. In the book Big Nate on a Roll, Mr. Galvin says he sold galoshes as a child when he was a Timber Scout, he says that when Nate is shown drawing his dream skateboard, which he can win if he raises money selling cheesey wall hangings. It is the first time. In the Star Trek episode "A Piece of the Action", Scotty makes reference to "concrete galoshes", another term for "cement overshoes", used by the Mafia to dispose of their victims. In the stop-motion holiday special, Here Comes Peter Cottontail, the Vincent Price-voiced villain, January Q.
Irontail, makes plans to replace the traditional Easter bonnet with Easter galoshes. In the Mighty Boosh episode "The Strange Tale of the Crack Fox", the Crack Fox asks Vince to move his galoshes before sitting down, referring to a pair of used condoms he calls "squishy boots". In the Adventure Time episode "The Jiggler", Finn and Jake comment that their exploded pet Jiggler is "all over the place between the floorboards, the cupboards and the galoshes", which appear to be just a regular pair of rain boots. Galesh Wellington boot BooksLawlor, Laurie. Where Will This Shoe Take You? A Walk Through the History of Footwear. New York: Walker and Company, 1996. Moilliet, J. L. ed. Waterproofing and Water-Repellency. London: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1963. O'Keefe, Linda. Shoes: A Celebration of Pumps, Slippers, & More. New York: Workman Publishing, 1996. Yue and David. Shoes: Their History in Words and Pictures. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997. PeriodicalsCaniza
La Broque is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC was a French military commander in World War II and the First Indochina War. He was posthumously promoted to Marshal of France; as an officer during World War I, he fought in combat in various battles, including Verdun and was wounded five times, surviving the war with 8 citations, the Légion d'honneur and the Military Cross. During the Interwar period, he took part in campaigns in Morocco where he was wounded in action again, he pursued a career in the general staff headquarters and as a commander of a regiment. Early in World War II, from May to June 1940, he was the youngest French Général, he led his division during the Battle of France, at the battles of Rethel, Champagne-Ardenne, Loire and until the Armistice of 22 June 1940. During the Vichy Regime, he remained in the Armistice Army, first in regional command posts as commander-in-chief of troops in Tunisia. After the disembarking of Allied forces in North Africa, on 11 November 1942, the Germans invaded the free zone.
He was arrested but escaped and defected to Charles de Gaulle's Free France at end of 1943. From 1943 to 1945 he was one of the senior leaders of the Liberation Army, commanding the forces which landed in the South of France on 15 August 1944 fought up to the Rivers Rhine and Danube, he was the only French general of World War II to command large numbers of American troops, when the US XXI Corps was attached to his First Army during the battle of the Colmar Pocket. He was the French representative at Berlin on 8 May 1945, with Eisenhower and Montgomery. Commander-in-Chief of French Forces in Germany in 1945 Inspector Général of the French Army and General Headquarters of National Defence in 1947, he was the vice-president of the Supreme War Council. From 1948 to 1950 he served as Commander-in-chief of the Western Union's ground forces. In 1951, he was the High Commissioner, commander-in-chief in Indochina and commander-in-chief of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps, winning several battles against the Việt Minh.
His only son was killed there illness forced him to return to Paris where he died of cancer in 1952. He was elevated to the dignity of Marshal of France posthumously in 1952 during his state funeral, he was born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds, in the same village of World War I leader Georges Clemenceau, to an aristocratic family. From 1898 to 1904, he prepared for the French Naval School and Saint-Cyr, where he won a place in 1908, he graduated 5th in his class. He entered the cavalry school at Saumur. In 1912, he was a sous-lieutenant assigned to the 12th Dragoon Regiment, he was wounded for the first time on 11 August 1914, by a shrapnel munition blast during a reconnaissance mission. On 14 September, he was wounded again by an Uhlan's lance while leading the charge of his dragoon troop. Weakened by his wound, he was saved from captivity by an officer of the 5th Hussard Regiment, he received the Légion d'honneur. In 1915, he was promoted to captain in the 93rd Infantry Division and fought in the Battle of Verdun for 16 months enduring 5 wounds, for which he received 8 citations and the Military Cross.
He was assigned to the 2nd bureau of general staff headquarters of the 21st Infantry Division. In 1919, he was assigned to the Franco-American section at Bordeaux to the 49th Infantry Regiment at Bayonne. From 1921 to 1926, he was posted in Morocco and took part in various battles, where he was wounded, received three citations and was promoted to the rank of Chef de battaillon. From 1927 to 1929, he took further courses at the War College, where he was awarded the ceremonial honour of chief of the graduation class. In 1928, he was assigned to the 5th Infantry Regiment. In 1931, he was assigned to the bureau of the Chief of the Defence Staff. With the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, he was assigned to the general headquarters staff of général Maxime Weygand. During this posting, he was tasked with following foreign international policies, internal politics and the challenges of complex military budgets initiatives. With the retirement of Weygand who had reached mandatory retirement age, de Lattre was retained in the general headquarters staff of général Alphonse Joseph Georges.
In 1935, he was promoted to colonel and appointed regimental commander of the 151st Infantry Regiment. Between 1937 and 1938, he studied courses at the Centre for Higher Military Studies. In 1938 he became Chief of Staff at the headquarters of the military governor of Strasbourg. Promoted to Brigadier General on 22 March 1939, the youngest général of France, he was subsequently assigned as Chief of Staff at general headquarters of the 5th Army, on 3 September 1939. In January 1940, he took command of the 14th Infantry Division engaging the enemy at Rethel where his division resisted for an entire month, three times repelling enemy assaults in front of the River Aisne; the division continued to fight at Champagne-Ardenne, at Mourmelon conducted delaying actions on the Marne, Loire and Nièvre
A prop, formally known as property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production. In practical terms, a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, scenery and electrical equipment. Consumable food items appearing in the production are considered props; the earliest known use of the term "properties" in English to refer to stage accessories is in the 1425 CE morality play, The Castle of Perseverance. The Oxford English Dictionary finds the first usage of "props" in 1841, while the singular form of "prop" appeared in 1911. During the Renaissance in Europe, small acting troupes functioned as cooperatives, pooling resources and dividing any income. Many performers provided their own costumes, but special items—stage weapons, furniture or other hand-held devices—were considered "company property"; some experts however seem to think that the term comes from the idea that stage or screen objects "belong" to whoever uses them on stage.
There is no difference between props such as theatre, film, or television. Bland Wade, a properties director, says, "A coffee cup onstage is a coffee cup on television, is a coffee cup on the big screen." He adds, "There are different responsibilities and different vocabulary." The term "theatrical property" originated to describe an object used in a stage play and similar entertainments to further the action. Technically, a prop is any object that gives the scenery, actors, or performance space specific period, place, or character; the term comes from live-performance practice theatrical methods, but its modern use extends beyond the traditional plays and musical, novelty and public-speaking performances, to film and electronic media. Props in a production originate from off stage unless they have been preset on the stage before the production begins. Props are stored on a prop table backstage near the actor's entrance during production generally locked in a storage area between performances.
The person in charge of handling the props is called the "props master". Other positions include coordinators, production assistants and interns as may be needed for a specific project; the term has transferred to television, motion picture and video game production, where they are referred to by the phrase movie prop, film prop or prop. In recent years, the increasing popularity of movie memorabilia has added new meaning to the term "prop", broadening its existence to include a valuable after-life as a prized collector's item. Not available until after a film's premiere, movie props appearing on-screen are called "screen-used", can fetch thousands of dollars in online auctions and charity benefits. Many props are ordinary objects. However, a prop must "read well" from the house or on-screen, meaning it must look real to the audience. Many real objects are poorly adapted to the task of looking like themselves to an audience, due to their size, durability, or color under bright lights, so some props are specially designed to look more like the actual item than the real object would look.
In some cases, a prop is designed to behave differently from how the real object would for the sake of safety. Examples of special props are: A prop sack representing a burlap bag, might have another black fabric bag sewn, discreetly inside the burlap, giving it strength, hiding the contents and creating a visual void to the audience view. A prop mop, representing a string mop, but built out of a rectangular shape covered with fabric, so the mop can be slid across the stage to another actress as part of a musical number. A prop weapon that looks functional, but lacks the intentional harmfulness of the corresponding real weapon. In the theater, prop weapons are always either non-operable replicas, or have safety features to ensure they are not dangerous. Guns fire caps or noisy blanks, swords are dulled, knives are made of plastic or rubber. In film production functional weapons are used, but only with special smoke blanks with blank adapted guns instead of real bullets. Real cartridges with bullets removed are still dangerously charged which has caused several tragic instances when used on stage or film.
The safety and proper handling of real weapons used as movie props is the premiere responsibility of the prop master. ATF and other law enforcement agencies may monitor the use of real guns for film and television, but this is not necessary with stage props as these guns are permanently "plugged". Breakaway objects, or stunt props, such as balsa-wood furniture, or sugar glass whose breakage and debris look real but cause injury due to their light weight and weak structure. For such safe props often a stunt double will replace the main actor for shots involving use of breakaway props. Rubber bladed-weapons and guns are examples of props used by stuntmen to minimize injury, or by actors where the action requires a prop which minimizes injury. "Hero" props are the more detailed pieces intended for close inspection by the audience. The hero prop may have legible writing, moving parts, or other attributes or functions missing from a standard prop; the term is used on occasion for any of the items that a main character wou
Muhlbach-sur-Bruche is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Media related to Muhlbach-sur-Bruche at Wikimedia Commons
Sélestat is a commune in the north-east region of France. An administrative division of the Bas-Rhin department, the town lies on the Ill river, 17 kilometres from the Rhine and the German border. Sélestat is located between the largest communes of Alsace and Mulhouse. In 2013, Sélestat had a total population of 19,332, which makes it the eighth most populous town in Alsace. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance it was the third largest city in the region, after Strasbourg and Colmar, it is ranked the third commune in Alsace for cultural heritage. Sélestat was founded in the 8th century as a port on the Ill and it experienced a long period of prosperity thanks to the trade in wine and a thriving religious and cultural life, it declined after the Reformation and the French conquest in the 17th century. The town experienced a new demographic growth in the second half of the 20th century when it became a small industrial and cultural centre. Thanks to its rich heritage, which includes the renowned Humanist Library and an imposing pair of medieval churches, Sélestat is an important tourist destination in Alsace.
It benefits from its location on the Alsace wine road and its proximity to Haut-Kœnigsbourg castle. Aside from the medieval old town, the commune of Sélestat encompasses a nature reserve including one of the largest riparian forests of France; the present name of the town is a Frenchification of the original Germanic name. It appeared soon after the French conquest in the 17th century; the town is called Schlettstàdt in Schlettstadt in German. Sélestat was first mentioned in 727 as Sclastat, it was mentioned as Scalistati in 775, as Slectistat in 881, as Sclezistat in 884 and as Slezestat in 1095. The current German name, appeared in 1310, although various spellings can be noticed on posterior documents, such as Schlestat and Schlestat; the French administration used various forms from the 17th to the 19th century, such as Frenchified and Germanic. The town was known as Schlettstadt between 1871 and 1919, when Alsace was part of the German Empire. Since 1920, the town's French name is fixed as Sélestat.
The origin of the name "Schlettstadt" is unclear. It derives from Germanic words slade or sclade meaning "marshes", stat for "city". Sélestat would be a "city in the marshes", a reference to its position in the Grand Ried, a vast area subject to flooding that stretches over the centre of Alsace. Stat could mean "area" rather than "city". A popular myth explains that the town takes its name from a dragon called Schletto that founded the settlement after opening up the nearby Lièpvre valley in the Vosges mountains. Sélestat was first mentioned in 727 AD but the town has an earlier Celtic or Roman origin. Archaeological findings provide evidence of human settlement during the Mesolithic, the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. A large number of wood piles dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD were discovered around St. Quirin chapel, suggesting a Roman settlement. At that time Sélestat might have been a port on the river Ill; when Sélestat started to appear in written documents in the 8th century, it may have been a market town or a village populated by fishermen and farmers.
The area was part of the estate of Eberhard, a member of the Alsatian ducal family, who donated it to Murbach Abbey at the end of his life. In 775, Charlemagne spent Christmas in Sélestat, which indicates that the town must have had enough appropriate buildings and population to accommodate his court and troops. In the 1080s, Sélestat was the property of Hildegard von Eguisheim, mother of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia, the first member of the House of Hohenstaufen. Hildegard transformed the place into a religious centre when she founded St. Faith's Church, which she gave to the Benedictines of Conques Abbey. Monks from Conques opened a priory next to the church in 1092; the House of Hohenstaufen became the leading dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, which came to the imperial throne in 1152. Being under their protection, the priory of Sélestat influenced local life. Though Sélestat constituted a distinct parish, its priest had only limited power and the Benedictine prior was the true head of the municipality.
At the end of the 12th century, the Hohenstaufen dynasty lost power and as a result the priory started to decline. The citizens used this opportunity to reduce the prior's dominance and secure the power of their parish, they started to build a new parish church in the 1220s. St. George's Church was designed in Gothic style and was larger than St. Faith's Church, another way to signify the end of Benedictine hegemony. Frederick II, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in the 13th century, realised that his dynasty was losing its power and granted freedoms to many cities in order to keep their allegiance; these cities became Free imperial cities and Sélestat became one of them in 1217. Under the new status Sélestat was able to collect taxes on its own, its serfs and settlers were freed. The German monarch Adolf of Nassau granted Sélestat a constitution in 1292, it was amended many times but it regulated local politics until 1789. Although the new status favoured trade and prosperity, free cities in Alsace were afraid that they would not be defended by imperial forces if a conflict was to occur.
So they decided to form an alliance called the Decapolis in 1354, which comprised ten cities:. The seat of the alliance was in Hague