Lithography is a method of printing based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a metal plate with a smooth surface, it was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate; the stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; the ink would be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate; the image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s; the related term "photolithography" refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. "Photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.
Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of water; the image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, its ability to withstand water and acid.
After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca2, gum arabic on all non-image surfaces; the gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink; when printing, the stone is kept wet with water. The water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is rolled over the surface; the water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it.
When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone. Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, a print went through the press separately for each stone; the main challenge was to keep the images aligned. This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period. "Lithography, or printing from soft stone took the place of engraving in the production of English
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of different groups; the term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit word lākshā representing the number 100,000, used for both the lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion, rich in shellac, that it produces, used as wood finish in ancient India and neighbouring areas. Asian lacquerware, which may be called "true lacquer", are objects coated with the treated and dried sap of Toxicodendron vernicifluum or related trees, applied in several coats to a base, wood; this dries to a hard and smooth surface layer, durable and attractive to feel and look at. Asian lacquer is sometimes painted with pictures, inlaid with shell and other materials, or carved, as well as dusted with gold and given other further decorative treatments. In modern techniques, lacquer means a range of clear or coloured wood finishes that dry by solvent evaporation or a curing process that produces a hard, durable finish.
The finish can be of any sheen level from ultra matte to high gloss, it can be further polished as required. It is used for "lacquer paint", a paint that dries better on a hard and smooth surface. In terms of modern products for coating finishes, lac-based finishes are to be referred to as shellac, while lacquer refers to other polymers dissolved in volatile organic compounds, such as nitrocellulose, acrylic compounds dissolved in lacquer thinner, a mixture of several solvents containing butyl acetate and xylene or toluene. Lacquer is more durable than shellac; the English lacquer is from the archaic French word lacre "a kind of sealing wax", from Portuguese lacre, itself an unexplained variant of Medieval Latin lacca "resinous substance" from Arabic lakk, from Persian lak, from Hindi lakh. These derive from Sanskrit lākshā, used for both the Lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion it produces, used as wood finish. Lac resin was once imported in sizeable quantity into Europe from India along with Eastern woods.
Lacquer sheen is a measurement of the shine for a given lacquer. Different manufacturers have their own standards for their sheen; the most common names from least shiny to most shiny are: flat, egg shell, semi-gloss, gloss. In India the insect lac, or shellac was used since ancient times. Shellac is the secretion of the lac bug, it is used for the production of a red dye and pigment, for the production of different grades of shellac, used in surface coating. Urushiol-based lacquers differ from most others, being slow-drying, set by oxidation and polymerization, rather than by evaporation alone. In order for it to set properly it requires a warm environment; the phenols oxidize and polymerize under the action of an enzyme laccase, yielding a substrate that, upon proper evaporation of its water content, is hard. These lacquers produce hard, durable finishes that are both beautiful and resistant to damage by water, alkali or abrasion; the active ingredient of the resin is urushiol, a mixture of various phenols suspended in water, plus a few proteins.
The resin is derived from trees indigenous to East Asia, like lacquer tree Toxicodendron vernicifluum, wax tree Toxicodendron succedaneum. The fresh resin from the T. vernicifluum trees causes urushiol-induced contact dermatitis and great care is required in its use. The Chinese treated the allergic reaction with crushed shellfish, which prevents lacquer from drying properly. Lacquer skills became highly developed in Asia, many decorated pieces were produced. During the Shang Dynasty, the sophisticated techniques used in the lacquer process were first developed and it became a artistic craft, although various prehistoric lacquerwares have been unearthed in China dating back to the Neolithic period and objects with lacquer coating in Japan from the late Jōmon period; the earliest extant lacquer object, a red wooden bowl, was unearthed at a Hemudu culture site in China. By the Han Dynasty, many centres of lacquer production became established; the knowledge of the Chinese methods of the lacquer process spread from China during the Han and Song dynasties.
It was introduced to Korea, Japan and South Asia. Trade of lacquer objects travelled through various routes to the Middle East. Known applications of lacquer in China included coffins, music instruments and various household items. Lacquer mixed with powdered cinnabar is used to produce the traditional red lacquerware from China; the trees must be at least ten years old before cutting to bleed the resin. It sets by a process called absorbing oxygen to set. Lacquer-yielding trees in Thailand, Vietnam and Taiwan, called Thitsi, are different; the end result is similar but softer than the Japanese lacquer. Burmese lacquer sets slower, is painted by craftsmen's hands without using brushes. Raw lacquer can be "coloured" by the addition of small amounts of iron oxides, giving red or black depending on the oxide. There is some evidence that its use is older than 8,000 years from archaeological digs in China. Pigments were added to make colours, it is used not only as a finish, but mixed with ground fired and unfired clays applied to a mould
Phyllostachys bambusoides called madake, giant timber bamboo, or Japanese timber bamboo, is a species of flowering plant in the bamboo subfamily of the grass family Poaceae, native to China, also to Japan. P. bambusoides is a clump-forming evergreen bamboo, which can reach a height of 15–22 m and a diameter of 10–15 cm. The culms are dark green, quite thick, straight. Leaves are dark green. New stalks emerge in late spring and grow quite up to 1 m each day. One plant produced culms growing a remarkable 47.6 in in 24 hours. The flowering interval of this species is long, about 120 years; this strong plant is in Asia one of the preferred bamboos for building and in the manufacture of furniture. Madake is known for being the most common type of bamboo used in the making of shakuhachi flutes, is used in numerous Japanese, as well as Chinese and crafts. P. bambusoides is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate zones worldwide, with numerous cultivars being available. Some are large and only suitable for parks and large gardens.
However, more compact cultivars are on offer. The following are recipients of the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:'Castillonii' – yellow canes, 4.5 m'Holochrysa' – rich yellow canes, 8 m Bamboo Garden Complete bamboo * "Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc". Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2012-07-30
A braid is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing three or more strands of flexible material such as textile yarns, wire, or hair. The materials used have depended on the indigenous plants and animals available in the local area They have been made for thousands of years, in many different cultures around the world, for a variety of uses; the most simple and common version is a flat, three-stranded structure. More complex patterns can be constructed from an arbitrary number of strands to create a wider range of stuctures; the structure is long and narrow with each component strand functionally equivalent in zigzagging forward through the overlapping mass of the others. It can be compared with the process of weaving, which involves two separate perpendicular groups of strands; when the Industrial Revolution arrived, mechanized braiding equipment was invented to increase production. The braiding technique was used to make ropes with both natural and synthetic fibers as well as coaxial cables for radios using copper wire.
In more recent times it has been used to create a covering for fuel pipes in jet ships. Hoses for domestic plumbing are covered with stainless steel braid; the oldest known reproduction of hair braiding may go back about 30,000 years: the Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, is a female figurine estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE. It has been disputed whether or not she wears braided hair or some sort of a woven basket on her head; the Venus of Brassempouy is estimated to be about 25,000 years old and shows, ostensibly, a braided hairstyle. Another sample of a different origin was traced back to a burial site called Saqqara located on the Nile River, during the first dynasty of Pharaoh Menes. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age many peoples in the Near East, Asia Minor, East Mediterranean and North Africa such as the Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Assyrians, Hittites, Mitanni, Hurrians, Eblaites, Phrygians, Persians, Parthians, Armenians, Georgians and Canaanites/Phoenicians/Carthaginians are depicted in art with braided or platted hair and beards.
In some regions, a braid was a means of communication. At a glance, one individual could distinguish a wealth of information about another, whether they were married, mourning, or of age for courtship by observing their hairstyle. Braids were a means of social stratification. Certain hairstyles were distinctive to particular nations. Other styles informed others of an individual's status in society. African people such as the Himba people of Namibia have been braiding their hair for centuries. In many African tribes hairstyles are used to identify each tribe. Braid patterns or hairstyles can be an indication of a person's community, marital status, power, social position, religion. Braiding is traditionally a social art; because of the time it takes to braid hair, people have taken time to socialize while braiding and having their hair braided. It begins with the elders making simple braids for younger children. Older children watch and learn from them, start practicing on younger children, learn the traditional designs.
This carries on a tradition of bonding between the new generation. Early braids had many uses, such as costume decoration, animal regalia, sword decoration and hats, weapons. Materials that are used in braids can vary depending on local materials. For instance, South Americans used the fine fibers from the wool of alpaca and llama, while North American people made use of bison fibers. Throughout the world, vegetable fibers such as grass and hemp have been used to create braids. In China and Japan silk still remains the main material used. In the Americas, the braiding of leather is common. For the nomadic peoples of Africa, India and South America, the Middle East, braiding was a practical means of producing useful and decorative textiles. In other areas, such as the Pacific islands, for many hill tribes, braids are made using minimal equipment, it was only when braiding became a popular occupation in the home or school, as it is in China and Japan, when the Industrial Revolution came about, that specific tools were developed to increase production and make it easier to produce more complicated patterns of braids.
Braids are very good for making rope, decorative objects, hairstyles. Complex braids have been used to create hanging fibre artworks. Braiding is used to prepare horses' manes and tails for showing such as in polo and polocrosse. Plaiting with kangaroo leather has been a practiced tradition in rural Australia since pioneering times, it is used in the production of fine leather belts, bridles, dog leads, stockwhips, etc. Other leathers are used for the plaiting of heavier products suitable for everyday use. Gold braids and silver braids are components or trims of many kinds of formal dress, including military uniform. Braiding creates a composite rope, thicker and stronger than the non-interlaced strands of yarn. Braided ropes are preferred by arborists, rock climbers
Hiroshi Yoshida was a 20th-century Japanese painter and woodblock printmaker. He is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the shin-hanga style, is noted for his excellent landscape prints. Yoshida travelled and was known for his images of non-Japanese subjects done in traditional Japanese woodblock style, including the Taj Mahal, the Swiss Alps, the Grand Canyon, other National Parks in the United States. Hiroshi Yoshida was born in the city of Kurume, Fukuoka, in Kyushu, on September 19, 1876, he showed an early aptitude for art fostered by his adoptive father, a teacher of painting in the public schools. At age 19 he was sent to Kyoto to study under Tamura Shoryu, a well known teacher of western style painting, he studied under Koyama Shotaro, in Tokyo, for another three years. In 1899, Yoshida had his first American exhibition at Detroit Museum of Art, he traveled to Boston, Washington, D. C. Providence and Europe. In 1920, Yoshida presented his first woodcut at the Watanabe Print Workshop, organized by Watanabe Shōzaburō, publisher and advocate of the shin-hanga movement.
However, Yoshida's collaboration with Watanabe was short due to Watanabe's shop burning down because of the Great Kanto earthquake on September 1, 1923. In 1925, he hired a group of professional carvers and printers, established his own studio. Prints were made under his close supervision. Yoshida combined the ukiyo-e collaborative system with the sōsaku-hanga principle of "artist's prints", formed a third school, separating himself from the shin-hanga and sōsaku-hanga movement. Hiroshi Yoshida was trained in the Western oil painting tradition, adopted in Japan during the Meiji period. Yoshida used the same blocks and varied the colour to suggest different moods; the best example of such is Sailing Boats in 1921. Yoshida's extensive travel and acquaintance with Americans influenced his art considerably. In 1931 a series of prints depicting scenes from India, Pakistan and Singapore was published. Six of these were views of the Taj Mahal in different colors; the artistic lineage of the Yoshida family of eight artists: Kasaburo Yoshida, whose wife Rui Yoshida was an artist.
This group, four men and four women spanning four generations, provides an interesting perspective in looking at Japanese history and art development in the turbulent 20th Century. Although they inherit the same tradition, the Yoshida family artists work in different styles with different sensibilities. Toshi Yoshida and the Yoshida family have used the original Hiroshi Yoshida woodblocks to create versions, including posthumous, of Hiroshi Yoshida prints. Prints created under Hiroshi Yoshida's management with special care have a jizuri seal kanji stamp; the Hiroshi Yoshida signatures vary depending on the agents and time of creation. Hiroshi Yoshida prints sold in the Japanese market will not have a pencil signature or title in English. Japanese Woodblock Printing, comprehensive guide to the craft of woodblock printing written by Hiroshi Yoshida was published by The Sanseido Company, Ltd. in Tokyo and Osaka in 1939. Allen, Laura W. A Japanese Legacy: Four Generations of Yoshida Family Artists.
Minneapolis: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Chicago: Art Media Resources, c2002. Hiroshi Yoshida. Http://spectacle.berkeley.edu/~fiorillo/texts/shinhangatexts/shinhanga_pages/yoshida3.html. Retrieved September 3, 2006. "The American Travels of Yoshida Hiroshi", Eugene M. Skibbe, in Andon 43, January 1993, pp. 59–74, Yoshida Hiroshi The Complete Woodblock Prints of Yoshida Hiroshi. Abe Publishing Co, Tokyo, 1987. Yoshida Toshi & Rei Yuki "Japanese Printmaking, A Handbook of Traditional & Modern Techniques". Charles E. Tuttle Co. Inc, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan: c1966. Blakeney, Ben B. "Yoshida Hiroshi Print-maker". Tokyo, Japan: Foreign Affairs Association of Japan, 1953 Yoshida, Hiroshi. Japanese Wood-Block Printing. Tokyo & Osaka: Sanseido Co. Ltd, 1939 Los Angeles County Museum of Art Online text and pictures of Japanese Woodblock Printing
Offset printing is a used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film, keeping the non-printing areas ink-free; the modern "web" process feeds a large reel of paper through a large press machine in several parts for several metres, which prints continuously as the paper is fed through. Development of the offset press came in two versions: in 1875 by Robert Barclay of England for printing on tin, in 1904 by Ira Washington Rubel of the United States for printing on paper. Lithography was created to be an inexpensive method of reproducing artwork; this printing process was limited to use on flat, porous surfaces because the printing plates were produced from limestone.
In fact, the word "lithograph" means "an image from stone" or "printed from stone". Tin cans were popular packaging materials in the 19th century, but transfer technologies were required before the lithographic process could be used to print on the tin; the first rotary offset lithographic printing press was created in England and patented in 1875 by Robert Barclay. This development combined mid-19th century transfer printing technologies and Richard March Hoe's 1843 rotary printing press—a press that used a metal cylinder instead of a flat stone; the offset cylinder was covered with specially treated cardboard that transferred the printed image from the stone to the surface of the metal. The cardboard covering of the offset cylinder was changed to rubber, still the most used material; as the 19th century closed and photography became popular, many lithographic firms went out of business. Photoengraving, a process that used halftone technology instead of illustration, became the primary aesthetic of the era.
Many printers, including Ira Washington Rubel of New Jersey, were using the low-cost lithograph process to produce copies of photographs and books. Rubel discovered in 1901—by forgetting to load a sheet—that printing from the rubber roller, instead of the metal, made the printed page clearer and sharper. After further refinement, the Potter Press printing Company in New York produced a press in 1903. By 1907 the Rubel offset; the Harris Automatic Press Company created a similar press around the same time. Charles and Albert Harris modeled their press "on a rotary letter press machine". Newspaper publisher Staley T. McBrayer invented the Vanguard web offset press for newspaper printing, which he unveiled in 1954 in Fort Worth, Texas. One of the important functions in the printing process is prepress production; this stage makes sure that all files are processed in preparation for printing. This includes converting to the proper CMYK color model, finalizing the files, creating plates for each color of the job to be run on the press.
Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating printed materials. A few of its common applications include: newspapers, brochures and books. Compared to other printing methods, offset printing is best suited for economically producing large volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Many modern offset presses use computer-to-plate systems as opposed to the older computer-to-film work flows, which further increases their quality. Advantages of offset printing compared to other printing methods include: consistent high image quality. Offset printing produces sharp and clean images and type more than, for example, letterpress printing. Properly developed plates used with optimized inks and fountain solution may achieve run lengths of more than a million impressions. Offset printing is the cheapest method for producing high quality prints in commercial printing quantities. Most a metal blade controls the amount of ink transferred from the ink trough to the fountain roller.
By adjusting the screws, the operator alters the gap between the blade and the fountain roller, increasing or decreasing the amount of ink applied to the roller in certain areas. This modifies the density of the colour in the respective area of the image. On older machines one adjusts the screws manually, but on modern machines the screw keys are operated electronically by the printer controlling the machine, enabling a much more precise result. Disadvantages of offset printing compared to other printing methods include: inferior image quality compared to rotogravure or photogravure printing; as a result small quantity printing jobs may now use digital offset machines. Every printing technology has its own identifying marks. In text reproduction, the type edges have clear outlines; the paper surrounding the ink dots is unprinted. The halftone dots can be hexagonal. Several variations of the printing pro
Woodblock printing in Japan
Woodblock printing in Japan is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo-e artistic genre of single sheets, but it was used for printing books in the same period. Woodblock printing had been used in China for centuries to print books, long before the advent of movable type, but was adopted in Japan during the Edo period. Although similar to woodcut in Western printmaking in some regards, the mokuhanga technique differs in that it uses water-based inks—as opposed to western woodcut, which uses oil-based inks; the Japanese water-based inks provide a wide range of vivid colors and transparency. Woodblock-printed books from Chinese Buddhist temples were seen in Japan as early as the eighth century. In 764 the Empress Kōken commissioned one million small wooden pagodas, each containing a small woodblock scroll printed with a Buddhist text; these were distributed to temples around the country as thanksgiving for the suppression of the Emi Rebellion of 764. These are bobs on documented, from Japan.
By the eleventh century, Buddhist temples in Japan produced printed books of sutras and other Buddhist texts and images. For centuries, printing was restricted to the Buddhist sphere, as it was too expensive for mass production, did not have a receptive, literate public as a market. However, an important set of fans of the late Heian period, containing painted images and Buddhist sutras, reveal from loss of paint that the underdrawing for the paintings was printed from blocks; the first secular book was written in Japan in 1781. This was a two-volume Chinese-Japanese dictionary. Though the Jesuits operated a movable type printing press in Nagasaki from 1590, printing equipment brought back by Toyotomi Hideyoshi's army from Korea in 1593 had far greater influence on the development of the medium. Four years Tokugawa Ieyasu before becoming shōgun, effected the creation of the first native moveable type, using wooden type-pieces rather than metal, he oversaw the creation of 100,000 type-pieces, which were used to print a number of political and historical texts.
As shōgun, Ieyasu promoted literacy and learning, contributing to the emergence of an educated urban public. Printing was not dominated by the shogunate at this point, however. Private printers appeared in Kyoto at the beginning of the 17th century, Toyotomi Hideyori, Ieyasu's primary political opponent, aided in the development and spread of the medium as well. An edition of the Confucian Analects was printed in 1598, using a Korean moveable type printing press, at the order of Emperor Go-Yōzei; this document is the oldest work of Japanese moveable type printing extant today. Despite the appeal of moveable type, craftsmen soon decided that the running script style of Japanese writings was better reproduced using woodblocks. By 1640 woodblocks were once again used for nearly all purposes; the medium gained popularity, was used to produce affordable prints as well as books. The great pioneers in applying this method to the creation of artistic books, in preceding mass production for general consumption, were Honami Kōetsu and Suminokura Soan.
At their studio in Saga, the pair created a number of woodblock versions of the Japanese classics, both text and images converting handscrolls to printed books, reproducing them for wider consumption. These books, now known as Kōetsu Books, Suminokura Books, or Saga Books, are considered the first and finest printed reproductions of many of these classic tales. Woodblock printing, though more time-consuming and expensive than methods, was far less so than the traditional method of writing out each copy of a book by hand. While the Saga books were printed on expensive paper, used various embellishments, being printed for a small circle of literary connoisseurs, other printers in Kyoto adapted the technique to producing cheaper books in large numbers, for more general consumption; the content of these books varied including travel guides, advice manuals, kibyōshi, art books, play scripts for the jōruri theatre. Within a certain genre, such as the jōruri theatre scripts, a particular style of writing became standard for that genre.
For example, one person's personal calligraphic style was adopted as the standard style for printing plays. Many publishing houses grew, publishing both books and single-sheet prints. One of the most famous and successful was Tsuta-ya. A publisher's ownership of the physical woodblocks used to print a given text or image constituted the closest equivalent to a concept of "copyright" that existed at this time. Publishers or individuals could buy woodblocks from one another, thus take over the production of certain texts, but beyond the ownership of a given set of blocks, there was no legal conception of the ownership of ideas. Plays were adopted by competing theaters, either reproduced wholesale, or individual plot elements or characters might be adapted. After the decline of ukiyo-e and introduction of movable type and other technologies, woodblock printing continued as a method for printing texts as well as for producing art, both within traditional modes such as ukiyo-e and in a variety of more radical or Western forms that might be construed as modern art.
Institutes such as the "Adachi Institute of Woodblock Prints" and "Takez