The Berenberg family was a Flemish-origined Hanseatic family of merchants and senators in Hamburg, with branches in London and other European cities. The family was descended from the brothers Hans and Paul Berenberg from Antwerp, who came as Protestant refugees to the city-republic of Hamburg following the Fall of Antwerp in 1585 and who established what is now Berenberg Bank in Hamburg in 1590; the Berenbergs were cloth merchants and became involved in merchant banking in the 16th century. Having existed continuously since 1590, Berenberg Bank is the world's oldest surviving merchant bank; the Berenberg banking family became extinct in the male line with Elisabeth Berenberg. From the late 18th century, the Gossler family, as owners of Berenberg Bank, rose to great prominence in Hamburg, was considered one of Hamburg's two most prominent families, along with the related Amsinck family. A branch of the family was ennobled by Prussia as Barons of Berenberg-Gossler. Several members of the Berenberg and Gossler families served in the Senate of Hamburg from 1735, Elisabeth Berenberg's grandson Hermann Gossler became head of state of the city-republic.
Richard J. Evans describes the family as one of Hamburg's "great business families." The Gossler Islands in Antarctica are named for the family. Elisabeth Berenberg and Johann Hinrich Gossler presently have descendants with names including Gossler, Berenberg-Gossler, Paus and other names. Members of the Berenberg family have founded several other companies. A London branch of the Berenberg family were prominent merchants in the West Indies trade from the 17th century and co-founded the London firm Meyer & Berenberg. Berenberg-Gossler & Partner was Hamburg's leading corporate law firm and merged into the current law firm Taylor Wessing; the Berenberg family originates from the Bergisches Land region in the Duchy of Berg. Its earliest known ancestor, Thillmann Berenberg, was born on the Groß-Berenberg estate in 1465, was a cloth merchant; the growing linen industry of Brabant led Thillmann's son, Jan Berenberg, to take his family to Lier in Antwerp, where he became a burgher in 1515. He was married to Engele Segers, they were the parents of Paul Berenberg, a cloth merchant in Antwerp and who married Anna Kriekart from Everbroek.
Paul Berenberg was the father of Paul Berenberg. The two brothers married sisters Anna and Francina Snellinck, daughters of the Antwerp merchant Andries Snellinck and Françoise de Rénialme; the Berenbergs were one of 130 Dutch families. During the Eighty Years' War, the family settled in the nearby city of Antwerp; the family left Antwerp in 1585 as a result of the Fall of Antwerp, when the city was conquered by Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma. The fortified city, Europe's leading commercial centre at the time, was defended with resolute determination and courage by its citizens, but fell, around 60% of the city's pre-siege population fled the city, fearing Spanish massacres or forced conversion to Catholicism. Many Dutch refugees settled among them the brothers Hans and Paul Berenberg. In 1590, they founded the merchant house now known as Berenberg Bank, they were cloth merchants and active in the import-export business. In Hamburg, the Berenbergs formed part of a Dutch colony and intermarried with the city's leading Hanseatic families, several of which were of Dutch descent.
While a number of Dutch refugees became Hamburg citizens and Paul Berenberg were not prepared to take that step. In 1605, the Hamburg council issued a decree that gave the Dutch merchants the same rights as the burghers of Hamburg. Hans Berenberg's son was named Hans Berenberg, was married to Adelheid Ruhlant, daughter of the advocate Rütger Ruhlant, ennobled by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1622, Catarina de Greve, their son, Cornelius Berenberg, was the first to engage in merchant banking and developed the company into a successful merchant house and merchant bank. He forged trade links with France, Portugal, Italy and Russia. Family connections of the Berenbergs were instrumental to the development in Livorno and Lisbon with its colonies of wealthy Dutch merchants. Cornelius Berenberg was the first Berenberg to take the oath as a Hamburg burgher in 1684. Cornelius Berenberg's son, Rudolf Berenberg, was elected a Senator in 1735. By the mid 18th century, investment banking and acceptance credits comprised a significant part of the firm's activities.
Rudolf Berenberg was married to Anna Elisabeth Amsinck, the daughter of Paul Amsinck, a merchant of Hamburg and Lisbon, descended from the Welser family. They were the parents of Rudolf Berenberg, a merchant in Hamburg, Cornelius Berenberg, a merchant in Livorno, Senator Paul Berenberg and of Johann Berenberg, a co-owner and sole owner of the Berenberg company; the Berenberg family were merchants and senators in Hamburg for two centuries until the banking branch of the Berenberg family became extinct in the male line. However, Berenberg Bank was passed on to the descendants of Johann Berenberg in t
Bingham Baring, 2nd Baron Ashburton
Bingham Baring, 2nd Baron Ashburton was a British businessman and a Whig politician who became a Tory. William Bingham Baring was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in June 1799, the eldest son of the politician and banker Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton and his wife Ann Louisa, daughter of William Bingham, he was educated at Oriel College, where he graduated in classics in 1821. He received a Master of Arts in 1836 and a Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law in 1856. Baring sat as Member of Parliament for Thetford between 1826 and 1830 and 1841 and 1848, for Callington between 1830 and 1831, for Winchester between 1832 and 1837 and for Staffordshire North between 1837 and 1841, he was elected as a Whig in 1832 and 1835, from 1837 as a Tory. He served under Sir Robert Peel as Joint Secretary to the Board of Control from 1841 to 1845 and as Paymaster-General, with a seat in the Cabinet, from 1845 to 1846. In 1845 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1848 he entered the House of Lords. Baring was a member of the Canterbury Association from 27 May 1848.
He was a commandeur of the Légion d'honneur, awarded for his services to commerce. He served as captain in the Hampshire Yeomanry Cavalry. In 1853, he was appointed to be a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Southampton. In 1854 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. One of his on-going legacies is the National Rifle Association's competition for the Ashburton Shield, donated by Lord Ashburton in 1861. Lord Ashburton married as his first wife, Lady Harriet Mary Montagu, eldest daughter of George Montagu, 6th Earl of Sandwich, on 12 April 1823, their only child, Alexander Montagu Baring, died as an infant. Lady Harriet is well known for inspiring the devotion of Thomas Carlyle, to the great dismay of his wife Jane Welsh Carlyle. Lady Harriet died on 4 May 1857, aged 51. Lord Ashburton married as his second wife Louisa Caroline Stewart-Mackenzie, youngest daughter of James Alexander Stewart-Mackenzie, on 17 November 1858, they had one daughter, the Hon. Mary Florence, born on 26 June 1860 at Bath House, London, who married William Compton, 5th Marquess of Northampton.
Lord Ashburton died at The Grange, Hertfordshire, in March 1864, aged 64. He was succeeded in the barony by Francis. Lady Ashburton subsequently had an intimate relationship with the sculptor Harriet Hosmer, she died in London in February 1903, aged 75. 1799-1826: Mr Bingham Baring 1826-1835: Mr Bingham Baring 1835-1845: The Honourable Bingham Baring 1845-1848: The Right Honourable Bingham Baring 1848-1853: The Right Honourable The Lord Ashburton 1853-1854: The Right Honourable The Lord Ashburton 1854-1864: The Right Honourable The Lord Ashburton The Ashburton River in New Zealand and the town of the same name located on the river were named by the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, after Lord Ashburton. Baring family Baron Ashburton Barings Bank Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Bingham Baring
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour, not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight and Green Knight. A baronet is addressed as "Sir" or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence, except for the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the dormant Order of St Patrick. Baronets are conventionally seen to belong to the lesser nobility though William Thoms claims that "The precise quality of this dignity is not yet determined, some holding it to be the head of the nobiles minores, while others, rank Baronets as the lowest of the nobiles majores, because their honour, like that of the higher nobility, is both hereditary and created by patent."Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven.
In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families, 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the nobility consisted of about 5% of the population, in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state; the term baronet has medieval origins. Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328. Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland; the new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day; as a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain.
Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets, thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster on an inescutcheon: "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules"; these privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently; the title of baronet was conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II. A similar title of lower rank was banneret. Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Like knights, baronets are accorded the style "Sir" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame" before their first name, while wives of baronets use "Lady" followed by the husband's surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses. Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed; the eldest son of a baronet, born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line. A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm. According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral.
Baronets had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters, were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was a
Arnulf Baring was a German lawyer, political scientist, contemporary historian and author. He was a member of the German-British Baring family of bankers. Arnulf Martin Baring was born to politician Martin Eberhard Baring and Gertrud Stolze, he was the grandson of German jurist Adolf Baring. Baring earned a doctorate at the Free University of Berlin in 1958. In 1968 he was invited by Henry Kissinger to teach at the Harvard Center for International Affairs, the following year, he was appointed as Professor at the Free University of Berlin, where he taught until his retirement in 1998. In 1997, he expressed concern that the European Monetary Union would make Germans the most hated people in Europe. Baring was aware of the possibility that the people in Mediterranean countries would regard Germans as economic policemen, predicting that the currency bloc would end up with blackmailing its member countries, he worked at the Bundespräsidialamt from 1976 to 1979. He was a member of the SPD, but was expelled from the party in 1983, after publicly supporting liberal Hans-Dietrich Genscher.
He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton 1992–1993 and was a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford 1993–1994. He received the Commander Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998. Baring was a founding member of the Förderverein der Gedenkstätte Berlin-Hohenschönhausen and the scientific advisory board of the Centre Against Expulsions, he married the psychological practitioner Gabriele in 1986. The couple had two children. Arnulf Baring had two adult daughters from his first marriage, he was a distant relative of Johann Baring, who immigrated to England and created the British Baring lineage. Kanzler, Koalitionen. Siedler, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-88680-762-2. Es lebe die Republik, es lebe Deutschland! Stationen demokratischer Erneuerung 1949–1999. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-421-05194-1. Scheitert Deutschland? Der schwierige Abschied von unseren Wunschwelten, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-421-05095-3. Machtwechsel - Die Ära Brandt-Scheel, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-421-06095-9.
Im Anfang war Adenauer. Die Entstehung der Kanzlerdemokratie, München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1982, ISBN 3-423-10097-4. Arnulf Baring in the German National Library catalogue Arnulf Baring
Edward Baring, 1st Baron Revelstoke
Edward Charles Baring, 1st Baron Revelstoke, was a British banker. A member of the Baring banking family, "Ned" Baring was the second son of Henry Baring from his second marriage, to Cecilia Anne. Sir Francis Baring, 1st Baronet, was his grandfather and Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, his younger brother. Educated at Rugby, Baring in 1882 became senior partner in the family banking firm of Baring Brothers and Co until forced to step down following the Panic of 1890, he was a Director of the Bank of England, chairman of Lloyds and a Lieutenant of the City of London. In 1885 he was raised to the peerage of Membland in the County of Devon; the town of Revelstoke in British Columbia, Canada was renamed in his honour, commemorating his role in securing the financing necessary for completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Lord Revelstoke married Louisa Emily Charlotte Bulteel, daughter of John Crocker Bulteel, MP, his wife Lady Elizabeth Grey, in 1861, they had three daughters. Their fifth was the man of letters Maurice Baring.
Lady Revelstoke died in 1892. Lord Revelstoke survived her by five years and died in July 1897, aged 69, he was succeeded in the barony by his eldest surviving son John. Edward's younger brother Thomas became a partner in the bank, he was the great-great-grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales, through his daughter the Honourable Margaret Baring, who married Charles Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer. Appears as a minor character in the historical-mystery novel Stone's Fall, by Iain Pears. Appears in the Nightmare Song, from Gilbert & Sullivan's Iolanthe, when the Lord Chancellor sings that "The shares are a penny and so many are taken by Rothschild and Baring" Dartmouth House, London Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages The Baring Archive Risks and Rewards
Bildungsbürgertum is a social class that emerged in mid-18th century Germany as an educated class of the bourgeoisie with an educational ideal based on idealistic values and classical antiquity. The Bildungsbürgertum could be described as the intellectual and economic upper bourgeoisie in contrast to the Kleinbürgertum; the term itself was coined in the 1920s by the right wing and had an anti-bourgeois sentiment, perceived by the incompatible idea of being a'genuine' intellectual and a bourgeois. The term Bildungsbürgertum is a concept difficult to translate into the English language; the notion of the word "Bildung" has broader meaning than that of "culture", or "education", is rooted in the idea of the Enlightenment. The term corresponds to the ideal of education in the work of Wilhelm von Humboldt. Thus, in this context, the concept of education becomes a lifelong process of human development. Which clashes with the concept of a privileged but intellectually ignoble social class. Bildungsbürgertum was the term for a new social class that emerged in Germany in the mid-18th century.
This group distinguished themselves through education in the humanities and science, involvement in the state affairs. As a class of wealthy non-noble people, emerging first in the free imperial cities, they gained material wealth, social position and a better education, based on Humboldt's educational ideal; the idea of Bildung was shaped by a belief in human perfectibility that an individual's potential could be realized through a classical education. In the late absolutist management state there existed a need for a large number of educated officials to implement reforms. To avoid a violent revolution, as in France, a national class was formed that had access to cultural education and thus to political positions; as a result, many educational institutions were established more in Germany. The universities established in Germany, including the Humboldt University, became a model for modern universities in other countries; this new class was not defined politically or economically, but culturally.
It is argued that Germany owes its reputation in technical expertise and administration to the Bildungsbürgertum. Nationalism at its origin was a liberal ideal, as the Bildungsbürgertum were represented in the liberal factions of society, they were in the forefront of the quest for the founding of a sovereign nation state. By the 1870s, the bulk of the Bildungsbürgertum had lost its forward-driving liberal orientation. According to professor Klaus Vondung, the following characteristics could be applied to the Bildungsbürgertum at the end of the 19th century: academic education in-group behaviour, self-isolation from other social classes and establishment of neo-aristocratic thinking concerning stature and pedigree. High self-recruitment social prestige being perceived as more important than material wealth predominantly Protestant considered the "cultural elite" dominated certain professionsIn the 18th century, academic occupations such as professors, gymnasium teachers, pharmacists, judges, Protestant ministers and leading officials were represented among the Bildungsbürger.
In Germany the Bildungsbürgertum exercised first influence before the bourgeoisie as the commercial class gained more influence during industrialization from 1850 onwards. In France and Britain, it developed as a commercial class and could, by virtue of its economic strength, claim political power. In Germany the formation of the bourgeoisie occurred only in the first half of the 1800s, to be politically active, it played a crucial role in the revolution of 1848, which failed. A well-known example for an individual associated with the term Bildungsbürgertum is the 20th-century writer Thomas Mann. Cultural capital Grand Burgher Habitus Hanseaten High culture Intelligentsia Mentifact Patrician Social environment Social status Scholar official Symbolic capital Upper middle class Werner Conze, Jürgen Kocka: Bildungsbürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1985 ff. 1. Bildungssystem und Professionalisierung in internationalen Vergleichen. 1985, ISBN 3-608-91254-1. 3. Lebensführung und ständische Vergesellschaftung.
1992, ISBN 3-608-91558-3. Lothar Gall: Bürgertum, liberale Bewegung und Nation. Ausgewählte Aufsätze. Orbis-Verlag, München 2000, ISBN 3-572-01175-2. Michael Hartmann: Der Mythos von den Leistungseliten. Spitzenkarrieren und soziale Herkunft in Wirtschaft, Justiz und Wissenschaft. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 2002, ISBN 3-593-37151-0. Malte Herwig: Eliten in einer egalitären Welt. Wjs-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-937989-11-0. Oskar Köhler: Bürger, Bürgertum. I: Staatslexikon. Herder, Freiburg/B. 1. 1985, ISBN 3-451-19301-9 Sp. 1040 ff. Mario R. Lepsius: Das Bildungsbürgertum als ständische Vergesellschaftung. In: Ders.: Lebensführung und ständische Vergesellschaftung. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-608-91558-3. Pia Schmid: Deutsches Bildungsbürgertum. Bürgerliche Bildung zwischen 1750 und 1830. Dissertation, Universität Frankfurt/M. 1984. Klaus Vondung: Das wilhelminische Bildungsbürgertum. Zur Sozialgeschichte sei
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, diminished after 1450. Hanse spelled as Hansa, was the Old High German word for a convoy, this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities - whether by land or by sea. Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used; the Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and operated their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states.
Historians trace the origins of the Hanseatic League to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein. Exploratory trading adventures and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region—the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example—but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League. German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas; the hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century. Lübeck became a base for merchants from Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic.
This area was a source of timber, amber and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies; the Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, commercial ships had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement, they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, further up river, in the first half of the 13th century. In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag.
The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London in 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England; the "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1226, as its potential trading partner Hamburg had in 1189. In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg; the allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London.
Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes; the principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck. Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus' with its sea trade center Veliky Novgorod, putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag, from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.
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