A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem is divided into nodes and internodes: The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches. Adventitious roots may be produced from the nodes; the internodes distance one node from another. The term "shoots" is confused with "stems". In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. Stems have four main functions which are: Support for and the elevation of leaves and fruits; the stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits. Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem Storage of nutrients Production of new living tissue; the normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. Stems have cells called meristems. Stems are specialized for storage, asexual reproduction, protection or photosynthesis, including the following: Acaulescent – used to describe stems in plants that appear to be stemless.
These stems are just short, the leaves appearing to rise directly out of the ground, e.g. some Viola species. Arborescent – tree like with woody stems with a single trunk. Axillary bud – a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem, it gives rise to a shoot. Branched – aerial stems are described as being branched or unbranched Bud – an embryonic shoot with immature stem tip. Bulb – a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, tulip. Bulbs function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part. Caespitose – when stems grow in a tangled mass or clump or in low growing mats. Cladode – a flattened stem that appears more-or-less leaf like and is specialized for photosynthesis, e.g. cactus pads. Climbing -- stems that wrap around other plants or structures. Corm – a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. taro, gladiolus.
Decumbent -- stems that lie flat on the turn upwards at the ends. Fruticose -- stems. Herbaceous – non woody, they die at the end of the growing season. Internode – an interval between two successive nodes, it possesses the ability to elongate, either from its base or from its extremity depending on the species. Node – a point of attachment of a leaf or a twig on the stem in seed plants. A node is a small growth zone. Pedicel – stems that serve as the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence or infrutescence. Peduncle – a stem that supports an inflorescence Prickle – a sharpened extension of the stem's outer layers, e.g. roses. Pseudostem – a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be 2 or 3 m tall as in banana Rhizome – a horizontal underground stem that functions in reproduction but in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris Runner – a type of stolon, horizontally growing on top of the ground and rooting at the nodes, aids in reproduction. E.g. garden strawberry, Chlorophytum comosum.
Scape – a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta, Iris, Garlic. Stolon – a horizontal stem that produces rooted plantlets at its nodes and ends, forming near the surface of the ground. Thorn – a modified stem with a sharpened point. Tuber – a swollen, underground storage stem adapted for storage and reproduction, e.g. potato. Woody – hard textured stems with secondary xylem. Stem consist of three tissues, dermal tissue, ground tissue and vascular tissue; the dermal tissue covers the outer surface of the stem and functions to waterproof and control gas exchange. The ground tissue consists of parenchyma cells and fills in around the vascular tissue, it sometimes functions in photosynthesis. Vascular tissue provides structural support. Most or all ground tissue may be lost in woody stems; the dermal tissue of aquatic plants stems. The arrangement of the vascular tissues varies among plant species. Dicot stems with primary growth have pith in the center, with vascular bundles forming a distinct ring visible when the stem is viewed in cross section.
The outside of the stem is covered with an epidermis, covered by a waterproof cuticle. The epidermis may contain stomata for gas exchange and multicellular stem hairs called trichomes. A cortex consisting of hypodermis and endodermis is present above the pericycle and vascular bundles. Woody dicots and many nonwoody dicots have secondary growth originating from their lateral or secondary meristems: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium or phellogen; the vascular cambium forms between the xylem and phloem in the vascular bundles and connects to form a continuous cylinder. The vascular cambium cells divide to produce secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside; as the stem increases in diameter due to production of secondary xylem and secondary phloem, the cortex and epidermis are destroyed. Before the cortex is destroyed, a cork cambium develops there; the cork cambium divides to produce waterproof cork cells externally and sometimes phelloderm cells internally. Those three tissues form the periderm.
Areas of loosely pack
Tecpán Guatemala is a municipality in the department of Chimaltenango, in Guatemala, on the Inter-American Highway CA-1. The climate is cold, it is characterized as a tourist destination, with some fame derived from its landscapes, varied vegetation and from being on an access route to Iximché archaeological site. Tecpán is known as the'first capital of Guatemala,' based on it being the first permanent Spanish colonial military center of the nation, established in 1525; the first government capital settlement in colonial Guatemala, its'second capital', was Ciudad Vieja, established in 1527. The fort was built here due to the difficulty that the Spanish had in defeating the Kaqchikel Maya during the Spanish conquest of Guatemala; the remains of the Kaqchikel capital city, Iximché, are on a high hill only a few kilometers away from the city. Tecpán is one of the larger municipalities in the nation, due to its far geographical reach to the northeast corner of its department, Chimaltenango, its population is over 90% indigenous descendants of the Kaqchikel Maya.
Tecpán Guatemala has a subtropical highland climate. Official Municipality of Tecpán website—
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil. Reasons for applying mulch include conservation of soil moisture, improving fertility and health of the soil, reducing weed growth and enhancing the visual appeal of the area. A mulch is but not organic in nature, it may be temporary. It may be applied around existing plants. Mulches of manure or compost will be incorporated into the soil by the activity of worms and other organisms; the process is used both in commercial crop production and in gardening, when applied can improve soil productivity. Many materials are used as mulches, which are used to retain soil moisture, regulate soil temperature, suppress weed growth, for aesthetics, they are applied to the soil surface, around trees, flower beds, to prevent soil erosion on slopes, in production areas for flower and vegetable crops. Mulch layers are 2 inches or more deep when applied, they are applied at various times of the year depending on the purpose. Towards the beginning of the growing season, mulches serve to warm the soil by helping it retain heat, lost during the night.
This allows early seeding and transplanting of certain crops, encourages faster growth. As the season progresses, mulch stabilizes the soil temperature and moisture, prevents the growing of weeds from seeds. In temperate climates, the effect of mulch is dependent upon the time of year they are applied and when applied in fall and winter, are used to delay the growth of perennial plants in the spring or prevent growth in winter during warm spells, which limits freeze thaw damage; the effect of mulch upon soil moisture content is complex. Mulch forms a layer between the soil and the atmosphere preventing sunlight from reaching the soil surface, thus reducing evaporation. However, mulch can prevent water from reaching the soil by absorbing or blocking water from light rains. In order to maximise the benefits of mulch, while minimizing its negative influences, it is applied in late spring/early summer when soil temperatures have risen sufficiently, but soil moisture content is still high. However, permanent mulch is widely used and valued for its simplicity, as popularized by author Ruth Stout, who said, "My way is to keep a thick mulch of any vegetable matter that rots on both sides of my vegetable and flower garden all year long.
As it decays and enriches the soils, I add more."Plastic mulch used in large-scale commercial production is laid down with a tractor-drawn or standalone layer of plastic mulch. This is part of a sophisticated mechanical process, where raised beds are formed, plastic is rolled out on top, seedlings are transplanted through it. Drip irrigation is required, with drip tape laid under the plastic, as plastic mulch is impermeable to water. Materials used as mulches depend on a number of factors. Use takes into consideration availability, appearance, the effect it has on the soil—including chemical reactions and pH, combustibility, rate of decomposition, how clean it is—some can contain weed seeds or plant pathogens. A variety of materials are used as mulch: Organic residues: grass clippings, hay, kitchen scraps comfrey, shredded bark, whole bark nuggets, shells, shredded newspaper, wool, animal manure, etc. Many of these materials act as a direct composting system, such as the mulched clippings of a mulching lawn mower, or other organics applied as sheet composting.
Compost: composted materials are used to avoid possible phytotoxicity problems. Materials that are free of seeds are ideally used. Old carpet: makes a free available mulch. Rubber mulch: made from recycled tire rubber. Plastic mulch: crops grow through slits or holes in thin plastic sheeting; this method is predominant in large-scale vegetable growing, with millions of acres cultivated under plastic mulch worldwide each year. Rock and gravel can be used as a mulch. In cooler climates the heat retained by rocks may extend the growing season. In some areas of the United States, such as central Pennsylvania and northern California, mulch is referred to as "tanbark" by manufacturers and distributors. In these areas, the word "mulch" is used to refer to fine tanbark or peat moss. Organic are temporary; the way a particular organic mulch decomposes and reacts to wetting by rain and dew affects its usefulness. Some mulches such as straw, peat and other wood products may for a while negatively affect plant growth because of their wide carbon to nitrogen ratio, because bacteria and fungi that decompose the materials remove nitrogen from the surrounding soil for growth.
However, whether this effect has any practical impact on gardens is disputed by researchers and the experience of gardeners. Organic mulches can mat down, forming a barrier that blocks water and air flow between the soil and the atmosphere. Vertically applied organic mulches can wick water from the soil to the surface, which can dry out the soil. Mulch made with wood can contain or feed termites, so care must be taken about not placing mulch too close to houses or building that can be damaged by those insects; some mulch manufacturers recommend putting mulch several inches away from buildings. Available organic mulches include: Leaves from deciduous trees, which drop their foliage in the autumn/fall, they tend to be dry and blow around in the wind, so are chopped or shredded before application. As they decompose they a
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. Meristematic cells are responsible for growth. Differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Meristematic cells are incompletely or not at all differentiated, are capable of continued cellular division. Therefore, cell division in the meristem is required to provide new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body. Furthermore, the cells are small and protoplasm fills the cell completely; the vacuoles are small. The cytoplasm does not contain differentiated plastids, although they are present in rudimentary form. Meristematic cells are packed together without intercellular cavities; the cell wall is a thin primary cell wall as well as some are thick in some plants. Maintenance of the cells requires a balance between two antagonistic processes: organ initiation and stem cell population renewal.
There are three types of meristematic tissues: apical and lateral. At the meristem summit, there is a small group of dividing cells, called the central zone. Cells of this zone are essential for meristem maintenance; the proliferation and growth rates at the meristem summit differ from those at the periphery. The term meristem was first used in 1858 by Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli in his book Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik, it is derived from the Greek word merizein, meaning to divide, in recognition of its inherent function. Apical meristems are the undifferentiated meristems in a plant; these differentiate into three kinds of primary meristems. The primary meristems in turn produce the two secondary meristem types; these secondary meristems are known as lateral meristems because they are involved in lateral growth. There are two types of apical meristem tissue: shoot apical meristem, which gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers, root apical meristem, which provides the meristematic cells for future root growth.
SAM and RAM cells divide and are considered indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end status. In that sense, the meristematic cells are compared to the stem cells in animals, which have an analogous behavior and function; the number of layers varies according to plant type. In general the outermost layer is called the tunica. In monocots, the tunica determine the physical characteristics of the leaf margin. In dicots, layer two of the corpus determine the characteristics of the edge of the leaf; the corpus and tunica play a critical part of the plant physical appearance as all plant cells are formed from the meristems. Apical meristems are found in two locations: the stem; some Arctic plants have an apical meristem in the lower/middle parts of the plant. It is thought. Shoot apical meristems are the source such as leaves and flowers. Cells at the shoot apical meristem summit serve as stem cells to the surrounding peripheral region, where they proliferate and are incorporated into differentiating leaf or flower primordia.
The shoot apical meristem is the site of most of the embryogenesis in flowering plants. Primordia of leaves, petals and ovaries are initiated here at the rate of one every time interval, called a plastochron, it is. One of these indications might be the loss of apical dominance and the release of otherwise dormant cells to develop as auxiliary shoot meristems, in some species in axils of primordia as close as two or three away from the apical dome; the shoot apical meristem consists of 4 distinct cell groups: Stem cells The immediate daughter cells of the stem cells A subjacent organizing center Founder cells for organ initiation in surrounding regionsThe four distinct zones mentioned above are maintained by a complex signalling pathway. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 3 interacting CLAVATA genes are required to regulate the size of the stem cell reservoir in the shoot apical meristem by controlling the rate of cell division. CLV1 and CLV2 are predicted to form a receptor complex to. CLV3 shares some homology with the ESR proteins of maize, with a short 14 amino acid region being conserved between the proteins.
Proteins that contain these conserved regions have been grouped into the CLE family of proteins. CLV1 has been shown to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins that are most involved in downstream signalling. For example, the CLV complex has been found to be associated with Rho/Rac small GTPase-related proteins; these proteins may act as an intermediate between the CLV complex and a mitogen-activated protein kinase, involved in signalling cascades. KAPP is a kinase-associated protein phosphatase, shown to interact with CLV1. KAPP is thought to act as a negative regulator of CLV1 by dephosphorylating it. Another important gene in plant meristem maintenance is WUSCHEL, a target of CLV signaling in addition to positively regulating CLV, thus forming a feedback loop. WUS is expressed in the cells below the stem cells of the meristem and its presence prevents the differentiation of the stem c
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated for their edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes; the genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia, from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species are grown on a more localized basis, it is the national fruit of India and Pakistan, the national tree of Bangladesh. It is the unofficial national fruit of the Philippines; the English word "mango" originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa via Dravidian mankay and Portuguese manga during the spice trade period with South India in the 15th and 16th centuries. Mango is mentioned by Hendrik van Rheede, the Dutch commander of the Malabar region in his 1678 book, Hortus Malabaricus, about plants having economic value.
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were pickled and came to be called "mangoes" bell peppers, in the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle". Mango trees grow to 35–40 m tall, with a crown radius of 10 m; the trees are long-lived. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m, with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots and anchor roots penetrating into the soil; the leaves are evergreen, simple, 15–35 cm long, 6–16 cm broad. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm long. Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give a double crop; the fruit takes four to five months from flowering to ripen. The ripe fruit varies in size, color and eating quality. Cultivars are variously yellow, red, or green, carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, which does not separate from the pulp.
The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney-shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres in length and from 140 grams to 2 kilograms in weight per individual fruit. The skin is leather-like, waxy and fragrant, with color ranging from green to yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-red, or blushed with various shades of red, pink or yellow when ripe. Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm long. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds which do not survive drying. Mango trees grow from seeds, with germination success highest when seeds are obtained from mature fruits. Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached Southeast Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. By the 10th century CE, cultivation had begun in East Africa; the 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu. Cultivation came to Brazil, the West Indies, Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.
The mango is now cultivated in warmer subtropical climates. Mangoes are grown in Andalusia, Spain, as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that permits the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees; the Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south and central Africa, China, South Korea, Pakistan and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than 1% of the international mango trade. Many commercial cultivars are grafted on to the cold-hardy rootstock of Gomera-1 mango cultivar from Cuba, its root system is well adapted to a coastal Mediterranean climate. Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" to the Bullock's Heart. Dwarf or semidwarf varieties can be grown in containers. A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes. There are many hundreds of named mango cultivars.
In mango orchards, several cultivars are grown in order to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonic and must be propagated by grafting or they do not breed true. A common monoembryonic cultivar is'Alphonso', an important export product, considered as "the king of mangoes". Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as'Julie', a prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatments to escape the lethal fungal disease anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose; the current world market is dominated by the cultivar'Tommy Atkins', a seedling of'Haden' that first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida and was rejected commercially by Florida researchers. Growers and importers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its exc
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue, harvested for commercial use from Quercus suber, endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. Cork is composed of a hydrophobic substance; because of its impermeable, buoyant and fire retardant properties, it is used in a variety of products, the most common of, wine stoppers. The montado landscape of Portugal produces half of cork harvested annually worldwide, with Corticeira Amorim being the leading company in the industry. Cork was examined microscopically by Robert Hooke, which led to his discovery and naming of the cell. There are about 2,200,000 hectares of cork forest worldwide. Annual production is about 200,000 tons. Once the trees are about 25 years old the cork is traditionally stripped from the trunks every nine years, with the first two harvests producing lower quality cork; the trees live for about 300 years. The cork industry is regarded as environmentally friendly. Cork production is considered sustainable because the cork tree is not cut down to obtain cork.
The tree continues to grow. The sustainability of production and the easy recycling of cork products and by-products are two of its most distinctive aspects. Cork oak forests prevent desertification and are a particular habitat in the Iberian Peninsula and the refuge of various endangered species. Carbon footprint studies conducted by Corticeira Amorim, Oeneo Bouchage of France and the Cork Supply Group of Portugal concluded that cork is the most environmentally friendly wine stopper in comparison to other alternatives; the Corticeira Amorim’s study, in particular, was developed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, according to ISO 14040. Results concluded that, concerning the emission of greenhouse gases, each plastic stopper released 10 times more CO2, whilst an aluminium screw cap releases 26 times more CO2 than does a cork stopper; the cork oak is unrelated to the "cork trees", which have corky bark but are not used for cork production. Cork is extracted only from early May to late August, when the cork can be separated from the tree without causing permanent damage.
When the tree reaches 25–30 years of age and about 24 in in circumference, the cork can be removed for the first time. However, this first harvest always produces poor quality or "virgin" cork. Bark from initial harvests can be used to make flooring, shoes and other industrial products. Subsequent extractions occur at intervals of 9 years, though it can take up to 13 for the cork to reach an acceptable size. If the product is of high quality it is known as "gentle" cork, ideally, is used to make stoppers for wine and champagne bottles; the workers who specialize in removing the cork are known as extractors. An extractor uses a sharp axe to make two types of cuts on the tree: one horizontal cut around the plant, called a crown or necklace, at a height of about 2–3 times the circumference of the tree, several vertical cuts called rulers or openings; this is the most delicate phase of the work because though cutting the cork requires significant force, the extractor must not damage the underlying phellogen or the tree will be harmed.
To free the cork from the tree, the extractor pushes the handle of the axe into the rulers. A good extractor needs to use a firm but precise touch in order to free a large amount of cork without damaging the product or tree; these freed portions of the cork are called planks. The planks are carried off by hand since cork forests are accessible to vehicles; the cork is stacked in piles in the forest or in yards at a factory and traditionally left to dry, after which it can be loaded onto a truck and shipped to a processor. Cork's elasticity combined with its near-impermeability makes it suitable as a material for bottle stoppers for wine bottles. Cork stoppers represent about 60% of all cork based production. Cork has an zero Poisson's ratio, which means the radius of a cork does not change when squeezed or pulled. Cork is an excellent gasket material; some carburetor float bowl gaskets are made for example. Cork is an essential element in the production of badminton shuttlecocks. Cork's bubble-form structure and natural fire retardant make it suitable for acoustic and thermal insulation in house walls, floors and facades.
The by-product of more lucrative stopper production, corkboard is gaining popularity as a non-allergenic, easy-to-handle and safe alternative to petrochemical-based insulation products. Sheets of cork often the by-product of stopper production, are used to make bulletin boards as well as floor and wall tiles. Cork's low density makes it a suitable material for fishing floats and buoys, as well as handles for fishing rods. Granules of cork can be mixed into concrete; the composites made by mixing cork granules and cement have lower thermal conductivity, lower density and good energy absorption. Some of the property ranges of the composites are density, compressive strength and flexural strength; as late as the mid-17th century, French vintners did not use cork stoppers, using instead oil-soaked rag
Acer palmatum known as red emperor maple, palmate maple, Japanese maple or smooth Japanese-maple, is a species of woody plant native to Japan, China, eastern Mongolia, southeast Russia. Many different cultivars of this maple have been selected and they are grown worldwide for their large variety of attractive forms, leaf shapes, spectacular colors. Acer palmatum is a deciduous shrub or small tree reaching heights of 6 to 10 m 16 metres growing as an understory plant in shady woodlands, it may have multiple trunks joining close to the ground. In habit, its canopy takes on a dome-like form when mature; the leaves are 4–12 cm long and wide, palmately lobed with five, seven, or nine acutely pointed lobes. The flowers are produced in small cymes, the individual flowers with five red or purple sepals and five whitish petals; the fruit is a pair of each samara 2 -- 3 cm long with a 6 -- 8 mm seed. The seeds of Acer palmatum and similar species require stratification. In nature, Acer palmatum displays considerable genetic variation, with seedlings from the same parent tree showing differences in such traits as leaf size and color.
Overall form of the tree can vary from upright to weeping. Three subspecies are recognised: Acer palmatum subsp. Palmatum. Leaves small, 4–7 cm wide, with five or seven lobes and double-serrate margins. Lower altitudes throughout southern Japan. Acer palmatum subsp. Amoenum H. Hara. Leaves larger, 6–12 cm wide, with seven or nine lobes and single-serrate margins. Higher altitudes throughout Japan and South Korea. Acer palmatum subsp. Matsumurae Koidz. Leaves larger, 6–12 cm wide, with seven lobes and double-serrate margins. Higher altitudes throughout Japan. Acer palmatum has been cultivated in Japan for centuries and in temperate areas around the world since the 1800s; the first specimen of the tree reached Britain in 1820. When Swedish doctor-botanist Carl Peter Thunberg traveled in Japan late in the eighteenth century, he secreted out drawings of a small tree that would become synonymous with the high art of oriental gardens, he gave it the species name palmatum after the hand-like shape of its leaves, similar to the centuries-old Japanese names kaede and momiji, references to the'hands' of frogs and babies, respectively.
Japanese horticulturalists have long developed cultivars from maples found in Japan and nearby Korea and China. They have long been a subject in art. Numerous cultivars are popular in Europe and North America, with red-leafed favored, followed by cascading green shrubs with dissected leaves. Preparations from the branches and leaves are used as a treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Acer palmatum includes hundreds of named cultivars with a variety forms, leaf types and preferred growing conditions. Heights of mature specimens range depending on type; some tolerate sun, but most prefer part shade in hotter climates. All are adaptable and blend well with companion plants; the trees are suitable for borders and ornamental paths because the root systems are compact and not invasive. Many varieties of Acer palmatum are grown in containers. Trees are prone to prefer consistent water conditions. Trees should be mulched with a thick layer of bark. Well-drained soil is essential. Trees do not require or appreciate heavy fertilization and should only be fertilized, preferably using slow-release fertilizer with a 3 to 1 ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus respectively.
Nitrogen lawn fertilizer should be avoided in the immediate vicinity of these trees as excessive nitrogen can cause overly vigorous growth, prone to pathogens. If space is not a constraint, no pruning is necessary. Trees self-prune foliage that doesn't receive enough light, such as internal branches which are overly shaded by its own canopy; some growers prefer to shape their trees artistically or to thin out interior branches to better expose the graceful main branches. The form of the tree without leaves in winter, can be of great interest and can be pruned to highlight this feature. Trees heal after pruning without needing aftercare; this species should not be pruned like a hedge, but instead methodically shaped by choosing individual branches to remove. They can be pruned just to maintain a smaller size to suit a particular location. Acer palmatum can be used as espalier. Over 1,000 cultivars have been chosen for particular characteristics, which are propagated by asexual reproduction most by grafting, but some cultivars can be propagated by budding, tissue culture, or layering.
Some cultivars are not in cultivation in the Western world or have been lost over the generations, but many new cultivars are developed each decade. Cultivars are chosen for phenotypical aspects such as leaf shape and size, leaf color, bark texture and color, growth pattern. Most cultivars are less vigorous and smaller than is typical for the species, but are more interesting t