Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky was one of the most popular childrens poets in the Russian language. His catchy rhythms, inventive rhymes and absurd characters have invited comparisons with the American childrens author Dr. Seuss, chukovskys poems Tarakanishche, Krokodil and Moydodyr have been favourites with many generations of Russophone children. Lines from his poems, in particular Telefon, have become universal catch-phrases in the Russian media and he adapted the Doctor Dolittle stories into a book-length Russian poem as Doctor Aybolit, and translated a substantial portion of the Mother Goose canon into Russian as Angliyskiye Narodnyye Pesenki. He was a literary critic and essayist. He was born Nikolay Vasilyevich Korneychukov, which he reworked into his now familiar pen-name while working as a journalist at Odessa News in 1901. He was born in St. Petersburg, the son of Ekaterina Osipovna Korneychukova and Emmanuil Solomonovich Levenson. Levensons family did not permit his marriage to Korneychukova and the couple eventually was forced to separate, Korneychukova moved to Odessa with her two children and his sister Marussia.
Levenson supported them financially for some time, until his marriage to another woman, Nikolay studied at the Odessa gymnasium, where one of his classmates was Vladimir Zeev Jabotinsky. Later, Nikolay was expelled from the gymnasium for his low origin and he had to get his secondary school and university diplomas by correspondence. His influence on Russian literary society of the 1890s is immortalized by satirical verses of Sasha Cherny, he published several notable literary titles including From Chekhov to Our Days, Critique stories and Faces and masks. He published a magazine called Signal and was arrested for insulting the ruling house. It was at that period that Chukovsky produced his first fantasies for children, they were adapted for theatre and animated films, with Chukovsky as one of the collaborators. Sergei Prokofiev and other composers even adapted some of his poems for opera and his works were popular with emigre children as well, as Vladimir Nabokovs complimentary letter to Chukovsky attests.
During the Soviet period, Chukovsky edited the works of Nikolay Nekrasov and published From Two to Five. As his invaluable diaries attest, Chukovsky used his popularity to help the authors persecuted by the regime including Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Alexander Galich and he was the only Soviet writer who officially congratulated Boris Pasternak on winning the Nobel Prize. His daughter, Lydia Chukovskaya, is remembered as a writer, memoirist and lifelong assistant. Chukovskys son Nikolai was a writer, his son Boris lost his life while serving in the army during World War II. At one point his writings for children were under severe criticism, nadezhda Krupskaya was an initiator of this campaign, but criticism came from childrens writer Agniya Barto
Operation Little Saturn
The success of Operation Uranus, launched on 19 November 1942, had trapped 250,000 -300,000 troops of General Friedrich Paulus German 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army in Stalingrad. To exploit this victory, the Soviet general staff planned a campaign of continuous and highly ambitious offensive operations. Later Joseph Stalin reduced his ambitious plans to a small campaign codenamed Operation Little Saturn. Despite these victories, the Soviets themselves became over extended, setting up the stages for the German offensives of the Third Battle of Kharkov, by 6 July, General Hermann Hoths Fourth Panzer Army had taken the city of Voronezh, threatening to collapse the Red Armys resistance. The rapid German advance threatened to cut the Soviet Union off from its southern territories, the operation formed part of the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad, and was aimed at destroying German forces in and around Stalingrad. Planning for Operation Uranus had commenced as early as September 1942 and these Axis armies were deployed in open positions on the steppe and lacked heavy equipment to deal with Soviet armor.
Operation Winter Storm, undertaken between 12–23 December 1942, was the German Fourth Panzer Armys attempt to relieve encircled Axis forces during the Battle of Stalingrad. In late November, the Red Army completed Operation Uranus, which resulted in the encirclement of Axis personnel in, German forces within the Stalingrad Pocket and directly outside were reorganized under Army Group Don, under the command of Field Marshal Erich von Manstein. They would be supported by the 6th Army of the Voronezh Front, while General Rodion Malinovskys Soviet 2nd Guards Army blocked the German advance on Stalingrad, the modified plan Operation Little Saturn was launched on 16 December. This operation consisted of a movement which threatened to cut off the relieving forces. The Italians resisted the Soviet attack for two weeks, although outnumbered 9 to 1 in some sectors, but with huge losses. Manstein sent the 6th Panzer Division to the Italians aid, of the 130,000 encircled troops, to the south the advance of General Gerasimenkos 28th Army threatened to encircle the 1st Panzer Army and General Trufanovs 51st Army attacked the relief column directly.
In a daring raid, by 24 December tanks of the 24th Tank Corps had reached Tatskinskaya, the Soviet tanks drove through snowstorms onto the airfield and roamed about for hours, destroying the German transport planes at their leisure. With the relief column under threat of encirclement, Manstein had no choice but to back to Kotelnikovo on 29 December. Of the 200,000 -250,000 soldiers encircled 90,000 survived to be taken prisoner, only 5,000 lived to return to Germany. The Soviets attacked and pushed back the remaining units of the German 24th Army Corps on the Alpini left flank and contemporarily attacked the Alpini themselves. The Alpini held the front, but within three days the Soviets advanced 200 kilometers to the left and right of the Alpini, who were encircled and forced to try to escape a siege. Although the Alpini corps was ordered to hold the front at all costs, on the evening of January 17, the commanding officer of the corps General Gabriele Nasci finally ordered the full retreat, which was fully carried out on January 19
Girl with an Oar
The Girl with an Oar is an archetypal example of Socialist Realism in outdoors architecture of the Soviet Union, an idiom of the Soviet kitsch. Numerous gypsum alabaster versions authored by Ivan Shadr and Romuald Iodko adorned Soviet parks of culture and recreation, and young pioneer camps. Seen as a symbol of Soviet erotica and totalitarianism today, it was part of the propaganda of sports. The first Girl with an Oar by Shadr was that of a naked girl and it was heavily criticized for being too vulgar. It was destroyed and known only from a single photo, the second one was naked as well, more chaste but still naked
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)
The 1st Guards Army was a Soviet field army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. On August 6,1942, the formed from the 2nd Reserve Army with five Guards Rifle Divisions. On August 9, the army was incorporated into Southeastern Front, on August 18, it was transferred to the Stalingrad Front. During the German Sixth Armys assault on Stalingrad in August 1942, the 1st Guards Army and the 24th Army launched the attack. The 1st Guards Army managed an advance of just a few miles, on October 16,1942, the headquarters of the army transferred into Stavka reserve and its troops transferred to the 24th Army. On 25 October 1942 the army was disbanded, its headquarters was converted to the management of the 2nd formation of Southwestern Front according to the Stavka directive of 22 October 1942. Lieutenant General Filipp Ivanovich Golikov Guard Major General Artillery Kirill Semenovich Moskalenko Guard Major General Ivan Mikhailovich Chistyakov, on November 5,1942, 1st Guards Army was reformed from 63rd Army according to the Stavka directive of November 1.
The army was a part of Southwestern Front, when the German troops were making their attack on Stalingrad, the First Guards Army was facing the Italian Eighth Army in the upper part of the Don River. The Army participated in Stalingrad strategic offensive Operation Uranus, as the right flank of the front shock group, 1st Guards Army with 5th Tank Army created the appearance of the Stalingrad encirclement boiler. On December 5,1942, 1st Guards Army is split, the 1st Guards Army was created on December 8,1942, according to the Stavka directive of December 5,1942. The troops of the army was formed from the part of the group of Southwestern Front. After the German relief operation was held, the 1st Guards Army, along with the 6th Army and 3rd Guards Army, during the operation the Soviets defeated the Italian Eighth Army and gained a respectable amount of territory. By the end of the year, the 1st Guards Army was outside Millerovo, the 1st Guards Army took part in Operation Saturn, where the Red Army successfully drove back Army Group South to the Donets Basin in the Ukraine.
The 1st Guards Army was part of the Soviet Southwestern Front, also, in 1943, the 1st Guards Army was the first unit of the soviet army to operate the new T-34/85 tank. Among its units when the war ended in 1945 was the 81st Rifle Division, in August, the 1st Guards Army became the headquarters of the Kiev Military District. Lieutenant-General, and from May 1943, Colonel-General Vasily Ivanovich Kuznetsov Colonel-General Andrei Antonovich Grechko, in July 1958, the 1st Separate Combined Arms Army was moved from its headquarters in Budapest to Chernigov and renamed the 1st Combined Arms Army. The 1st Combined Arms Army was subordinated to the Kiev Military District and in 1960 consisted of the 72nd, 81st and 115th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, as well as the 35th Guards Tank Division. On 5 October 1967, it was renamed the 1st Guards Combined Arms Army at the request of Defence Minister Grechko, on 22 February 1968, it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner
A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Likewise, air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces, a field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from army in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as First Army, whereas corps are usually distinguished by Roman numerals. A field army may be given a name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine. The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, while the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as field army, it may be translated as the more generic field force or mobile force. In some armed forces, an army is or has been equivalent to a corps-level unit, prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an area army.
In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front and it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary significantly between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, a battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are controlled by a general or lieutenant general, Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in an armed forces. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. These in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command combat, combat support and combat support formations. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work, in most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services, army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the model of three or four basic Armed Services. Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services, a nations coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons, most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question.
Third-world armies tend to consist primarily of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of power from two or more branches of the military. It is common, at least in the European and North American militaries, to refer to the blocks of a military as commands, formations. In a military context, a command is a collection of units and it is not uncommon for a nations services to each consist of their own command, but this does not preclude the existence of commands which are not service-based. A formation is defined by the US Department of Defense as two or more aircraft, ships, or units proceeding together under a commander. The formations only differ in their ability to achieve different scales of application of force to achieve different strategic and tactical goals and it is a composite military organization that includes a mixture of integrated and operationally attached sub-units, and is usually combat-capable.
Example of formations include, brigades, wings, formation may refer to tactical formation, the physical arrangement or disposition of troops and weapons. Examples of formation in such usage include, panzerkeil, testudo formation, any unit subordinate to another unit is considered its sub-unit or minor unit. It is not uncommon for unit and formation to be used synonymously in the United States, in Commonwealth practice, formation is not used for smaller organizations like battalions which are instead called units, and their constituent platoons or companies are referred to as sub-units. In the Commonwealth, formations are divisions, etc, different armed forces, and even different branches of service of the armed forces, may use the same name to denote different types of organizations
Operation Winter Storm
In late November 1942, the Red Army completed Operation Uranus, encircling some 300,000 Axis personnel in and around the city of Stalingrad. German forces within the Stalingrad pocket and directly outside were reorganized under Army Group Don, to remedy the situation, the Luftwaffe attempted to supply German forces in Stalingrad through an air bridge. Originally, Manstein was promised four panzer divisions, due to German reluctance to weaken certain sectors by redeploying German units, the task of opening a corridor to the German 6th Army fell to the 4th Panzer Army. The German force was pitted against several Soviet armies tasked with the destruction of the encircled German forces, the German offensive caught the Red Army by surprise and made large gains on the first day. The spearhead forces enjoyed air support and were able to defeat counterattacks by Soviet troops, by 13 December, Soviet resistance slowed the German advance considerably. Although German forces took the area surrounding Verkhne-Kumskiy, the Red Army launched Operation Little Saturn on 16 December, Operation Little Saturn crushed the Italian 8th Army on Army Group Dons left flank, threatening the survival of Mansteins entire group of forces.
The 4th Panzer Army continued its attempt to open a corridor to the 6th Army on 18–19 December, Manstein was forced to call off the assault on 23 December and by Christmas Eve the 4th Panzer Army began to withdraw to its starting position. Due to the failure of the 6th Army to breakout and the attempt to break the Soviet encirclement, on 23 November 1942, the Red Army closed its encirclement of Axis forces in Stalingrad. Nearly 300,000 German and Romanian soldiers, as well as Russian volunteers for the Wehrmacht, were trapped in, amidst the impending disaster, German chancellor Adolf Hitler appointed Field Marshal Erich von Manstein as commander of the newly created Army Group Don. Composed of the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies, as well as the Third and Fourth Romanian Armies, instead of attempting an immediate breakout, German high command decided that the trapped forces would remain in Stalingrad in a bid to hold out. The encircled German forces were to be resupplied by air, requiring roughly 680 t of supplies per day, the assembled fleet of 500 transport aircraft were insufficient for the task.
Many of the aircraft were serviceable in the rough Soviet winter, in early December. The German 6th Army, for example, was getting less than 20% of its daily needs, the Germans were still threatened by Soviet forces which still held portions of the Volga Rivers west bank in Stalingrad. Given the unexpected size of German forces closed off in Stalingrad, on 23 November Stavka decided to strengthen the outer encirclement preparing to destroy Axis forces in, on 24 November, several Soviet formations began to entrench themselves to defend against possible German incursions originating from the West. The Soviets reinforced the forces in order to prevent a successful breakout operation by the German 6th Army. However, this tied down over ½ of the Red Armys strength in the area, planning began for Operation Koltso, which aimed at reducing German forces in the Stalingrad pocket. As Operation Uranus concluded, German forces inside the encirclement were too weak to attempt a breakout on their own, Manstein proposed a counterstrike to break the Soviet encirclement of Stalingrad, codenamed Operation Winter Storm.
Manstein believed that—due to the inability of the Luftwaffe to supply the Stalingrad pocket—it was becoming important to relieve them at the earliest possible date
The Axis powers, known as the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied Powers. The Axis agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity, the Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936, Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term Axis. The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, Italy joined the Pact in 1937. At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied parts of Europe, North Africa. There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, the war ended in 1945 with the defeat of the Axis powers and the dissolution of their alliance. As in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, at the time he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume.
The term was used by Hungarys prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany, when Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued an alliance of Italy with Germany against France since the early 1920s. He believed that Italy could expand its influence in Europe by allying with Germany against France, in early 1923, as a goodwill gesture to Germany, Italy secretly delivered weapons for the German Army, which had faced major disarmament under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. General Hans von Seeckt supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland between them and restore the German-Russian border of 1914. The discussions concluded that Germans still wanted a war of revenge against France but were short on weapons, however at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany, that Italy must.
Tow them, not be towed by them, the French government warned Italy that it had to choose whether to be on the side of the pro-Versailles powers or that of the anti-Versailles revanchists. Grandi responded that Italy would be willing to offer France support against Germany if France gave Italy its mandate over Cameroon, France refused Italys proposed exchange for support, as it believed Italys demands were unacceptable and the threat from Germany was not yet immediate. In 1932, Gyula Gömbös and the Party of National Unity rose to power in Hungary, Gömbös sought to alter Hungarys post–Treaty of Trianon borders by forming an alliance with Austria and Italy, knowing that Hungary alone was not capable of challenging the Little Entente powers. At the meeting between Gömbös and Mussolini in Rome on 10 November 1932, the question came up of the sovereignty of Austria in relation to the rise to power in Germany of the Nazi Party. Mussolini was worried about Nazi ambitions towards Austria, and indicated that at least in the term he was committed to maintaining Austria as a sovereign state.
Italy had concerns over a Germany which included Austria laying land claims to German-populated territories of the South Tyrol within Italy, Mussolini said he hoped the Anschluss could be postponed as long as possible until the breakout of a European war that he estimated would begin in 1938
Doctor Aybolit is a fictional character from the childrens poems Aybolit and Barmaley by Korney Chukovsky. The name may be translated as Ouch, the origins of Aybolit can be traced to Doctor Dolittle by Hugh Lofting. Like Buratino by Aleksey Tolstoy or The Wizard of the Emerald City by Alexander Volkov, for example, the adaptation includes a Pushmi-pullyu, тяни-толкай in Russian. The prose adaptation always credited Lofting in the subtitle, while the Aybolit poems are original works, the character became a recognizable feature of Russian culture. The poems found their following in the films Doktor Aybolit, Aybolit 66, the doctors appearance and name are used in brand names and slogans of various medical establishments, etc. Aybolits antagonist, the evil pirate Barmaley, became a villain in Russian culture. Barmaley debuted in Chukovskys book Crocodile in 1916,13 years before the first appearance of Aybolit, the poems Aybolit and Barmaley generated a number of Russian catchphrases such as Nu spasibo tebe, Aybolit.
Ne hodite deti v Afriku gulyat and they were the inspiration for the Barmaley Fountain in Stalingrad. A loose English adaptation in verse was published by Richard N. Coe in 1967 and it starts Doctor Concocter sits under a tree, Hes ever so clever, he has a degree. A living prototype of the character was Chukovskys acquaintance, Vilnian Jewish doctor Zemach Shabad, Kornei, Doktor Aibolit, Harrap, p.79, ISBN 978-0-245-58209-7 Chukovskiĭ, Korneĭ, Richard N. Coe, ed. Doctor Concocter, translated by Richard N. Coe, Oxford University Press, p.24, ISBN 978-0-19-279633-2 Chukovsky, Doctor Powderpill, translated by D. Rottenberg, Central Books Ltd