The Big Sleep (1946 film)
The Big Sleep is a 1946 film noir directed by Howard Hawks, the first film version of Raymond Chandler's 1939 novel of the same name. The film stars Humphrey Bogart as private detective Philip Marlowe and Lauren Bacall as Vivian Rutledge in a story about the "process of a criminal investigation, not its results." William Faulkner, Leigh Brackett and Jules Furthman co-wrote the screenplay. In 1997, the U. S. Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally or aesthetically significant," and added it to the National Film Registry; because the film was scheduled for release a year after it was made, parts of the original 1945 cut were afterwards rescripted and shot. A copy of the 1945 version was restored and released in 1997. Private detective Philip Marlowe is summoned to the mansion of General Sternwood; the general wants to resolve the ‘gambling debts’ that his daughter Carmen owes to bookseller Arthur Gwynn Geiger. As Marlowe is leaving, Sternwood's older daughter, the divorced Mrs. Vivian Rutledge, stops him.
She suspects her father's true motive for calling in a detective is to find his protégé Sean Regan, who had mysteriously disappeared a month earlier. Marlowe goes to Geiger's shop, minded by Agnes Louzier, follows Geiger home. Hearing a gunshot and a woman’s scream, he breaks in to find Geiger's body and a drugged Carmen, as well as a hidden camera empty of film. After taking Carmen back home, he discovers the body has disappeared. Vivian comes to Marlowe's office the next morning with scandalous pictures of Carmen that she received with a blackmail demand for the negatives. Marlowe returns to Geiger's bookstore and follows a car to the apartment of Joe Brody, a gambler who blackmailed General Sternwood, he finds Carmen in Geiger's house, where she insists that it was Brody who killed Geiger. They are interrupted by small-time gangster Eddie Mars. Marlowe goes to Brody's apartment, they are interrupted by Carmen. Marlowe sends Vivian and Carmen home. Brody admits that it was he, behind the blackmailing has to answer the door and is shot.
Marlowe chases the killer and apprehends Carol Lundgren, Geiger's former driver, who believes Brody is swindling him. Marlowe arranges for them to come and arrest the killer. Marlowe visits Mars' casino, where he asks about Regan, supposed to have run off with Mars' wife. Mars tells Marlowe that Vivian is running up gambling debts. Vivian wins a big wager and wants Marlowe to take her home. A stooge of Mars' attempts to rob Vivian. While driving back, Marlowe presses Vivian on her connection with Mars. Back at his own home, Marlowe finds a flirtatious Carmen waiting for him, she says she mentions that Mars calls Vivian frequently. When she attempts to seduce Marlowe, he throws her out of his apartment; the next day, Vivian tells him. Mars has Marlowe beaten up to stop him investigating further, he is found by an associate of Brody's who wants to marry Agnes. Jones conveys an offer from her to reveal the location of Mars' wife for $200; when Marlowe goes to meet him and be taken to where she is hiding, he spots Canino, a gunman hired by Mars, there to find Agnes himself.
Canino poisons Jones after he discloses Agnes' location. Agnes telephones the office while Marlowe is still there and he arranges to meet her, she reveals. When he gets there, Marlowe is attacked by Canino, he wakes to find himself tied up, with Mona watching over him. Vivian frees Marlowe, allowing him to get to his gun and kill Canino, they drive back together and Marlowe calls Mars from Geiger's house, pretending to be still in Realito. Mars arrives with four men; when Mars enters, Marlowe reveals that he has discerned the truth: Mars has been blackmailing Vivian, claiming that her sister Carmen had killed Regan. He forces Mars outside, where he is shot by his own men. Marlowe calls the police, telling them that Mars was the one who killed Regan, he convinces Vivian that her sister needs psychiatric care. The writing of the film script involved three different authors, including the American novelist William Faulkner; the writing was influenced by a primary focus of the Hays Office censorship policies which were used to restrict sexual themes.
In the novel, Geiger is selling pornography illegal and associated with organized crime, is a homosexual having a relationship with Lundgren. Carmen is described as being nude in Geiger's house, nude and in Marlowe's bed. To ensure the film would be approved by the Hays Office, changes had to be made. Carmen had to be dressed, the pornographic elements could only be alluded to with cryptic references to photographs of Carmen wearing a "Chinese dress" and sitting in a "Chinese chair"; the sexual orientation of Geiger and Lundgren goes unmentioned in the film because references to homosexuality were prohibited. The scene of Carmen in Marlowe's bed was replaced with a scene in which she appears dressed, sitting in Marlowe's apartment, when he promptly kicks her out; the scene, shot in 1944, was omitted in the 1945 cut but restored for the 1946 version. The Big Sleep is known for its convoluted plot. During filming neither the director nor the screenwriters knew whether chauffeur Owen Taylor was murdered or had killed himself.
They sent a cable to Chandler, who told a friend
The Reivers: A Reminiscence, published in 1962, is the last novel by the American author William Faulkner. The bestselling novel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1963. Faulkner won this award for his book A Fable, making him one of only three authors to be awarded it more than once. Unlike many of his earlier works, it is a straightforward narration and eschews the complicated literary techniques of his more well known works, it is a picaresque novel, as such may seem uncharacteristically lighthearted given its subject matter. For these reasons, The Reivers is ignored by Faulkner scholars or dismissed as a lesser work, he had referred to writing a "Golden Book of Yoknapatawpha County" with which he would finish his literary career. It is that The Reivers was meant to be this "Golden Book"; the Reivers was adapted into a 1969 film directed by Mark Rydell and starring Steve McQueen as Boon Hogganbeck. The basic plot of The Reivers takes place in the first decade of the 20th century, it involves a young boy named Lucius Priest who accompanies a family friend and protegé named Boon Hogganbeck to Memphis, where Boon hopes to woo into marriage a prostitute called "Miss Corrie", of whom he is a client when he can afford it.
Since Boon has no way to get to Memphis, he steals Lucius's grandfather's car, the first car in Yoknapatawpha County. They discover that Ned McCaslin, a black man who works with Boon at Lucius's grandfather's horse stables, has stowed away with them; when they reach Memphis and Lucius stay in the brothel where Miss Corrie lives and works, while Ned disappears into the black part of town. Soon Ned returns; the brothel life is turned upside down with their coming to stay, at the same time as Miss Corrie's nephew that has come there to get some finesse. The brothel is run by Miss Reba, a beautiful and stern mature woman who employs Mr Bindford as pimp and general manager. Miss Reba is the same character that appeared in Faulkner's earlier novel Sanctuary; the remainder of the story involves Ned's attempts to race the horse in order to win enough money to help out his relative and buy the car back, Boon's courtship with Miss Corrie. Lucius, a young and sheltered boy, comes of age in Memphis, he comes into contact for the first time with the underside of society.
Much of the novel involves Lucius trying to reconcile his genteel and idealized vision of life with the reality he is faced with on this trip, portrayed in his struggle between Virtue and Non-Virtue. He meets prostitutes old and young, is impressed by their helplessness in that society, he meets Otis, Corrie's nephew, a boy a few years older than Lucius who acts as his foil and embodies many of the worst aspects of humanity. He degrades women, respects no one, blackmails the brothel owner and curses. Lucius the white knight, fights him to defend Corrie's honor when Otis explains that in the town where they come from, he rented a place where men could see Miss Corrie during sexual intercourse with men. Otis to no avail. Miss Corrie is so touched at his willingness to stand up for her that she determines to become an "honest" woman. Moreover, it seems that Otis is not her nephew or little brother but her son, since she has been working as a prostitute since she was sixteen. To get to the race course, they have to use Miss Corrie's connections in the railways, much to Boons's regret, to undergo bullying and abuse by a local marshall that extract sexual favours from Miss Corrie.
In order for Lucius to train as jockey, he has to spend a day at a black man's family, sharing their beds and food. Lucius is awed by their integrity; the climax comes. Coppermine is a fast horse, but he likes to run just behind the other horses so he can see them at all times. Ned convinces him to make a final burst to win the race by bribing him with what may be a sardine, like another horse he used to have. After they win the race, Lucius's grandfather shows up, another race is run; this time Ned does not do the sardine trick, Coppermine loses. Lucius grandfather has to buy his car back from a plantation acquaintance. Ned has bet against Coppermine in this race, the poor black stable hand is able to get the better of the rich white grandfather; the story ends with the news that Boon and Miss Corrie have married and named their first child after Lucius. Boon is a major character in Go Down, where he appears as a McCaslin/Priest family retainer of limited education and interests. In The Reivers he shows the unexpected qualities of a romantic hero.
Ned's character resembles that of his distant relative Lucas Beauchamp in many ways. Like Lucas, he at least pretends to work for his white cousins while outwitting them in various ways; the Priests invariably find it in their hearts to forgive him. The Reivers at Faded Page Photos of the first edition of The Reivers
Rowan Oak known as William Faulkner House, is William Faulkner's former home in Oxford, Mississippi. It is a primitive Greek Revival house built in the 1840s by Robert Sheegog. Faulkner purchased the house when it was in disrepair in the 1930s and did many of the renovations himself. Other renovations were done in the 1950s; the house sits on 4 landscaped and twenty nine acres of wooded property known as Bailey's Woods. One of its more famous features is the outline of Faulkner's Pulitzer Prize–winning novel A Fable, penciled in graphite and red on the plaster wall of his study. Though the "rowan oak" is a mythical tree, the grounds and surrounding woods of Rowan Oak contain hundreds of species of native Mississippi plants, most of which date back to antebellum times; the alley of cedars. The studs of the house are 4 "x4" square cypress. Faulkner drew much inspiration for his treatment of multi-layered Time from Rowan Oak, where past and future seemed to inhabit the present. In 1972, his daughter, Jill Faulkner Summers, sold the house to the University of Mississippi.
The University maintains the home. Tours are available; the home has been visited by such writers as John Updike, Czesław Miłosz, Charles Simic, Richard Ford, James Lee Burke, Bei Dao, Charles Wright, Charles Frazier, Alice Walker, the Coen brothers, Bobbie Ann Mason, Salman Rushdie, others. Writer Mark Richard once repaired a faulty doorknob on the French door to Faulkner's study. Rowan Oak was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1968. After its most recent renovations, some of which were funded by part-time Oxford resident and Ole Miss law school alumnus, John Grisham, Rowan Oak was rededicated on May 1, 2005; the current curator of Rowan Oak is William Griffith. Past curators include the novelists Cynthia Shearer; the original curator was Bev Smith, an Ole Miss alum, responsible for finding a great deal of Faulkner's original manuscripts hidden within the home. University of Mississippi Museums Page Inside Rowan Oak: short video about Faulkner and Rowan Oak, with Close-Ups of a Novel Draft that Faulkner Wrote on His Office Wall A Photo Tour of Rowan Oak, With Commentary RowanOak.com - Picture gallery and visitor information William Faulkner on the Web - Includes detailed, interactive map of the grounds "Writings of William Faulkner", broadcast from Rowan Oak from C-SPAN's American Writers
The Javanese people are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. With 100 million people, they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia, they are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most provinces of Indonesia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia and the Netherlands; the Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Mataram, Osing, Samin, Banyumasan, etc. A majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with a minority identifying as Christians and Hindus. However, Javanese civilization has been influenced by more than a millennium of interactions between the native animism Kejawen and the Indian Hindu—Buddhist culture, this influence is still visible in Javanese history, culture and art forms. With a sizeable global population, the Javanese are considered significant as they are the fourth largest ethnic group among Muslims, in the world, after the Arabs and Punjabis.
Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesian origins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated through the Philippines to reach Java between 1,500BC and 1,000BC. However, according to recent genetic study, Javanese together with Sundanese and Balinese has equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages. Hindu and Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the Indian subcontinent. Hindu and Buddhist - traders and visitors, arrived in the 5th century; the Hindu and Javanese faiths blended into a unique local philosophy. The cradle of Javanese culture is described as being in Kedu and Kewu Plain in the fertile slopes of Mount Merapi as the heart of the Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom; the earliest Sanjaya and Sailendra dynasties had their power base there. The centre of Javanese culture and politics was moved towards the eastern part of the island when Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of the Brantas River in the 10th century CE.
The move was most caused by the volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya. The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara of Singhasari in the late 13th century; the expansionist king launched several major expeditions to Madura, Bali in 1284, Borneo and most to Sumatra in 1275. Following the defeat of the Melayu Kingdom, Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca. Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediri's rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. However, Jayakatwang's reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya with the help of invading Mongol troops in March 1293. Raden Wijaya would establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. Kertanegara policies were continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk and his minister Gajah Mada. Various kingdoms of Java were involved in the spice trade in the sea route of the Silk Road. Although not major spice producers, these kingdoms were able to stockpile spice by trading for it with rice, of which Java was a major producer.
Majapahit is regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms. It was both a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and foreign trade; the ruin of their capital can be found in Trowulan. Islam gained its foothold in port towns on Java's northern coast such as Gresik, Ampel Denta, Tuban and Kudus; the spread and proselytising of Islam among the Javanese was traditionally credited to Wali Songo. Java underwent major changes as Islam spread. Following succession disputes and civil wars, Majapahit power collapsed. After this collapse, its various dependencies and vassals broke free; the Sultanate of Demak became the new strongest power, gaining supremacy among city-states on the northern coast of Java. Aside from its power over Javanese city-states, it gained overlordship of the ports of Jambi and Palembang in eastern Sumatra. Demak played a major role in opposing the newly arrived colonial power, the Portuguese. Demak twice attacked the Portuguese following their capture of Malacca, they attacked the allied forces of the Portuguese and the Sunda Kingdom, establishing in the process the Sultanate of Banten.
Demak was succeeded by the Kingdom of Pajang and the Sultanate of Mataram. The centre of power moved from coastal Demak, to Pajang in Blora, further inland to Mataram lands in Kotagede, near present-day Yogyakarta; the Mataram Sultanate reached its peak of power and influence during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo between 1613 and 1645. In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia. Java fell to the Dutch East India Company, which would eventually control most of Maritime Southeast Asia; the internal intrigue and war of succession, in addition to Dutch interference, caused the Mataram Sultanate to break up into Surakarta and Yogyakarta. The further separation of the Javanese realm was marked by the establishment of the Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman princedom. Although the real political power in those days lay with the colonial Dutch, the Javanese kings, in their keratons, still held prestige as the supposed power centre of the Javanese realm in and around Surakarta and Yogyakarta.
Dutch rule was interrupted by British rule in the early 19th century. While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles was significant, included t
Pylon is a novel by the American author William Faulkner. Published in 1935, Pylon is set in a fictionalized version of New Orleans, it is one of Faulkner's few novels set outside his favorite fictional setting. Pylon is the story of a group of barnstormers whose lives are unconventional, they live hand-to-mouth, always just a step or two ahead of destitution, their interpersonal relationships are unorthodox and shocking by the standards of their society and times. They meet an overwrought and emotional newspaperman in New Valois, who gets involved with them, with tragic consequences; the novel provided the basis for the 1957 film The Tarnished Angels. The Reporter – An alcoholic, dependent on loans from his editor, his interest in the familial and incestuous racing group—as a newspaper story—becomes fascination and obsession He tries to help, but destroys the family group. Laverne – Mechanic and former wing-walker and parachute jumper, she is and bigamously involved with both pilot Roger Shumann and jumper Jack Holmes.
Jack – Shumann's presumed child with Laverne. His actual parentage is undetermined; the reporter nicknames him "Dempsey" because of his willingness to fight anyone who asks him, "Who's your old man?" Roger Shumann – Racing pilot, presumptive father of Jack, whose quiet competence and acceptance of great risk supports the family. Jack Holmes – A show jumper lover of Laverne and possible father to Jack. Jiggs – Main mechanic. Jiggs' obsession over a pair of cowboy boots in a store window opens the novel, his alcoholic binge boosts the story toward its ultimate tragedy. Hagood – Newspaper editor. Matt Ord – Legendary pilot, known throughout the world of aviation and barnstorming. More or less retired from flying, he is part owner of Ord-Atkinson Aircraft Corp. Provides Roger Shumann with an airplane. Dr and Mrs Shumann – Shumann's parents, who live in Myron, Ohio. Col. Feinman – New Valois mogul and chairman of the sewage board, who owns the airport where much of the novel's action takes place
Intruder in the Dust
Intruder in the Dust is a novel by the Nobel Prize–winning American author William Faulkner published in 1948. The novel focuses on a black farmer accused of murdering a white man, he is exonerated through the efforts of black and white teenagers and a spinster from a long-established Southern family. It was written as Faulkner's response as a Southern writer to the racial problems facing the South. In his Selected Letters, Faulkner wrote: "the premise being that the white people in the south, before the North or the Govt. or anybody else owe and must pay a responsibility to the negro."Template:Faulkner's Selected Letters, p 262 Intruder in the Dust is notable for its use of stream of consciousness style of narration. The novel includes lengthy passages on the Southern memory of the Civil War, one of which Shelby Foote quoted in Ken Burns' documentary The Civil War; the characters of Lucas Beauchamp and his wife, first appeared in Faulkner's collection of short fiction, Go Down, Moses. A story by Faulkner, "Lucas Beauchamp", was published in 1999.
Intruder in the Dust was turned into a film of the same name directed by Clarence Brown in 1949 after MGM paid film rights of $50,000 to Faulkner. The film was shot in Faulkner's home town of Mississippi. In her contemporary review of the novel, Eudora Welty noted its humor. In a 1949 contemporary analysis of Faulkner's work, Dayton Kohler noted the particular feature of Intruder in the Dust of its dramatization of the hope of regeneration of the American Southern conscience, with respect to the position of black Americans in Southern American society. John E. Bassett has commented that this novel represents a "serious attempt to explore contemporary Southern racism through Gavin and Chick". Jean E. Graham has discussed the contrasting rhetorical styles of Gavin and Chick throughout the course of the novel. Ticien Marie Sassoubre has examined the novel in the context of the social issues related to lynching in the American South, then-recent American federal law with respect to black Americans.
D. Hutchinson has elucidated the unifying literary devices of the novel. Peter J. Rabinowitz has looked at Faulkner's treatment of the form of the detective story, in the context of the genre of the "discovery novel", in Intruder in the Dust. Intruder in the Dust at Faded Page John Anderson page on William Faulkner Laurel Longe's article Lucas Beauchamp, Joe Christmas, the Color of Humanity
Mosquitoes is a satiric novel by the American author William Faulkner. The book was first published in 1927 by the New York-based publishing house Boni & Liveright and is the author's second novel. Sources conflict regarding whether Faulkner wrote Mosquitoes during his time living in Paris, beginning in 1925 or in Pascagoula, Mississippi in the summer of 1926, it is, however agreed upon that not only its setting, but its content reference Faulkner's personal involvement in the New Orleans creative community where he spent time before moving to France. The city of New Orleans and a yacht on Lake Pontchartrain are the two primary settings for the novel. Beginning and ending in the city, the story follows a diverse cast of artists and adolescents as they embark on a four-day excursion aboard the motorized yacht, the Nausikaa, owned by a wealthy patron of the arts; the novel is organized into six sections: a prologue which introduces the characters, four body sections each of which documents a day of the yacht trip hour-by-hour, an epilogue which returns the characters, changed or unchanged, to their lives off the boat.
Mosquitoes opens in the apartment of one of the story's main characters, a reserved and dedicated sculptor named Gordon. Ernest Talliaferro, a friend of the artist, joins him in the apartment, watching intently as the Gordon chisels away at a sculpture. Talliaferro engages the sculptor in a one-sided'conversation' about his abilities with women; the artist works around the chatty Talliaferro, indifferently agreeing with every claim and question, yet declines the offer to attend an evidently aforementioned boat trip hosted by the wealthy Mrs. Maurier. Leaving the apartment to get a bottle of milk for Gordon, he meets Mrs. Maurier, the hostess of the upcoming yachting trip, accompanied by her niece, Pat. A quick return to Gordon's apartment follows where Mrs. Maurier extends the offer for him to join the yachting excursion. Though Gordon maintains a distant and uninterested aura, it becomes evident through the stream-of-consciousness passages that follow that he is at odds with himself over his sudden attraction to Pat that changes his mind about the trip.
When Talliaferro takes leave of Gordon and the women, his path through the city and the paths of other characters that diverge in his wake serve to introduce the multifaceted New Orleans artistic community around which the plot focuses. At a dinner that follows, Talliaferro's visit with Gordon, the conversations about art that ensue as well as the sexual tensions that are hinted at in the interactions of Talliaferro, Julius Kaufmann, Dawson Fairchild set the stage for the interactions and themes that come to typify rest of the novel; the second section opens. The cast of characters in attendance is diverse and is typologically split into artists, non-artists, youths. Though it, at first provides a chronological foundation to the activities that Mrs. Maurier has planned for her guests, it becomes evident that her guests the men, are uncontrollable and more interested in drinking whisky in their rooms while gossiping about women and discussing art, than in participating in any activity she offers.
The first day on the yacht concludes with a minor cliffhanger when Mr. Talliaferro makes it known that he has his sights set on one of the women on the ship, but only speaks her name behind closed doors. During the second day the activities on the boat take an further backseat to the development of the characters and their interactions with one another. Similar conversations among the men over drinks continue, but the second day of the trip becomes defined by interactions between pairs of characters that result in misguided sexual tension, fostered between them. Mrs. Jameson's advances on Pete, for instance, go unreciprocated by the young man. Mr. Talliaferro's interest in Jenny grows, though as is always the case with him, he is not able to realize any relationship with the girl. Mrs. Maurier shares in the disappointment of unrequited love as she watches all of the men on the boat fawn over Jenny and Pat; these two subjects of male gaze share their own brief sexually charged interaction as they lay together in the room they share.
The only reciprocal feelings that seem to develop over the course of the day are between Pat and the nervous steward, David West, who she goes to meet for a midnight swim after her intimate encounter with Jenny. Two scenes diametrically opposed conclude the chapter as David West and Pat return in youthful joy from a midnight swim off of the now marooned boat, while Mrs. Maurer lies in bed sobbing in her loneliness; the third day on the yacht begins as Pat and David decide to leave the boat and elope to the town of Mandeville. The chapter cuts back and forth between the characters on the boat and Pat and David as they make their way through a endless swamp to their intended destination; the sexual advances and artistic discussion continue among characters on the boat. The most notable change in this chapter is the dominant role Mrs. Wiseman comes to play both in her sexual exploits and in her display of intelligence. Mrs. Wiseman's interest in Jenny is evident in her ever-present gaze upon the girl.
Prior to this chapter, conversations on the merits of artistic production took place exclusively among the male passengers of the boat, but now, following her revealed gaze upon Jenny, Mrs. Wiseman holds a strong place in a debate between Fairchild and Mark Frost. Mrs. Maurier too is present. Growing tired of talking and eating, the passengers on the boat join together to try to pull the boa