Tempera known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium glutinous material such as egg yolk. Tempera refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are long lasting, examples from the first century CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint consisting of pigment and binder used in the United States as poster paint is often referred to as "tempera paint," although the binders in this paint are different from traditional tempera paint. Tempera painting has been found on early Egyptian sarcophagi decorations. Many of the Fayum mummy portraits use tempera, sometimes in combination with encaustic. A related technique has been used in ancient and early medieval paintings found in several caves and rock-cut temples of India. High-quality art with the help of tempera was created in Bagh Caves between the late 4th and 10th centuries CE and in the 7th century CE in Ravan Chhaya rock shelter, Orissa.
The art technique was known from the classical world, where it appears to have taken over from encaustic painting and was the main medium used for panel painting and illuminated manuscripts in the Byzantine world and Medieval and Early renaissance Europe. Tempera painting was the primary panel painting medium for nearly every painter in the European Medieval and Early renaissance period up to 1500. For example, every surviving panel painting by Michelangelo is egg tempera. Oil paint, which may have originated in Afghanistan between the 5th and 9th centuries and migrated westward in the Middle Ages superseded tempera. Oil replaced tempera as the principal medium used for creating artwork during the 15th century in Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe. Around 1500, oil paint replaced tempera in Italy. In the 19th and 20th centuries, there were intermittent revivals of tempera technique in Western art, among the Pre-Raphaelites, Social Realists, others. Tempera painting continues to be used in Greece and Russia where it is the traditional medium for Orthodox icons.
The term tempera is derived from the Late Latin distemperare. Tempera is traditionally created by hand-grinding dry powdered pigments into a binding agent or medium, such as egg yolk, milk and a variety of plant gums; the most common form of classical tempera painting is "egg tempera". For this form most only the contents of the egg yolk is used; the white of the egg and the membrane of the yolk are discarded. Egg yolk is used by itself with pigment; some agent is always added, in variable proportions. One recipe calls for vinegar, but only in small amounts. A few drops of vinegar will preserve the solution for a week. (1:3, 3 parts water, 1 part yolk. Some schools of egg tempera use various mixtures of egg water. Powdered pigment, or pigment, ground in distilled water, is placed onto a palette or bowl and mixed with a equal volume of the binder; some pigments require more binder, some require less. When used to paint icons on church walls, liquid myrrh is sometimes added to the mixture to give the paint a pleasing odor as worshipers may find the egg tempera somewhat pungent for quite some time after completion.
The paint mixture has to be adjusted to maintain a balance between a "greasy" and "watery" consistency by adjusting the amount of water and yolk. As tempera dries, the artist will add more water to preserve the consistency and to balance the thickening of the yolk on contact with air. Once prepared, the paint cannot be stored. Egg tempera is not waterproof. Different preparations use the egg white or the whole egg for a different effect. Other additives such as oil and wax emulsions can modify the medium. Egg tempera requires stiff boards. Adding oil in no more than a 1:1 ratio with the egg yolk by volume produces a water-soluble medium with many of the color effects of oil paint, although it cannot be painted thickly; some of the pigments used by medieval painters, such as cinnabar, orpiment, or lead white are toxic. Most artists today use modern synthetic pigments, which are less toxic but have similar color properties to the older pigments. So, many modern pigments are still dangerous unless certain precautions are taken.
Tempera paint dries rapidly. It is applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers. Tempera painting allows for great precision when used with traditional techniques that require the application of numerous small brush strokes applied in a cross-hatching technique; when dry, it produces a smooth matte finish. Because it cannot be applied in thick layers as oil paints can, tempera paintings have the deep color saturation that oil paintings can achieve because it can hold less pigment. In this respect, the colors of an unvarnished tempera painting resemble a pastel, although the color deepens if a varnish is applied. On the other hand, tempera colors do not change over time, whereas oil paints darken and become transparent with age. Tempera adheres best to an absorbent ground that has a lower oil co
Collegiate Church of San Gimignano
The Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta, San Gimignano is a Roman Catholic collegiate church and minor basilica located in San Gimignano, central Italy, situated in the Piazza del Duomo at the town's heart. The church is famous for its fresco cycles which include works by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Benozzo Gozzoli, Taddeo di Bartolo, Lippo Memmi and Bartolo di Fredi; the basilica is located within the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the "Historic Centre of San Gimignano", with its frescos being described by UNESCO as "works of outstanding beauty". The first church on the site was begun in the 10th century. During the early 12th century the importance of San Gimignano, its principal church, grew owing to the town's location on the pilgrimage route to Rome, the Via Francigena; the present church on this site was consecrated on 21 November 1148 and dedicated to St. Geminianus in the presence of Pope Eugenius III and 14 prelates; the event is commemorated in a plaque on the facade. The power and authority of the city of San Gimignano continued to grow, until it was able to win autonomy from Volterra.
The church enjoyed numerous privileges that were endorsed by papal bulls and decrees. It was elevated to collegiate status 20 September 1471. During the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, the church was enriched by the addition of frescos and sculpture; the western end of the building was altered and extended by Giuliano da Maiano between 1466 and 1468, with the work including vestries, the Chapel of Conception and the Chapel of St Fina. The church was damaged during World War II, during the subsequent restoration in 1951 the triapsidal eastern end of the earlier church was discovered lying beneath the nave of the present church; the church possesses the relics of St. Geminianus, the beatified Bishop of Modena and patron saint of the town, whose feast day is celebrated on 31 January. On 8 May 1300 Dante Alighieri came to San Gimignano as the Ambassador of the Guelph League in Tuscany. Girolamo Savonarola preached from the pulpit of this church in 1497; the Collegiate Church stands on the west side of Piazza del Duomo, so named although the church has never been the seat of a bishop.
The church has an east-facing facade, chancel to the west, as at St Peter's Basilica. The architecture is 12th and 13th century Romanesque with the exception of the two chapels in the Renaissance style; the facade, which has little ornament, is approached from the square by a wide staircase and has a door into each of the side aisles, but no central portal. The doorways are surmounted by stone lintels with recessed arches above them, unusual in incorporating the stone Gabbro. There is a central ocular window at the end of the nave and a smaller one giving light to each aisle; the facade, stone, was raised higher in brick in 1340, when the ribbed vaulting was constructed, the two smaller ocular windows set in. Matteo di Brunisend is credited as the main architect of the medieval period, with his date of activity given as 1239, but in fact his contribution may have been little more than the design of the central ocular window. Beneath this window is a slot which marks the place of a window which lit the chancel of the earlier church, may be the most visible sign of the church's reorientation in the 12th century rebuilding, although this is not agreed upon by scholars.
To the north side of the church, in the corner of the transept and chancel, stands a plain campanile of square plan, with a single arched opening in each face. The campanile may be that of the earlier church, as it appears to mark the extent of the original western facade, or it may have been one of the city's many tower houses, pressed into service of the church. To the south side of the church is the Loggia of the Baptistry, a 14th-century arcaded cloister with stout octagonal columns and a groin vault. Internally, the building is in the shape of a Latin Cross, with central nave and an aisle on either side, divided by arcades of seven semi-circular Romanesque arches resting on columns with simplified Corinthianesque capitals; the chancel is a simple rectangle with a single arched window at the terminal end. The roofs throughout are of quadripartite vaults. Although Gothic by date and decoration, the profiles of the ribs are semi-circular in the Romanesque manner; the clerestory has small windows, inserted when the nave was vaulted, along with lancet windows in the north aisle, the aisle windows were subsequently blocked for the painting of the fresco cycle, making the interior dark.
The Romanesque architectural details of the church's interior are emphasised by the decorative use of colour, with the voussoirs of the nave arcades being of alternately black and white marble, creating stripes, as seen at Orvieto Cathedral. The vault compartments are all painted with lapis lazuli dotted with gold stars, the vaulting ribs are emphasised with bands of geometric decoration predominantly in red and gold; the church is most famous for its intact scheme of fresco decoration, the greater part of which dates from the 14th century, represents the work of painters of the Sienese school, influenced by the Byzantine traditions of Duccio and the Early Renaissance developments of Giotto. The frescoes comprise a Poor Man's Bible of Old Testament cycle, New Testament cycle, Last Judgement, as well as an Annunciation, a Saint Sebastian, the stories of a local saint, St Fina, as well as several smaller works; the wall of the left aisle had six decorated bays, of which the paintings of the first bay are in poor condition and those of the sixth have been damaged and in part destroyed by the insertion of the pipe organ.
The remaining paintings, with the exception of a repainted panel in the s
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. Vasari was born on 30 July 1511 in Tuscany. Recommended at an early age by his cousin Luca Signorelli, he became a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Sent to Florence at the age of sixteen by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he joined the circle of Andrea del Sarto and his pupils Rosso Fiorentino and Jacopo Pontormo, where his humanist education was encouraged, he was befriended by Michelangelo. He died on 27 June 1574 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, aged 62. In 1529, he visited Rome where he studied the works of Raphael and other artists of the Roman High Renaissance. Vasari's own Mannerist paintings were more admired in his lifetime than afterwards. In 1547 he completed the hall of the chancery in Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome with frescoes that received the name Sala dei Cento Giorni.
He was employed by members of the Medici family in Florence and Rome, worked in Naples and other places. Many of his pictures still exist, the most important being the wall and ceiling paintings in the Sala di Cosimo I in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, where he and his assistants were at work from 1555, the frescoes begun by him inside the vast cupola of the Duomo were completed by Federico Zuccari and with the help of Giovanni Balducci, he helped to organize the decoration of the Studiolo, now reassembled in the Palazzo Vecchio. In Rome he painted frescos in the Sala Regia. Among his other pupils or followers are included Sebastiano Flori, Bartolomeo Carducci, Domenico Benci, Tommaso del Verrocchio, Federigo di Lamberto, Niccolo Betti, Vittor Casini, Mirabello Cavalori, Jacopo Coppi, Piero di Ridolfo, Stefano Veltroni of Monte San Savino, Orazio Porta of Monte San Savino, Alessandro Fortori of Arezzo, Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, Fra Salvatore Foschi of Arezzo, Andrea Aretino. Aside from his career as a painter, Vasari was successful as an architect.
His loggia of the Palazzo degli Uffizi by the Arno opens up the vista at the far end of its long narrow courtyard. It is a unique piece of urban planning that functions as a public piazza, which, if considered as a short street, is unique as a Renaissance street with a unified architectural treatment; the view of the Loggia from the Arno reveals that, with the Vasari Corridor, it is one of few structures that line the river which are open to the river itself and appear to embrace the riverside environment. In Florence, Vasari built the long passage, now called Vasari Corridor, which connects the Uffizi with the Palazzo Pitti on the other side of the river; the enclosed corridor passes alongside the River Arno on an arcade, crosses the Ponte Vecchio and winds around the exterior of several buildings. It was once the home of the Mercado de Vecchio, he renovated the medieval churches of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce. At both he removed the original rood screen and loft, remodelled the retro-choirs in the Mannerist taste of his time.
In Santa Croce, he was responsible for the painting of The Adoration of the Magi, commissioned by Pope Pius V in 1566 and completed in February 1567. It was restored, before being put on exhibition in 2011 in Rome and in Naples, it is planned to return it to the church of Santa Croce in Bosco Marengo. In 1562 Vasari built the octagonal dome on the Basilica of Our Lady of Humility in Pistoia, an important example of high Renaissance architecture. In Rome, Vasari worked with Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Bartolomeo Ammannati at Pope Julius III's Villa Giulia. Called "the first art historian", Vasari invented the genre of the encyclopedia of artistic biographies with his Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori, dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, first published in 1550, he was the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print, though an awareness of the ongoing "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air since the time of Alberti, he was responsible for our use of the term Gothic Art, though he only used the word Goth which he associated with the "barbaric" German style.
The Lives included a novel treatise on the technical methods employed in the arts. The book was rewritten and enlarged in 1568, with the addition of woodcut portraits of artists; the work has a consistent and notorious bias in favour of Florentines, tends to attribute to them all the developments in Renaissance art – for example, the invention of engraving. Venetian art in particular, is systematically ignored in the first edition. Between the first and second editions, Vasari visited Venice and while the second edition gave more attention to Venetian art, it did so without achieving a neutral point of view. There are many inaccuracies within his Lives. For example, Vasari writes that Andrea del Castagno killed Domenico Veneziano, not true, given Andrea died several years before Domenico. In another example, Vasari's biography of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, whom he calls "Il Soddoma," published only in the Lives' second edition after Bazzi's death, condemns the artist as being immoral and vain. Vasari dismisses Bazzi's work as being lazy and offensive, despite the artist's having been named a Cavaliere di Crist
Sir John Wyndham Pope-Hennessy, was a British art historian and Director of the British Museum. He was a scholar of Italian Renaissance art. Many of his writings, including the tripartite Introduction to Italian Sculpture and his magnum opus, Donatello: Sculptor, are regarded as classics in the field. Pope-Hennessy was born into an Irish Catholic family in Belgravia, London, to Major-General Richard Pope-Hennessy and Dame Una Pope-Hennessy, the daughter of Arthur Birch, Lieutenant-Governor of Ceylon, he was the elder of two sons. Pope-Hennessy was educated at Downside School, a Roman Catholic boarding independent school for boys, in the village of Stratton-on-the-Fosse in Somerset, followed by Balliol College at the University of Oxford, where he read modern history. At Oxford, he was introduced by Logan Pearsall Smith to Kenneth Clark, who became a mentor to the young Pope-Hennessy. Upon graduation, Pope-Hennessy embarked on what he referred to as his Wanderjahre, travelling in continental Europe and becoming acquainted with its great art collections, both public and private.
Between 1955 and 1963, Pope-Hennessy's Introduction to Italian Sculpture was published in three volumes, covering Gothic and High Renaissance and Baroque sculpture. It has been said of these that "few books have dominated their field of study so or for so long". Pope-Hennessy served as the director of the Victoria and Albert Museum between 1967 and 1973, as the director of the British Museum from 1974 until 1976, his nickname to staff was "the Pope". Traumatised by the murder of his gay brother James in January 1974, Pope-Hennessy left the British Museum after only two years as director, he withdrew to Tuscany, but was enticed by an offer from the Metropolitan Museum of Art to head its department of European painting, moved to New York. He combined this curatorial post with a professorship at New York University's Institute of Fine Arts, enjoyed mixing with the city's high society, his apartment was known to be lavishly furnished and he is said to have owned a large porphyry table. Pope-Hennessy retired at 75 and moved permanently to Florence with his lover Michael Mallon, at Palazzo Canigiani, where he died five years later.
He is buried in the Cimitero Evangelico degli Allori in the southern suburb of Florence, Italy. A Lecture on Nicholas Hilliard, London, 1949 Introduction to Italian Sculpture. 3 vol. in 5. London, 1955–63 Donatello: Sculptor. London, 1993 Essays on Italian Sculpture. London, 1968 Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 3 vol. London: HMSO, 1964 Italian Paintings in the Robert Lehman Collection, 1987, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 0870994794. "Hennessy, Sir John Wyndham Pope". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/55258. Remarks made at the reception honoring Sir John Pope-Hennessy, a digitized 16 page work from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Finding aid for the John Pope-Hennessy papers at the Getty Research Institute
Lorenzo Ghiberti, born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise. Trained as a goldsmith and sculptor, he established an important workshop for sculpture in metal, his book of Commentarii contains important writing on art, as well as what may be the earliest surviving autobiography by any artist. Ghiberti was born in Pelago, a Comune 20 km from Florence, it is said that Lorenzo was the son of Fiore Ghiberti. However, there is. At some point in their marriage, Fiore went to Florence and lived with a goldsmith by the name of Bartolo di Michele. Fiore and Bartolo maintained a common law marriage, so it is unknown who Ghiberti's biological father is. There is no documentation of Ciones death, but it is known that after his passing Fiore and Bartolo got married in 1406. Regardless, Bartolo was the only father Lorenzo knew and they possessed a close and loving relationship.
Bartolo was a clever and popular goldsmith in Florence, trained Lorenzo in his trade. It was from this apprenticeship. Lorenzo did not just confine himself to gold-working, he delighted in modeling copies of antique medals and in painting. Lorenzo received formal training as a painter from Gherardo Starnina, an Italian artist from Florence, he went to work in the Florence workshop of Bartolo di Michele, where Antonio del Pollaiolo worked. When the bubonic plague struck Florence in 1400, Ghiberti emigrated to Rimini. In Rimini he was fortunate enough to receive employment in the palace of Carlo Malatesta for the Lord of Pesaro, where he assisted in the completion of wall frescoes of the castle of Carlo I Malatesta. At the palace Ghiberti was given a room to paint in, he spent much of his time here, it is believed. However, shortly after his arrival he received word from his friends back in Florence that the governors of the Baptistery were holding a competition and sending for masters who were skilled in bronze working.
Despite his great appreciation for painting, Ghiberti asked for leave from Malatesta. In 1401 he headed back to his hometown of Florence to participate in a competition, being held for the commission to make a pair of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Cathedral of Florence. Ghiberti's career was dominated by his two successive commissions for pairs of bronze doors to the Florence Baptistery, they are recognized as a major masterpiece of the Early Renaissance, were famous and influential from their unveiling. Ghiberti first became famous when as a 21-year-old he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors, with Brunelleschi as the runner up; the original plan was for the doors to depict scenes from the Old Testament, but the plan was changed to depict scenes from the New Testament instead. However, the trial piece made was of the sacrifice of Isaac and still survives. To carry out this commission, he set up a large workshop in which many artists trained, including Donatello, Michelozzo and Antonio Pollaiuolo.
When his first set of twenty-eight panels was complete, Ghiberti was commissioned to produce a second set for another doorway in the church, this time with scenes from the Old Testament, as intended for his first set. Instead of twenty-eight scenes, he produced ten rectangular scenes in a different style; these were more naturalistic, with a greater idealization of the subject. Dubbed "The Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo, this second set remains a major monument of the age of Renaissance humanism; the Gates of Paradise had 10 panels with biblical stories inscribed with 10 stories portrayed on each of them. The list below shows where each story is placed on the Gates of Paradise The Story of Adam and Eve In the beginning, God created the Universe. Shown on the top of the picture; when he created the universe, he created “The Garden of Eden”. This is where he created the first humans Eve. Adam and Eve are eating an apple from the forbidden tree. Eve was tricked by Lucifer, God's fallen angel, the serpent from being told she would be like God if she ate the forbidden fruit.
Shown on left middle side. Lucifer, his most beautiful angel, became the devil. Shown on the bottom left The Story of Cain and Abel Cain and Abel were the sons of Adam, the first man. Abel was younger than Cain. Out of jealousy, Cain was enraged with God preferring Abel's sacrifice over his. Shown at the top of the photo. Abel is sitting peacefully with the herd. Shown on the middle left side. Cain tricks Abel to follow him and murders him. Shown on the bottom; the Story of Noah God did not like. He told Noah that he needed to build an Ark.. Shown by the waves in the photo, he was told to bring two of each kind of his family. Shown on the left, on the middle area. There is a Moses laying next to a barrel signifying the drunks. Shown on the bottom left. There is Moses offering a sacrifice. Shown on the bottom right; the Story of Abraham Three men came to Abraham. He clothed them, fed them, gave them drinks; the three men were angels and they revealed themselves as messengers of God. Shown at the bottom left.
They told him his wife Sarah, 80 years old, would bear a child. Once they had the child God order Abraham to sacrifice