Sir Thomas Gresham the Elder, was an English merchant and financier who acted on behalf of King Edward VI and Edward's half-sisters, queens Mary I and Elizabeth I. In 1565 Gresham founded the Royal Exchange in the City of London. Born in London and descended from an old Norfolk family, Gresham was one of two sons and two daughters of Sir Richard Gresham, a leading City merchant mercer and Lord Mayor of London, knighted by King Henry VIII for negotiating favourable loans with foreign merchants. Gresham was educated at St Paul's School. After this, although his father wanted Thomas to become a merchant, Sir Richard first sent him to university at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, he was concurrently apprenticed in the Mercers' Company to his uncle Sir John Gresham, founder of Gresham's School, while he was still at Cambridge. In 1543 the Mercers' Company admitted the 24-year-old Gresham as a liveryman, that year he left England for the Low Countries, either on his own account or that of his father or uncle, he both carried on business as a merchant whilst acting in various matters as agent for King Henry VIII.
In 1544 he married Anne Ferneley, widow of the London merchant Sir William Read, but maintained residence principally in the Low Countries, basing his headquarters at Antwerp in present-day Belgium, where he became renowned for his adept market-play. When in 1551 the mismanagement of Sir William Dansell, King's Merchant to the Low Countries, had caused the English Government much financial embarrassment, the authorities called Gresham for advice, thereafter following his proposals. Gresham advocated the adoption of various methods – ingenious, but quite arbitrary and unfair — for raising the value of the pound sterling on the Antwerp bourse which proved so successful that in just a few years King Edward VI had discharged all of his debts; the Government sought Gresham's advice in all their money difficulties, frequently employed him in various diplomatic missions. He had no stated salary, but in reward of his services received from King Edward various grants of lands, the annual value of which at that time amounted to about 400 pounds a year.
On the accession of Queen Mary in 1553 Gresham fell out of favour at Court for a short time with Alderman William Dauntsey displacing him. But Dauntsey's financial operations proved unsuccessful and Gresham was soon re-instated. Under Queen Elizabeth's reign, besides continuing in his post as financial agent of the Crown, Gresham acted as Ambassador Plenipotentiary to the Court of Duchess Margaret of Parma, Governor of the Netherlands, was appointed a Knight Bachelor in 1559 prior to his departure; the unsettled times preceding the Dutch revolt compelled him to leave Antwerp on 10 March 1567. His enterprises made him one of the richest men of his generation in England. Queen Elizabeth found Gresham's abilities useful in a variety of other ways, including acting as gaoler to Lady Mary Grey, who, as a punishment for marrying Thomas Keyes the sergeant-porter, was imprisoned in his house from June 1569 to the end of 1572. In 1565 Gresham made a proposal to the City's Court of Aldermen to build, at his own expense, a bourse or exchange – what became the Royal Exchange, modelled on the Antwerp bourse.
In this proposal he seems to have had a good eye for his self-interest as well as for the general good of the City's merchants, for by a yearly rental of £700 obtained for the shops in the upper part of the building he received more than sufficient return for his trouble and expense. The foundation of the Royal Exchange is the background of Thomas Heywood's play: If You Know Not Me, You Know Nobody part 2, in which a Lord extols the quality of the building when asked if he has seen "a goodlier frame": "Not in my life. In the Rialto there, called Saint Mark's; the nearest, that which most resembles this, is the great Burse in Antwerp, yet no comparable either in height or wideness, the fair cellarage, or goodly shops above. Oh my Lord Mayor, this Gresham hath. In 1544 he married widow of Sir William Read, a London merchant. By his wife he had an only son, he had an illegitimate daughter who married Sir Nathaniel Bacon, half-brother of Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, becoming Anne, Lady Bacon.
Gresham died apparently of apoplexy, on 21 November 1579 and was buried at St Helen's Church, Bishopsgate in the City of London. Apart from some small sums to various charities, Gresham bequeathed the bulk of his property to his widow and her heirs, with the stipulation that after her death his own house in Bishopsgate Street and the rents from the Royal Exchange should be vested in the Corporation of London and the Mercers Company, for the purpose of instituting a college in which seven professors should read lectures, one each day of the week, in astro
Holborn is a district in the London boroughs of Camden and City of Westminster and a locality in the ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. The area is sometimes described as part of the West End of London; the area's first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar, dated to 959. This mentions "the old wooden church of St Andrew"; the name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English "hol" for hollow, bourne, a brook, referring to the River Fleet as it ran through a steep valley to the east. Historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as "Hole Bourn" where it passes to the east of St Andrew's church. However, the 16th-century historian John Stow attributes the name to the Old Bourne, a small stream which he believed ran into the Fleet at Holborn Bridge, a structure lost when the river was culverted in 1732; the exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the many small springs near Holborn Bar, the old City toll gate on the summit of Holborn Hill.
This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that marks the street as'Oldbourne' and'High Oldbourne'. Other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land, it was outside the City's jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex. In the 12th century St Andrew's was noted in local title deeds as lying on "Holburnestrate"—Holborn Street; the original Bars were the boundary of the City of London from 1223, when the City's jurisdiction was extended beyond the Walls, at Newgate, into the suburb here, as far as the point where the Bars were erected, until 1994 when the boundary moved to the junction of Chancery Lane. In 1394 the Ward of Farringdon Without was created, but only the south side of Holborn was under its jurisdiction with some minor properties, such as parts of Furnival's Inn, on the northern side, "above Bars"; the rest of the area "below Bars" was organised by the vestry board of the parish of St Andrew.
The St George the Martyr Queen Square area became a separate parish in 1723 and was combined with the part of St Andrew outside the City of London in 1767 to form St Andrew Holborn Above the Bars with St George the Martyr. The Holborn District was created in 1855, consisting of the civil parishes and extra-parochial places of Glasshouse Yard, Saffron Hill, Hatton Garden, Ely Rents and Ely Place, St Andrew Holborn Above the Bars with St George the Martyr and St Sepulchre; the Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was created in 1900, consisting of the former area of the Holborn District and the St Giles District, excluding Glasshouse Yard and St Sepulchre, which went to the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury. The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now forms part of the London Borough of Camden. Local politicians include: Keir Starmer MP, the Labour Party Member of Parliament for Holborn and St Pancras, Mark Field Conservative MP for the Cities of London and Westminster, which includes the City of London portion of Holborn, three ward councillors for Holborn and Covent Garden: Cllr Julian Fulbrook, Cllr Sue Vincent and Cllr Awale Olad of the Labour Party.
Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, of the Labour Party. Henry VII paid for the road to be paved in 1494 because the thoroughfare "was so deep and miry that many perils and hazards were thereby occasioned, as well to the king's carriages passing that way, as to those of his subjects". Criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. In the 18th century, Holborn was the location of the infamous Mother Clap's molly house. There were 22 taverns recorded in the 1860s; the Holborn Empire Weston's Music Hall, stood between 1857 and 1960, when it was pulled down after structural damage sustained in the Blitz. The theatre premièred one of the first full-length feature films in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, a 50-minute melodrama filmed in Kinemacolor. Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnival's Inn. Dickens put his character "Pip", in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnard's Inn opposite, now occupied by Gresham College.
Staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery; the most northerly of the Inns of Court, Gray's Inn, is off Holborn, as is Lincoln's Inn: the area has been associated with the legal professions since mediaeval times, the name of the local militia still reflects that. Subsequently, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaw's invention of the Marine chronometer, which facilitated long-distance travel. At the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages; until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street. The Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002; the Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, but the site is now occupied by Sainsbury's head office. Further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldreda's Church the chapel of the Bishop of Ely's London palace; this ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s.
This meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden, was licensed by the Cambridgeshire Magistrates. St Etheldreda's is the oldest
The Gordon Riots of 1780 were several days of rioting based on anti-Catholic feeling. They began with a massive and orderly protest in London against the Papists Act of 1778, intended to reduce official discrimination against British Catholics. Lord George Gordon, head of the Protestant Association warned that the law would enable Catholics in the British Army to become a dangerous threat; the protest evolved into widespread looting. Local magistrates did not issue the riot act. There was no repression until the Army moved in and started shooting; the main violence lasted from 2 June to 9 June, 1780. The Popery Act 1698 had imposed a number of penalties and disabilities on Roman Catholics in England. An initial peaceful protest led on to widespread rioting and looting and was the most destructive in the history of London. Painted on the wall of Newgate prison was the proclamation that the inmates had been freed by the authority of "His Majesty, King Mob"; the term "King Mob" afterwards denoted an fearsome proletariat.
The Riots came near the height of the American War of Independence, when Britain, with no large ally, was fighting American rebels and Spain. Public opinion in middle-class and elite circles, repudiated anti-Catholicism and lower-class violence, rallied behind Lord North's government. Demands were made for a London police force; the stated intention of the Papists Act of 1778 was, as its preamble notes, to mitigate some of the official discrimination against Roman Catholics in the Kingdom of Great Britain. It absolved Catholics from taking the religious oath when joining the British Armed Forces as well as granting a few and limited liberties. There were strong expedient reasons for this change. British military forces at the time were stretched thinly in what had become a global American War of Independence, with conflicts ongoing with France and the new United States; the recruitment of Catholic people would be a significant help to address this shortfall of manpower. The 1698 anti-Catholic laws had been ignored for many years and were enforced.
Because of this, many leading Catholics were opposed to the repeal of the Act, fearing it would stir up anti-Catholic sentiment for little practical return. It was pointed out that large numbers of Catholics, recruited in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands, were serving in the military. In spite of this, the government decided to press ahead with the Bill, had it introduced in Parliament by Sir George Savile; the Protestant Association of London had the support of leading Calvinist religious figures, including Rowland Hill, Erasmus Middleton, John Rippon. Lord George Gordon became its President in 1779, in an effort to force the repeal of the Papists Act. An articulate propagandist, though eccentric, Gordon inflamed the mob with fears of Papism and a return to absolute monarchical rule, he implied that Catholics in the military would, given a chance, join forces with their co-religionists on the Continent and attack Britain. He enjoyed popularity in Scotland where he took part in a successful campaign to prevent the same legislation from being introduced into Scots law, although the Act continued in force in England and Wales and in Ireland.
The success in obstructing the law in Scotland led Gordon to believe he could enjoy similar success in the rest of Britain. Early in 1780 Gordon had several audiences with King George III but was unable to convince him of what he saw as the dangers of the Act. George III humoured Gordon, but grew irritated with him and refused any future audiences; the political climate deteriorated rapidly. On 29 May 1780, Gordon called a meeting of the Protestant Association, his followers subsequently marched on the House of Commons to deliver a petition demanding the repeal of the Act. After the first march to Parliament, further riots occurred involving groups whose grievances were nationalistic, economic, or political, rather than religious. Aside from the issue of Catholic emancipation, it has been suggested that the driving force of the riots was Britain's poor economic situation: the loss of trade during the war had led to falling wages, rising prices, periodic unemployment; as Rudé noted, there was no general attack on the Catholic community, "the victims of the riots" being distinguished by the fact they were "on the whole, persons of substance".
Voting in parliamentary elections was restricted by a property threshold, so most Londoners were unable to vote and many hoped for reforms to make Parliament more representative of the people. Shortly after the riots had broken out, the Duke of Richmond suggested that they were directly attributable to the passing of the Quebec Act six years before, a view, ridiculed by many of his colleagues. Another suggested cause was Britain's weakened international position, which had arisen from the country's isolation in Europe and the disappointing news coming from the ongoing war; some rioters were against the continuation of the war, many supported American independence, while others were angry that Britain's war effort was being mishandled by Lord North. In many cases a mix of issues drove people to take part in the rioting. On 2 June 1780 a huge crowd, estimated at 40,000 to 60,000 strong and marched on the Houses of Parliament. Many carried flags and banners proclaiming "No Popery", most wore blue cockades which had become the symbol of their movement.
As they marched, their numbers swelled. They without success. Gordon, petition in hand, wearing in his hat the blue cockade of the Protestant Association, entered th
A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of one American cent as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin, it is the informal name of the cent unit of account in Canada, although one cent coins are no longer minted there. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier and the German pfennig, it may be informally used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin, such as the euro cent or Chinese fen. The Carolingian penny was a.940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound. It was adopted by Offa of Mercia and other English kings and remained the principal currency in Europe over the next few centuries until repeated debasements necessitated the development of more valuable coins; the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797.
Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and throughout the British Commonwealth, the name remains in informal use. No penny is formally subdivided, although farthings and half cents have been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts. Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig and pending; the etymology of the term "penny" is uncertain, although cognates are common across all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-, or *pand- with the individualizing suffix -ing. Common suggestions include that it was *panding as a Low Franconian form of Old High German pfant "pawn", it has been proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic pn, as the face of Carthaginian goddess Tanit was represented on nearly all Carthaginian currency. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked "new penny" until 1982 and 1985, respectively.
The regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. It remains common in Scottish English and is standard for all senses in American English, however, the informal "penny" is only used of the coins in any case, values being expressed in "cents"; the informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York State. In British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are written and spoken as a single word, as twopence or tuppence, threepence or thruppence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, as a sixpence or two eightpences. Thus, "a threepence" would be single coin of that value whereas "three pence" would be its value and "three pennies" would be three penny coins. In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, such constructions were treated as single nouns.
Adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius. It followed the amount after a space, it has been replaced since decimalization by p written without a space or period. From this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as "p". In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢. Elsewhere, it is written with a simple c; the medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, the Roman denarius. Forms of these seem to have reached as far as Sweden; the use of Roman currency in Britain seems to have fallen off after the Roman withdrawal and subsequent Saxon invasions. Charlemagne's father Pepin the Short instituted a major currency reform around AD 755, aiming to reorganise Francia's previous silver standard with a standardized.940-fine denier weighing 1⁄240 pound. Around 790, Charlemagne introduced a new.950 or.960-fine penny with a smaller diameter.
Surviving specimens have an average weight of 1.70 grams, although some estimate the original ideal mass at 1.76 grams. Despite the purity and quality of these pennies, they were rejected by traders throughout the Carolingian period in favor of the gold coins used elsewhere, a situation that led to repeated legislation against such refusal to accept the king's currency; some of the Anglo-Saxons kingdoms copied the solidus, the late Roman gold coin. Around AD 641–670, there seems to have been a movement to use coins with a lower gold content; this decreased their value and may have increased the number that could be minted, but these paler coins do not seem to have solved the problem of the value and scarcity of the currency
The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple known as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. It is located in the wider Temple area of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. During the 12th and early 13th centuries the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy, but a papal bull in 1218 prohibited the clergy from practising in the secular courts. As a result, law began to be taught by laymen instead of by clerics. To protect their schools from competition, first Henry II and Henry III issued proclamations prohibiting the teaching of the civil law within the City of London; as a result, the common law lawyers moved to premises outside the City, which in time became the inns of court. The Middle Temple is the western part of "The Temple", the headquarters of the Knights Templar until they were dissolved in 1312. There have been lawyers in the Temple since 1320, when they were the tenants of the Earl of Lancaster, who had held the Temple since 1315.
The Temple belonged to the Knights Hospitallers. In 1346 the knights again leased the premises to the lawyers – the eastern part to lawyers from Thavie's Inn, an Inn of Chancery in Holborn, the western part to lawyers from St George's Inn; the Cross of St George is still part of the arms of Middle Temple today. After Henry VIII seized the Temple from the Knights Hospitallers in 1540, each Inn continued to hold its share of the Temple as tenants of the Crown for £10 a year, until it was granted to them jointly in 1608 by James I, to be held in perpetuity so long as they continue to provide education and accommodation to lawyers and students and maintain the Temple Church and its Master; the Temple Church, consecrated in 1185, still stands as a "Royal Peculiar" church of the Inner and Middle Temples. Much of the Middle Temple was destroyed in a fire in 1678, which caused more damage to the Inn than the Great Fire of 1666; the Thames being frozen over, beer from the Temple cellars was used to fight the fire, only contained by blowing up some buildings with gunpowder.
The Lord Mayor of London tried to exploit the occasion to assert his own jurisdiction over the Temple –, independent of the City – and on being thwarted in this endeavour, he turned back a fire engine, on its way to the fire from the City. The Inns served as colleges for the education of lawyers until they stopped being responsible for legal education in 1852, although they continue to provide training in areas such as advocacy and ethics for students, pupil barristers and newly qualified barristers. Most of the Inn is occupied by barristers' offices, known as chambers. One of the Middle Temple's main functions now is to provide education and support to new members of the profession; this is done through advocacy training, the provision of scholarships, subsidised accommodation both in the Temple and in Clapham, by providing events where junior members may meet senior colleagues for help and advice. In 2008 the 400th anniversary of the charter of James I was celebrated by Elizabeth II issuing new letters patent confirming the original grant.
The Middle Temple owns 43 buildings. The ones in the Temple itself are still held under the 1608 letters patent of James I, but some others just outside the Temple were bought subsequently; some buildings are modern, replacing ones which were destroyed in The Blitz, but others date back to the 16th century. The Inn is jointly responsible, with Inner Temple, for Temple Church and the Master's House next to the church, a Georgian townhouse built in 1764. Construction of Middle Temple Hall began in 1562 and was completed in 1572, although it was opened in 1576, by Queen Elizabeth I, its hammerbeam roof has been said to be the best in London. One of the tables at the end of the hall is made from the timbers of the Golden Hinde, the ship used by Sir Francis Drake to circumnavigate the world. Above the table is a massive painting of King Charles I by Anthony van Dyck, portraits of Charles II, James II, William III, Elizabeth I, Queen Anne and George I. On the walls are panels bearing the coats of arms of Readers dating back to 1597.
The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play Twelfth Night occurred in the hall on 2 February 1602. Shakespeare himself was present; the hall survived the Great Fire of London in 1666, but was damaged by bombing in the Second World War. Middle Temple Hall is at the heart of the Inn, the Inn's student members are required to attend a minimum of 12 qualifying sessions there. Qualifying sessions known as "dinners", combine collegiate and educational elements and will combine a dinner or reception with lectures, mooting, or musical performances. Middle Temple Hall is a popular venue for banqueting, weddings and parties. In recent years, it has become a much-used film location—the cobbled streets, historic buildings and gas lighting give it a unique atmosphere. Nothing is known about the original library, just a room in a barristers' chambers. All the books were stolen prior to the reign of Henry VIII. In 1625 a new library was established at the site of what is now Garden Court, in 1641 it was enlarged when a member of the Inn, Robert Ashley and left his collection of books and £300 to the Inn.
This library w
Gresham Professor of Geometry
The Professor of Geometry at Gresham College, gives free educational lectures to the general public. The college was founded for this purpose in 1596/7; the Professor of Geometry is always appointed by the City of London Corporation. Note, years given as, say, 1596/7 refer to Old New Style dates. Gresham College old website, Internet Archive List of professors'400 Years of Geometry at Gresham College', lecture by Robin Wilson at Gresham College, 14 May 2008 Ward, John; the Lives of the Professors of Gresham College. New York & London: Johnson Reprint Corporation
Gresham Professor of Physic
The Professor of Physic at Gresham College in London, gives free educational lectures to the general public on medicine and related sciences. The college was founded to give public lectures in 1596 / 7. Professors of Physic and more visiting Professors have been giving public lectures on major topics in medicine in London since 1597. Gresham Professors have included some of the leading scientists in Britain including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle. Gresham Professors of Physic listed below included leaders in medicine, public health and clinical science. In addition eminent medical scientists and physicians were Gresham Professors of other disciplines, such as Sir William Petty, one of the founders of demography; the Professor of Physic is always appointed by the Mercers' Side of the Joint Grand Gresham Committee, a body administered jointly by the Worshipful Company of Mercers and the City of London Corporation. Gresham College old website, Internet Archive List of professors Ward, John.
The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College. New York & London: Johnson Reprint Corporation