George Gordon Meade was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved in the coastal construction of several lighthouses. He fought with distinction in the Second Seminole War and the Mexican–American War, during the American Civil War he served as a Union general, rising from command of a brigade to command of the Army of the Potomac. He is best known for defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, Meades Civil War combat experience started as a brigade commander in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days Battles, including the Battle of Glendale, where he was wounded severely. As a division commander, he had success at the Battle of South Mountain. His division was arguably the most successful during the assaults at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who accompanied him throughout these campaigns. He suffered from a reputation as a man of short, violent temper who was hostile toward the press, after the war, he commanded several important departments during Reconstruction.
George Gordon Meade was born in 1815 in Cádiz and his father, a wealthy Philadelphian merchant, was serving in Spain as a naval agent for the U. S. government. He was ruined financially because of his support of Spain in the Napoleonic Wars and his family returned to the United States in 1817, in precarious financial straits. Young George attended the Mount Hope Institution in Baltimore and entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1831 and he graduated 19th in his class of 56 cadets in 1835. His brother, Richard Worsam Meade II, became a naval officer, for a year, he served with the 3rd U. S. Artillery in Florida, fighting against the Seminole Indians, before resigning from the Army and he worked as a civil engineer for the Alabama and Florida Railroad and for the War Department. On December 31,1840, he married Margaretta Sergeant, daughter of John Sergeant, finding steady civilian employment was difficult for the newly married man, so he reentered the army in 1842 as a second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers.
After that war he was involved in lighthouse and breakwater construction and coastal surveying in Florida. He designed Barnegat Light on Long Beach Island, Absecon Light in Atlantic City, Cape May Light in Cape May, Jupiter Inlet Light in Jupiter, Florida and he designed a hydraulic lamp that was adopted by the Lighthouse Board for use in American lighthouses. He was promoted to captain in 1856, in 1857, Meade relieved Lt. Col. James Kearney on the Lakes Survey mission of the Great Lakes. Completion of the survey of Lake Huron and extension of the surveys of Lake Michigan down to Grand, prior to Captain Meades command, Great Lakes water level readings were taken locally with temporary gauges, a uniform plane of reference had not been established. In 1858, based on his recommendation, instrumentation was set in place for the tabulation of records across the basin, in 1860, the first detailed report of Great Lakes was published. Meade stayed with the Lakes Survey until the 1861 outbreak of the Civil War and he was assigned command of the 2nd Brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, recruited early in the war, which he led competently, initially in the construction of defenses around Washington, D. C
East Point Light
The light was inactive from 1941 and was nearly destroyed by fire in 1971. The light was reinstated by the United States Coast Guard in 1980, exterior restoration was completed in 1999. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places as Maurice River Lighthouse, United States Coast Guard Historians Office. East Point Light - from Lighthousefriends. com NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day, Photo at night
Long Beach Island
Long Beach Island is a barrier island and summer colony along the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States. The primary industries include tourism and real estate, the only access point to the island by land is a single causeway. The island is home to about 20,000 people on a year-round basis, the population is distributed among six separate municipalities, the largest of which is Long Beach Township. However, the population swells significantly during the summer months and reaches about 100,000 people, including part-time residents and tourists. Long Beach Island is located 25 miles north of Atlantic City,55 miles east-southeast of Philadelphia and 75 miles south of New York City, LBI is approximately 18 miles in length, which includes three miles of nature reserve located on the southern tip. The island is about a half-mile wide at its widest point in Ship Bottom, Long Beach Island is bisected by State Route 72, formerly South 40, which connects the mainland to the island at Ship Bottom.
It is the access point for road vehicles to the mainland over Manahawkin Bay. This results in the division of the island into a northern portion, from the bridge northward, the island includes the communities of Ship Bottom, Surf City, North Beach, Harvey Cedars, High Bar Harbor, and Barnegat Light. Long Beach Island has a subtropical climate. In the winter, the island does not get as much snowfall as northern and western portions of New Jersey or the areas immediately inland due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Overall, Long Beach Island has relatively mild winters as a result of the warmer Atlantic waters, the island receives the very last frost in the state because of its mild autumn climate. The summers are hot and sunny, with thunderstorms almost once a week. The island has been settled since 1690, initially being a destination for hunters. Barnegat Inlet, to the north of the island, was an important path for freight shipments, erosion problems destroyed the tower in 1857, two years before the current Barnegat Lighthouse was completed in 1859, flashing at each point of the compass every 10 seconds.
The United States Life-Saving Service built Station #17 in Barnegat Light around 1872, the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916 included a fatal attack in Beach Haven, killing University of Pennsylvania student Charles Vansant in July 1916, which partly inspired the book Jaws. A severe winter storm in 1920 destroyed most of the beaches along the island, several hotels, a storm in 1923 further diminished the tourism sector, resulting in the discontinuation of train service to Barnegat City between 1923 and 1926. In 1935, the bridge to the mainland washed out. Several storms throughout the history have resulted in the island being split in two, with the division occurring at the islands narrowest point in Harvey Cedars
Barnegat Light, New Jersey
Barnegat Light is a borough in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States. The borough borders the Atlantic Ocean on Long Beach Island and is home to Barnegat Lighthouse, the area surrounding the Barnegat Bay and Barnegat Inlet was described by Henry Hudson in 1609, as. a great lake of water, as we could judge it to be. The mouth of the lake hath many shoals, and the sea breaketh on them as it is cast out of the mouth of it, on October 26,1782, a Belgian cutter traveling southward became stranded near the inlet. The ship was noticed by Captain Andrew Steelman, who recruited local men to unload the cargo, while at rest on the beach, the crews were attacked by Captain John Bacon, who was affiliated with the Loyalists. Almost all of Steelmans men were murdered in what known as the Barnegat Light Massacre. Caleb Parker, the first European permanent settler in the area, in 1814, portions of the lowlands and beaches were purchased by settlers Bart and Ruth Slaight, who built a small house and later, in 1825, a larger home to accommodate boarders.
The boardinghouse was sold to Jacob Herring, which prompted the structure to become known as the Herring House, the building lodged many of the visiting hunters, who primarily came from New York City and Philadelphia. The first lighthouse tower was built in 1835 to coincide with the economic dependence on the inlet. Whaling had been permitted in the area in 1678, timber was often freighted through from sawmills on the mainland, in 1855, John M. Brown bought much of the land that makes up present-day Barnegat Light. This purchase included the acquisition of Herring House, which was renamed Ashley House, the first official name of the community thus became Brownsville. During this time, a house of refuge was built to provide a shelter for shipwreck victims. Despite several attempts at constructing jetties, the tides caused considerable erosion of the beaches. The lighthouse collapsed into the sea in 1857 and a replacement lighthouse was completed in 1859, the Brown family left the island after John Browns son drowned at sea.
The Brown familys land was sold at auction in 1869, and in 1874, the United States Life-Saving Service built Station No.17 in the area c. 1875, the store and post office were constructed near the intersection of 4th Street. The general store was run by Lucrecia Buttersworth and provided limited supplies—largely due to the difficulty with transporting merchandise to the shop. In 1919, the store was purchased by the Applegate family. In 1881, the Barnegat City Improvement Company was formed by Benjamin Franklin Archer, adding city helped the new resort town capitalize on the success of Atlantic City
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the countrys seven uniformed services. This has happened twice, in 1917, during World War I, created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue Marine, by the 1860s, the service was known as the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue Marine gradually fell into disuse, the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury. As one of the five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War. As of 2014 the Coast Guard had over 36,000 men and women on duty,7,350 reservists,29,620 auxiliarists. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the worlds 12th largest naval force.
Because of its authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the U. S. Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3. The Coast Guards enduring roles are maritime safety, security, to carry out those roles, it has 11 statutory missions as defined in 6 U. S. C. §468, which include enforcing U. S. law in the worlds largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles, the Coast Guards motto is the Latin phrase, Semper Paratus. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, the Coast Guards most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit. Wil Milam, a swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, In the Navy. Practicing for war, training for war, in the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself. The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are subdivided into eleven statutory missions. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for military and civilian search and rescue.
The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators, previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports, details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution, the five uniformed services that make up the U. S
Prior to and after an official retirement, Sinbad was assigned the rank of K9C or Chief Dog - equivalent to Chief Petty Officer. At the time of the written by George Foley, no other member of the United States Coast Guard had yet been the subject of a published biography. Sinbad spent 11 years at sea on the Campbell including combat in World War II that became widely publicized as part of the homefront campaign. Sinbads birth is not recorded, but he was obtained by Chief Boatswains Mate A. A. Blackie Rother of the USCGC George W. Campbell, who intended the dog as a gift for a girlfriend. She did not take him in due to a restriction against pets in her apartment building, leaving Rother with him as he returned from liberty in 1937. No crewman would take the dog, leaving him a stray without an owner, according to the Coast Guard and several published articles, he was enlisted into the service with his pawprint on enlistment papers. As Foley notes, Sinbad was assigned his own service and Red Cross identification numbers, service record and he was recorded as a member of the Society of Polar Explorers.
Being prone to the indiscretions of both a canine and a sailor, Sinbad was subject to Captains Mast on two occasions, and was promoted and demoted in rank on several occasions, Sinbad ended his time at sea with the rank K9C Chief Dog and commensurate pay rate. Sinbad was aboard Campbell throughout World War II while the cutter was assigned to escort duty in the Atlantic. Campbells most significant action involved combat with, and sinking by ramming of, crew members stated to the media that Captain James Hirschfield believed that nothing could befall the ship if Sinbad remained aboard. A statue of Sinbad is on the deck of current Famous-class medium endurance cutter USCGC Campbell. Sinbad was aboard during other anti-submarine warfare and strafing attacks by enemy aircraft, Sinbad became a public figure through media attention first accumulated through his presence in bars in ports of call. He frequented Red Cross facilities such as his favorite in Londonderry. New York papers featured the story of the clash with U-606, the Boston Globes Martin Sheridan described him in a December 1943 Life Magazine story as liberty-rum-chow-hound, with a bit of bulldog, doberman pinscher, and what-not.
Mostly what-not, which appealed to blue collar and farm town America, photo sessions and network news interviews when the Campbell was in port served the home-front morale effort and gave Sinbad nationwide recognition. His celebrity further increased following the end of the war and the publication of George F. Foleys Sinbad of the Coast Guard, whose book-signing tour Sinbad accompanied. As both a dog and sailor, Sinbad was not immune to causing trouble in port towns where the crew went on liberty and he was the subject of formal complaints called diplomatic incidents in Casablanca and Greenland. Sinbad was known for playing with a metal washer that he balanced on his nose, tossed in the air
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use state as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, the term is used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa, similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar to parks, but under state rather than federal administration. Similarly, local government entities below state level may maintain parks, in general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California. As of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, there are some 739 million annual visits to the countrys state parks.
The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail,217,367 campsites, many states include designations beyond state park in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, some state park systems include long-distance trails and historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, however several public parks previously or currently maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a park since 1825. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890. In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its forests as The State Park but, needing money. The first state park with the designation of state park was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, list of U. S. state parks National Association of State Park Directors Wilderness preservation systems in the United States Ahlgren, Carol.
The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development, the State Park Movement in America, A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement, oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp, 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. When Forests Trumped Parks, The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950, Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp, 203-224
Finns Point Range Light
The Finns Point Range Rear Light is a lighthouse in Pennsville Township, Salem County, New Jersey. It is located just east of the Delaware River, and was part of Range light pair that guided ships into the Delaware River. It is deactivated, and its lamp and lens have been removed and it was designed and built in 1877 and is a classic example of a skeletal cast iron prefabricated lighthouse. Its companion Front range light was demolished and replaced with an automated light in 1938. Both the Rear and replacement Front light were deactivated in 1950, New Jersey Lighthouse Society Home Page, Finns Point Lighthouse Finns Point Lighthouse- from Lighthousefriends. com
Brandywine Shoal Light
The Brandywine Shoal Light is a lighthouse on the north side of the ship channel in Delaware Bay on the east coast of the United States, west of Cape May, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. It was the site of the first screw-pile lighthouse in the United States, a lightship was stationed near the shoal starting in 1823, this ship, known as Lightship N, lasted until 1859, despite an 1838 inspection report characterizing it as being in poor repair. It remained at this station until 1850, with one interruption, in 1827 the first attempt was made to place a fixed light on the shoal. A wood pile structure, it lasted barely a year before heavy seas tore it down, an abortive project, begun in 1835, to design a light on a stone pier at the site was cancelled when the cost proved prohibitive. This structure was first lit in 1850, the lighthouse proper rose out of the center of the platform as a short tower. This light was fitted with a third-order Fresnel lens in 1851 and this light, completed in 1914, featured a reinforced concrete superstructure on a cast iron and concrete caisson, resting upon wooden and precast concrete piles.
The superstructure of the old light was removed, but the platform remained into the 1950s, used by the Navy for various purposes. In support of this, an artificial harbor was constructed using a partial circle of riprap, it remains in place. The Fresnel lens was moved from the old light to the new when the latter was completed, and has since transferred to the Tuckerton Seaport museum. The light was automated in 1974, by time it was the last manned station on Delaware Bay. It continues to serve as an aid to navigation. The lighthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, in June 2011, the General Services Administration made the Brandywine Shoal Light available at no cost to public organizations willing to preserve them. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cape May County, New Jersey Chart 12304, Historic Light Station Information and Photography, New Jersey. United States Coast Guard Historians Office, inventory of Historic Light Stations, New Jersey Lighthouses, Brandywine Shoal Light.
Guarding New Jerseys Shores and Life-saving Stations, Holland, Jr. Francis Ross, Francis Ross Holland
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The Conover Beacon is a lighthouse in Leonardo section of Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States, that functioned as the front light of the now-discontinued Chapel Hill Range. The Chapel Hill Channel provides a connection between the Ambrose Channel and Sandy Hook Channel, which continues west into Raritan Bay. This channel was marked, beginning in 1856, by range lights, the original front beacon was a hexagonal wooden tower built at the edge of the beach in Leonardo, New Jersey. The land on which the light stood was purchased from Rulif Conover, the original tower stood until 1941, though the light was discontinued for several months in 1923, only to be restored after protests. In 1941 the front range tower from the Waackaack Range was moved to an adjacent to the old tower. This skeletal tower with a central shaft remains in place, and is managed by Middletown Township, both the old and the new towers used the same daymark, a red band on a white tower. Chapel Hill Rear Range Light Historic Light Station Information and Photography, United States Coast Guard Historians Office.
Chart 12401, New York Lower Bay, inventory of Historic Light Stations, New Jersey Lighthouses, Conover Beacon
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864