An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities for commercial air transport. Airports have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation. An airport serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base; such a base includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements.
Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals. The terms aerodrome and airstrip may be used to refer to airports, the terms heliport, seaplane base, STOLport refer to airports dedicated to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft. In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements; that is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision.
In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, airport means "a landing area used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo". Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m. Larger airports for airline flights have paved runways of 2,000 m or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway, only 122 m long. In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths; these include considerations for safety margins during takeoff. The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China, it has a length of 5,500 m. The world's widest paved runway is 105 m wide; as of 2009, the CIA stated that there were 44,000 "... airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15,095 in the US, the US having the most in the world. Most of the world's large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation.
For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority operated eight of the nation's major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group; the rest of India's airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia. In the United States, commercial airports are operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.
In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned. Many U. S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U. S. all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA. Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US, the government-owned, contractor-operated arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. Airports are divided into airside areas; the landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airpo
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of the American actress Grace Kelly. Prince Albert's sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock. Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which include land in Monaco and France. Although Prince Albert does not own the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he does own shares in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality. Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he has ancestry from Italy, Britain, the United States, France, Mexico and Monaco. He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco, before being presented at the balcony of the Palace to the people of Monaco.
His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, his godfather was Prince Louis de Polignac. Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976, he was a camper and a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh, on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties and enrolled at Amherst College, in western Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics and English literature, he speaks French, English and Italian. He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Albert undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979. Prince Albert's mother was killed in a car accident in 1982 at age 52. In 2017, in In Depth interview with Graham Bensinger, the Prince stated that his mother's death was a'traumatic' event for him and the family.
He revealed that his father was never the'same man' after the loss. Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, judo, tennis, sailing, skiing and fencing, he is a patron of AS Monaco. Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City. Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, 1998 Winter Olympics. Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr. and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr. were both Olympic medalists in rowing. Albert has been the patron of the World Olympians Association since 2012.
In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi rather than his royal title. Albert did not finish it, he became a judo black belt. On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Rainier's son, Hereditary Prince Albert, would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions. On 6 April 2005, Rainier III died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II; the first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign. Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture and he made a speech.
The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront. The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, his family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea and Charlotte. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country; the evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo. Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of Monaco – of strengthening environmental awareness. Just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen in July 2005. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Monacobreen. Prince Albert II engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006; as a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole. Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.
In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monac
Svalbard is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between the North Pole; the islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Edgeøya. Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county, but forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002, Svalbard's main settlement, has had an elected local government, somewhat similar to mainland municipalities. Other settlements include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg, the research station of Ny-Ålesund, the mining outpost of Sveagruva. Ny-Ålesund is the northernmost settlement in the world with a permanent civilian population. Other settlements are populated only by rotating groups of researchers; the islands were first taken into use as a whaling base for the Danish Empire as Dano-Norwegians travelled north in hunt of whale fat in the 17th and 18th centuries, after which they were abandoned.
Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, several permanent communities were established. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty, the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway, they established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone. The Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugol remain the only mining companies in place. Research and tourism have become important supplementary industries, with the University Centre in Svalbard and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault playing critical roles. No roads connect the settlements. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway; the archipelago features an Arctic climate, although with higher temperatures than other areas at the same latitude. The flora take advantage of the long period of midnight sun to compensate for the polar night. Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, features polar bears, the Arctic fox, certain marine mammals. Seven national parks and twenty-three nature reserves cover two-thirds of the archipelago, protecting the untouched, yet fragile, natural environment.
60% of the archipelago is covered with glaciers, the islands feature many mountains and fjords. Svalbard and Jan Mayen are collectively assigned the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code "SJ". Both areas are administered by Norway, though they are separated by a distance of over 950 kilometres and have different administrative structures; the Svalbard Treaty of 1920 defines Svalbard as all islands and skerries from 74° to 81° north latitude, from 10° to 35° east longitude. The land area is 61,022 km2, dominated by the island of Spitsbergen, which constitutes more than half the archipelago, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya. All settlements are located on Spitsbergen, except the meteorological outposts on Bjørnøya and Hopen; the Norwegian state took possession of all unclaimed land, or 95.2% of the archipelago, at the time the Svalbard Treaty entered into force. Since Svalbard is located north of the Arctic Circle it experiences midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. At 74° north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at 81° are 141 and 128 days.
In Longyearbyen, midnight sun lasts from 20 April until 23 August, polar night lasts from 26 October to 15 February. In winter, the combination of full moon and reflective snow can give additional light. Glacial ice covers 60 % of Svalbard; the largest glacier is Austfonna on Nordaustlandet, followed by Vestfonna. During summer, it is possible to ski from Sørkapp in the south to the north of Spitsbergen, with only a short distance not being covered by snow or glacier. Kvitøya is 99.3% covered by glacier. The landforms of Svalbard were created through repeated ice ages, when glaciers cut the former plateau into fjords and mountains; the tallest peak is Newtontoppen, followed by Perriertoppen, Ceresfjellet and Galileotoppen. The longest fjord is Wijdefjorden, followed by Isfjorden, Van Mijenfjorden and Wahlenbergfjorden. Svalbard is part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province, experienced Norway's strongest earthquake on 6 March 2009, which hit a magnitude of 6.5. Norsemen discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century.
There are traditional Norse accounts of a land known as Svalbarð—literally "cold shores"—although this might have referred to Jan Mayen, or a part of eastern Greenland. It was thought both Greenland were connected to Continental Europe; the archipelago might in that period have been used for hunting. The Dutchman Willem Barentsz made the first discovery of the archipelago in 1596, when he sighted its coast while searching for the Northern Sea Route; the name Spitsbergen originated with Barentsz, who described the "pointed mountains" he saw on the west coast of the main island, Spitsbergen although his 1599 map of the Arctic labels the island as Het Nieuwe Land. Barentsz did not recognize that he had discovered an archipelago, an
Miki Ando is a retired Japanese figure skater. She is the 2007 and 2011 World champion, 2011 Four Continents champion, 2004 World Junior champion, a three-time Japanese national champion. Ando is the first female skater to complete a quadruple jump in competition, she accomplished this at the 2002–03 Junior Grand Prix Final in The Hague. Ando was born on December 1987 in Nagoya, Japan, her father died in a traffic accident. In 2006, Ando joined Toyota and entered Chukyo University as an adult learner, from which she graduated in March 2011, she learned English during her time training in the U. S. In January 2013, she left Toyota Motor. Ando gave birth to her daughter, named Himawari, in April 2013. Himawari means "sunflower" in Japanese. Ando began skating in 1996 at the age of eight, her first coach was Rina Horie. Yuko Monna, whose students at that time included Mao Asada and Mai Asada, soon began teaching Ando. Beginning in the 2000–01 season, she was coached by Nobuo Satō, her program featured a 3Lz-3L.
Making her junior international debut, Ando won both of her 2001–02 ISU Junior Grand Prix assignments and qualified for the JGP Final, where she won gold. Nationally, she became the Japanese junior champion and senior bronze medalist, she concluded her season with bronze at the 2002 World Junior Championships. Ando won both of her 2002–03 JGP assignments. At the JGP Final, she became the first female skater to land a quad jump of any kind in a competition, performing a 4S on her way to the bronze medal, she remained the only woman to perform this feat until January 2018, when junior skater Alexandra Trusova ratified the same jump in competition. That season she defended her national Junior crown and took silver at the World Junior Championships. Ando was prominent in 2003–04, winning all her junior competitions including the Junior Grand Prix Final, her third consecutive national junior title, the Junior Worlds, she won the Japan Championships and placed 4th at her first senior World Championships.
The 2004–05 season was her first full season as a senior skater. She won two medals in the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series and qualified for the Grand Prix Final, where she placed fourth, she placed sixth at 2005 Worlds. Ando relocated to the United States to train with Carol Heiss Jenkins in preparation for the 2005–06 season which included the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino; the season began well, when she won the silver medal at the 2005 Cup of Russia, but she finished 4th at the 2005 NHK Trophy and narrowly qualified for the Grand Prix Final, where she placed 4th. At Japanese Nationals, she placed 6th. Ando was named to the Japanese Olympic team in accordance with the criteria that were to include two seasons into consideration. At the Olympics, she placed 15th, after falling three times in her free skate, once on her quad attempt, she was not placed on the team to the World Championships the following month. Ando changed coaches again for the 2006–07 season. Training with her new coach, Nikolai Morozov, Ando won gold at the 2006 Skate America and silver at the 2006 Trophée Eric Bompard.
She qualified for the Grand Prix Final. It was revealed that Ando, along with the rest of the Japanese team, competed in Saint Petersburg while suffering stomach flu. At the Japanese Nationals, Ando dislocated her shoulder while performing a spin in her free skate but skated on to place second overall behind Mao Asada. At the 2007 Worlds, Ando placed second in both the short program and the free skate, scored a total of 195.09 points to win the World Championship by less than one point over Asada. Ando set new personal bests in both the short program and the free skate, a new personal best total score, she was named one of Vogue Japan's "Women of the Year for 2007" and received six other awards including the "most valuable mention" from the Japanese Olympic Committee. Ando's 2007–08 season began with a silver medal at the 2007 Skate America but placed fourth at the 2007 NHK Trophy, where she fell three times in her free skate, she did not qualify for the Grand Prix Final. At the Japan Championships, she won the free skate to place second again behind Asada.
In the following February, Ando competed for the first time at Four Continents, where she attempted a 4S but popped it to a double. She won the bronze medal. At Worlds, Ando was 8th after the short program and was forced to withdraw during her free skate due to a leg muscle strain she had been suffering since that morning. In the 2008–09 Grand Prix season, Ando placed third after Yuna Kim and Yukari Nakano at Skate America and placed second, behind Kim, again, at the Cup of China. At the Grand Prix Final, Ando stayed on her foot after an attempted 4S in her free skate program, the first time in competition since 2004, though the rotations were not considered enough and the jump was downgraded. Despite her last place finish, Ando stated that she was happy with her performance, that she would continue to work on her 4S. At the Japan Championships, she was in 3rd place after the short program. During the free skate warm-up, she collided with Fumie Suguri, injured her knee, she earned one of Japan's three spots at the 2009 World Championships.
Before the event, the Japanese skating federation wanted her to leave Morozov. There, she won the bronze medal with a total of 190.38 after placing fourth in the short program and second in the free program. Ando represented Japan in a team competition, 2009 ISU World Team Trophy, in Tokyo, where she placed 3rd at the short program, 6th at the free skate and 5th overall. Team Japan was placed winning the bronze medal. The
An ice floe or ice float is a large pack of floating ice defined as a flat piece at least 20 m across at its widest point, up to more than 10 km across. Drift ice is a floating field of sea ice composed of several ice floes, they may cause ice jams on freshwater rivers, in the open ocean may damage the hulls of ships
The World (radio program)
PRI's The World is a US public radio news magazine with an emphasis on international news. The program originated in response to declining coverage of international news by US commercial media, it is co-produced by the BBC World Service of the United Kingdom, Public Radio International and WGBH of the United States. The World was PRI's first co-production, it now has several co-productions. It was the first news co-production of the BBC World Service. For the BBC, The World was conceived as a stand-alone program and as a template for future co-productions which might expand the reach of the BBC World Service. At its launch, it was the first program dedicated to providing global news and making a global-local connection for Americans on a daily basis. According to the PRI website, PRI distributes the show to more than 300 public radio stations across the United States; the program reaches more than 2.5 million listeners every week in broadcast alone. It is hosted by Marco Werman at WGBH's studios in Boston, but includes substitute hosts including Carol Hills and Aaron Schachter when Werman is in the field.
Werman, with The World since its inception, hosted the program from 2010 to 2011 while then-host Lisa Mullins was on sabbatical. The World was the first daily nationally syndicated public radio program to begin podcasting some of its content, notably its coverage of technology, its technology podcast began on February 2005, hosted by Clark Boyd. Today, numerous podcasts are available by topical area and entire programs are available as podcasts; as of October 2009, the program now airs on CBC Radio One in Canada as part of the CBC Radio Overnight lineup. The theme music was composed by Eric Goldberg. Portions of the program are repackaged and rebroadcast on the weekly BBC World Service program called Boston Calling; the World has won over a dozen awards for its programming, including: 2008: National RTNDA/UNITY Award for "ongoing commitment to covering the cultural diversity of the communities they serve." The World won both Asian American Journalists Association awards in radio journalism: the 2008 Unlimited Subject award for the program "Inside North Korea: a Personal Memoir", the 2008 Asian American/Pacific Islander Issues award for the program "Asian-Americans and Gambling".
2006: The World's website received the RTNDA Edward R. Murrow Award for best National Radio Network/Syndication Service Website The World's four-part series, "The Global Race for Stem Cell Therapies," won both an Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Award for broadcast journalism and a Scripps Howard Foundation National Journalism Award for Excellence in Electronic Media/Radio. The World's four-part series "The Forgotten Plague: Malaria," received a Public Communications Award from the American Society for Microbiology; the World's series "Hiroshima's Survivors: The Last Generation," was honored by the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma for excellence in coverage of victims of violence. PRI's The World Public Radio International
Longyearbyen (Norwegian pronunciation: is the largest settlement and the administrative centre of Svalbard, Norway. As of December 2015, the town had a population of 2,144. Longyearbyen is located in the Longyear Valley and on the shore of Adventfjorden, a bay of Isfjorden located on the west coast of Spitsbergen. Since 2002, Longyearbyen Community Council has had many of the same responsibilities of a municipality, including utilities, cultural facilities, fire brigade and ports; the town is the seat of the Governor of Svalbard. It is the world's northernmost settlement of any kind with more than 1,000 permanent residents. Known as Longyear City until 1926, the town was established by and named after John Munro Longyear, whose Arctic Coal Company started coal mining operations in 1906. Operations were taken over by Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani in 1916, which still conducts mining; the town was completely destroyed by the German Kriegsmarine on 8 August 1943, but was rebuilt after the Second World War.
Traditionally, Longyearbyen was a company town, but most mining operations have moved to Sveagruva since the 1990s, while the town has seen a large increase in tourism and research. This has seen the arrival of institutions such as the University Centre in Svalbard, the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and Svalbard Satellite Station; the community is served by Svalbard Church. In 1896, Vesteraalens Dampskibsselskab started tours to Hotellneset. To accommodate tourists, they built a prefabricated hotel, but it was not profitable and was closed after the 1897 season. However, two families overwintered in 1898–99 and Norway Post operated a post office at Hotellneset from 1897 to 1899; the first commercially viable coal on Svalbard was harvested by Søren Zakariassen in 1899. In 1901, Bergen-Spitsbergen Kullgrube-kompani started mining coal in Adventtoppen; the American industrialist John Munroe Longyear visited Spitsbergen as a tourist in 1901, where he met with an expedition prospecting for coal. He returned to Spitsbergen 1903, where he met Henrik B.
Næss in Adventfjorden, who gave him samples and information on coal fields. Along with his associate Frederick Ayer, Longyear bought the Norwegian claims on the west side of Adventfjorden, expanded the claims the following year. In 1906, the Boston-based Arctic Coal Company, with Ayer and Longyear as the main shareholders, started mining in Mine 1a, after having built docks and housing; the company had American administration, but Norwegian labourers, named the town Longyear City. Coal was transported the 1.2 kilometers from the mine to the port using an aerial tramway built by the former world leading aerial cableway company Adolf Bleichert & Co. from Leipzig, Germany. In 1913, the company started preliminary work to open Mine 2a. Following financial difficulties during the First World War, the mining operations were bought by Store Norske, incorporated in Oslo on 30 November 1916; that year, SNSK built five new barracks, including one, made into a hospital. SNSK introduced its own money with approval from Norges Bank, consisting of banknotes at par with Norwegian krone.
The American community buried their dead at Hotellneset. In 1918, eleven people were killed by the Spanish flu and a graveyard was established in Longyear City. Two years 26 men were killed in a coal dust explosion in Mine 1; this resulted in the mine being closed and electric operation being taken into use in Mine 2. The same year, the first truck was delivered for use in the mining operations; the Church of Norway appointed Thorleif Østenstad as Svalbard's first vicar and teacher in 1920. A school was established as a cooperation between the church and SNSK and had an inaugural eight pupils; the first Svalbard Church opened on 28 August 1921, the church's reading room was from used as a school. Longyear City was renamed Longyearbyen in 1926; the Norwegian Telecommunications Administration established a coast radio station, Svalbard Radio, at Finneset in 1911, moved to Longyearbyen in 1930. The town's tourist industry started in 1935, when SS Lyngen started calling during the summer season. In 1937, SNSK established Sverdrupbyen to house workers for Mine 1b and operation of the mine started in 1939.
In 1938, Longyearbyen's first road was completed, between Sverdrupbyen. Operations at Mine 2b, a different entrance to Mine 2a, started in 1939. Svalbard remained unaffected by the German occupation of Norway in 1940. However, from 1941 the archipelago became of strategic importance in the supply chain between the Allied powers, as well as a source of badly needed coal; the Norwegian government-in-exile rejected a Soviet–British occupation. On 29 August 1941, the entire population of Ny-Ålesund was evacuated to Longyearbyen, on 3 September 765 people were evacuated from Longyearbyen to Scotland; the last 150 men were evacuated. With Longyearbyen depopulated, a small German garrison and air strip was established in Adventdalen to provide meteorological data. After the British Operation Fritham regained control of Barentsburg, the German forces left Longyearbyen without combat. In September 1943, the Kriegsmarine dispatched two battleships and Scharnhorst, nine destroyers to bombard Longyearbyen and Grumant.
Only four buildings in Longyearbyen survived: the hospital, the power station, an office building and a residential building, in addition to Sverdrupbyen. Longyearbyen remained unsettled until the end of the war, with the first ship from the mainland leaving on 27 June 1945. Plans were laid during the war to ensure a quick reconstruction and