University of Arkansas College of Engineering
The College of Engineering is the University of Arkansas' college for engineering students. The first engineering degree awarded by the University was in civil engineering in 1888. At the time, it was known at Arkansas Industrial University, did not have a separate engineering college; the College of Engineering was established in 1913. In 2006, a solar boat built by University of Arkansas mechanical engineering students and electrical engineering students won the Collegiate World Championships. There are eight different undergraduate degree programs, with 31 graduate degree programs offered. Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department of Biomedical Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Department of Computer Science/Computer Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Industrial Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering The Industrial Engineering graduate program ranked 26th in the nation, the Engineering program as a whole finished 98th, is one of the "best values" for Arkansas students nationally.
Prior to the establishment of a separate engineering college, education was conducted in Old Main. Engineering Hall, now known as the John A. White Jr. Engineering Hall became the primary engineering facility upon completion in 1927. In 1964, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering moved to the new Mechanical Engineering Building and Science Engineering Hall, respectively. Mechanical Engineering remains the only department separated from the others, located one block west at 845 West Dickson; the Department of Electrical Engineering moved with the remaining departments to Bell Engineering Center at 800 West Dickson upon its completion in 1987. Science Engineering Hall, at 850 West Dickson, continues to be used for classroom space by the various engineering departments. A closed factory in south Fayetteville was purchased in 1983, now known as the Engineering Research Center at 600 West Research Center Boulevard; the Nanoscale Material Science and Engineering Building, housing the microelectronics-photonics program opened September 2011 at 731 West Dickson.
The program is coordinated between several engineering departments, science departments, physics department, poultry science department, the University of Arkansas Graduate School. A gallery, with dates used by the College of Engineering in parentheses, shows the facilities used throughout the years. Morris S. Arnold, lawyer and judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit John Burkhalter, business owner and politician Jana Della Rosa, politician representing the Rogers area in the Arkansas House of Representatives Andy Davis, business owner and politician, represents a district of Little Rock in the Arkansas House of Representatives, 2013–present Jim Hendren, politician representing western Benton County in the Arkansas Senate Kim Hendren, politician representing western Benton County in the Arkansas House of Representatives Johnny Key, business owner and politician, represented Bull Shoals Lake area in the Arkansas House of Representatives and Arkansas Senate, 2003-2015 Jack Ladyman Lynn Lowe Mark Martin, Secretary of State of Arkansas and former member of the Arkansas House of Representatives, representing western Washington County Bruce Westerman, politician representing Arkansas's 4th congressional district in the U.
S. House of Representatives John A. White, former University of Arkansas chancellor and dean of Georgia Institute of Technology College of Engineering Arkansas portal
Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a
University of Arkansas
The University of Arkansas is a public land-grant, research university in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It is the flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System and the largest, best-known university in the state. Founded as Arkansas Industrial University in 1871, its present name was adopted in 1899 and classes were first held on January 22, 1872, it is noted for its strong architecture, business, communication disorders, creative writing, history and Middle Eastern studies programs. Enrollment for the fall semester of 2017 was 27,558; the university campus consists of 378 buildings spread across 512 acres of land in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Some well known architecture on campus includes Old Main, the first permanent academic building erected. Academic programs are in excess of 200; the ratio of students to faculty is 19:1. The university received a combined total of $103.2 million in research awards for the 2017 fiscal year. UA's athletic teams, the Arkansas Razorbacks, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Southeastern Conference with eight men's teams and eleven women's teams in thirteen sports.
The University is known for its traditions, including Calling the Hogs at sports events, Senior Walk, 3.5 miles of campus sidewalk etched with the names of all UA graduates since 1871. The University of Arkansas has a strong Greek life tradition, including the founding chapter of the Chi Omega sorority, the largest fraternity chapter in North America, Kappa Sigma; the University of Arkansas was founded in 1871 on the site of a hilltop farm that overlooked the Ozark Mountains, giving it the nickname "The Hill". The university was established under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862; the university's founding satisfied the provision in the Arkansas Constitution of 1868 that the General Assembly was to "establish and maintain a State University."Bids from state towns and counties determined the university's location. The citizens of Fayetteville and Washington County. Pledged $130,000 toward securing the university, a sum that proved to be more than other offers; this was in response to the competition created by the Arkansas General Assembly's Organic Act of 1871, providing for the "location and maintenance of the Arkansas Industrial University with a normal department therein."
Classes started on January 22, 1872. Completed in 1875, Old Main, a two-towered brick building designed in the Second Empire style, was the primary instructional and administrative building, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Its design was based on the plans for the main academic building at the University of Illinois, which has since been demolished. However, the clock and bell towers were switched at Arkansas; the northern taller tower is the bell tower, the southern shorter tower is the clock tower. One legend for the tower switch is that the taller tower was put to the north as a reminder of the Union victory during the Civil War. A second legend is that the contractor accidentally swapped the tower drawings after having had too much to drink. Although the southern tower was designed with clock faces, it did not hold a working clock until October 2005; the bell tower has always had some type of chime a bell, rung on the hour by student volunteers. Electronic chimes were installed in 1959.
In addition to the regular chimes of the clock, the university's Alma Mater plays at 5 pm every day. Old Main housed many of the earliest classes at the university, has served as the offices of every college within the university during its history. Today, in addition to hosting classes, it contains the restored Giffels Auditorium and historic displays, as well as the administrative offices of the J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences; the lawn at Old Main serves as an arboretum, with many of the trees native to the state of Arkansas found on the lawn. Sitting at the edge of the lawn is Spoofer's Stone, a place for couples to meet and pass notes. Students play soccer and touch football on the lawn's open green. Beginning with the class of 1876, the names of students at University of Arkansas are inscribed in "Senior Walk" and wind across campus for more than five miles; the sidewalk is one of a kind nationally. More the names of all the recipients of honorary degrees were added, including such notables as J. Edgar Hoover, Queen Noor, President Bill Clinton, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
One of the more unusual structures at Arkansas is the Chi Omega Greek Theatre, a gift to the school by the sorority's national headquarters. It marked the first time in the history of Greek letter social organizations that a national sorority had presented a memorial of its foundation to the institution where it was founded. Chi Omega was organized on April 5, 1895, at the University of Arkansas and is the mother chapter of the national organization; the theater has been used for commencements, concerts and pep rallies. The largest crowd assembled there – upwards of 6,000, according to professor Walter J. Lemke – was for a concert by the Army Air Corps Band during World War II. From 1934 to 1991, the space under the stage was used for a rifle range by the Army ROTC; the University of Arkansas became the first major Southern public university to admit an African-American student without litigation when Silas Herbert Hunt of Texarkana, an African American veteran of World War II, was admitted to the university's School of Law in 1948.
Roy Wilkins, administrator of the NAACP, wrote in 1950 that Arkansas was the "very first of the Southern states to accept the new trend without fighting a delaying act
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
University of Arkansas College of Education & Health Professions
The College of Education & Health Professions is the University of Arkansas's college for students with interest in the education and health professions. The College has five departments, an honors program through the Honors College. In 2015, Fulbright College awarded the second-most undergraduate degrees of the eight colleges at the University of Arkansas. Curriculum and Instruction Education Reform Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Health, Human Performance and Recreation Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders The College of Education and Health Professions' Honors Program Two degrees are offered by the School of Nursing, the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, a cohort-based Master of Science in Nursing Online Clinical Program, which will take a full-time student 2½ years to complete. A gallery shows the facilities of the College, with years used in parentheses
Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, from which many of the settlers had come, it was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau; the city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census. Fayetteville is home to the University of the state's largest university; when classes are in session, thousands of students on campus change the city's demographics. Thousands of Arkansas Razorbacks alumni and fans travel to Fayetteville to attend football and baseball games.
The University's men's track and field program has won 41 national championships to date. Fayetteville was named the third best place to live in the United States in the 2016 U. S. News Best Places To Live Rankings, one of the best places to retire in the South. Forbes ranked Fayetteville as the 24th-best city for business and careers in 2016. Lonely Planet named Fayetteville among its top 20 places to visit in the South in 2016; the city hosts the Walmart Shareholders Meetings each year at the Bud Walton Arena. In 1828, George McGarrah settled at Big Spring with his family on the modern day corner of Spring and Willow, founding the town of Washington, starting work on the courthouse. On October 17, Washington County was established, Washington chosen as the county seat; the Washington Courthouse was finished in 1829, contained the post office. In the year Postmaster Larkin Newton changed the name to the Fayetteville Courthouse, to avoid confusing with Washington, Hempstead County. Two councilmen selected to name the city were from Fayetteville, itself named for Fayetteville, North Carolina.
That original Fayetteville was named for General Lafayette, a French general who helped the colonies gain independence in the American Revolutionary War. The first store in Fayetteville was opened by John Nye in a small building constructed by James Holmsley. In 1832 David Walker, Chief Justice of the Arkansas supreme court, built a double log cabin on what is now Center Street. In 1822 Archibald Yell, the second Governor of Arkansas, built a house and called it "Waxhaw" after his home in North Carolina; this was on the outskirts of town but now is a street named after him that connects College and School streets. The first hotels were the Onstott House. Fayetteville was incorporated as a town on November 3, 1836. In 1859, a city charter was obtained from the Legislature. During the Civil War the municipal government was suspended and was not reinstated until 1867. P. V. Rhea was the president of the town trustees in 1836. W. Walker was the first mayor under the charter of 1859, M. L. Harrison was the first mayor when the government was reorganized in 1867.
The telegraph came to Fayetteville in 1860, strung along the Military Road from St. Louis, Missouri to Little Rock. During the American Civil War, the Union General Samuel Ryan Curtis occupied Fayetteville on February 18, 1862 and the following week, the Battle of Pea Ridge took place northeast of Fayetteville; the city housed wounded soldiers from the Battle of Prairie Grove in December 1862, housed injured troops on Dickson Street. Confederate troops besieged Union soldiers in Fayetteville on April 18, 1863 at the present-day intersection of College Avenue and Dickson Street, at their headquarters. Union soldiers held the city against cannon fire and cavalry attacks, although their headquarters sustained damage; the building was restored and is operated as the Headquarters House, a museum of the Washington County Historical Society. Fayetteville was occupied from December 1862 until May 1865 by the First Arkansas Union Cavalry, a regiment of Union men from Northwest Arkansas. Union forces repelled a Confederate attack in October 1864.
After the war, the United States government established the Fayetteville National Cemetery in 1867. A cemetery for Confederate dead was founded in 1873. Newspapers were established early; the Fayetteville Weekly Democrat began publishing in 1868. It developed as the Northwest Arkansas Times, is still in print today; the Fayetteville Schools District was founded on March 20, 1871 as the first independent school district in Arkansas. The public school system was established by the Reconstruction era legislature. Arkansas had struggled with a state banking crisis, resulting in the illegality of banking until 1868. Following the reinstatement, the Stark Bank became the first bank in the state in 1872, becoming the William McIlroy Bank four years later; this institution remains today as Arvest Bank. In 1954, a few days after Charleston, Fayetteville was the second school district in the southern United States to implement school integration in response to Brown v. Board of Education. Fayetteville is located in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks which run through Northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Eastern Oklahoma.
The rocks of the Boston Mountains were formed when sandstones and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period. In the Fayettevill