Camden Town, often shortened to Camden, is an inner city district of northwest London,2.4 miles north of the centre of London. It is one of the 35 major centres identified in the London Plan, the areas industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues which are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden and his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent, formerly owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early 20th century Camden Town Group of artists. Camden Town stands on land which was once the manor of Kentish Town, sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor, in 1816, the Regents Canal was built through the area.
Up to at least the mid 20th century, Camden Town was considered an unfashionable locality, the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since then, attract many visitors all week. Camden Lock Village, known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, Camden Town, previously in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017, Camden London Borough Council, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament, Holborn and St Pancras, four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level,2.4 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regents Canal runs through the north of Camden Town, from the end of the twentieth century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn started moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment.
Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them an away from the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road. The plan to re-develop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, Camden is well known for its markets. Camden Town Tube station is near the markets and other attractions and it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark.
In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station Officers
North London is the northern part of London, England. It is a description and the area it covers is defined differently for a range of purposes. Common to these definitions is that it includes districts north of the River Thames and is used in comparison with south London, however, it is often used in comparisons with central London, east London and west London. The River Thames divides Greater London into two parts, the northern part includes most of the historic central areas including the City, the East End and the West End, and the majority of the London Underground network. This definition is used by the Boundary Commission for England, the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames includes sections on both sides of the River Thames. The boundary commission class the entire district as part of South London, for the purposes of the London Plan, there has been a north London subregion in operation since 2004, originally consisting of Barnet, Enfield and Waltham Forest. In 2001 this area had a population of 1,042,000 and this definition is used by organisations such as Connexions.
In 2008 it was amended to consists of Barnet, Enfield, Haringey, Islington, in 2011 it was amended again to consist Barnet and Haringey. This list includes all boroughs included in the Boundary Commission area, north London has, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Four Met Office weather stations collect climate data for London north of the river, Heathrow, Northolt. Long term climate observations dating back to 1910 are available for Hampstead and this both hilltop and urban position means severe frosts are rare. Occasionally snow can be seen to lie towards the Chilterns while central London is snow-free, typically the warmest day of the year at Hampstead will average 29.3 °C with around 14 days in total achieving a value of 25.1 °C or higher. The average coldest night should fall to −5.6 °C, on average 35.8 nights will report an air frost, some 119 days of the year will register at least 1mm of precipitation, and on 7.4 days a cover of snow will be observed.
All annual averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000, north London v South London - The debate. North London v South London - The debate
Angel tube station
Angel is a London Underground station in the Angel area of the London Borough of Islington. It is on the Bank branch of the Northern line, between Old Street and Kings Cross St. Pancras stations, in Travelcard Zone 1, the station was originally built by the City & South London Railway and opened on 17 November 1901. The station served as a terminus until the line was extended to Euston on 12 May 1907, the station was rebuilt in the early 1990s to accommodate the large number of passengers using the station. As a result, the station has a southbound platform, the longest escalators on the Underground network. It is a station on the Crossrail 2 proposed line. It is the nearest station to the campus of City University and Chapel Market, a London street market. Between Angel and Old Street is the disused City Road station, Angel station was originally built by the City & South London Railway, and opened on 17 November 1901 as the northern terminus of a new extension from Moorgate. The station building was designed by Sydney Smith and was on the corner of City Road, on 12 May 1907, the C&SLR opened a further extension from Angel to Euston and Angel became a through station.
Access to the platforms from street level was via three Euston Anderson electric lifts before the rebuilding of the station. When the C&SLR line was closed for reconstruction in the early 1920s to accommodate larger trains, the station façade was reclad with tiling. For years since its opening, the station suffered from overcrowding and had a very narrow island platform. Consequently, the station was rebuilt in the early 1990s. Because of the distance between the new entrance and the platforms, and their depth, two flights of escalators were required, aligned approximately at a right angle, the stations ticket hall has a sculpture of an Angel by Kevin Boys. Angel is one of the number of stations to have only access to the platforms. With a vertical rise of 27 metres and a length of 60 metres, Angel station has the longest escalators on the Underground, the station was refurbished and work began on 2 January 2007. Additional CCTV cameras and Help Points were installed, bringing the total to 77 cameras in the station and 9 Help Points to better aid hearing-impaired passengers, in addition, new communications equipment was introduced and damaged signs were replaced with new ones.
When Angel was opened, a long siding was provided for train stabling, converging from the left onto the northbound line just south of the station. This was retained over the years but eventually it was closed on 23 January 1959 to simplify through running, the siding lay derelict and unused until the rebuilding scheme
Archway is a district of the London Borough of Islington in inner north London, England. On the A1, it is centred on Vantage Point and Archway tube station, Archway is of medium elevation between Highgate above and Islington below and has seven small parks and two large parks. West of Archway is Whittington Hospital, beyond which is an area divided between Highgate Cemetery and Waterlow Park. Ascociated with nearby The Hungry Hill, an area of North London, near Archway, comprising Hazelville Road, Sunnyside Road, Hornsey Lane. The area became infamous during the 1940s for criminality and violence, the nickname of the area derived from the locals of the area as this was an area that was extremely poor and everyone was hungry. According to the legend of Dick Whittington the bow bells could once be heard from as far away as the Highgate Archway. Many people assume that the Bow Bells are to be found in the district of Bow, thus while all East Enders are cockneys, not all cockneys are East Enders.
The name derives from the Archway bridge built in part of south Highgate for the road between south Highgate and Crouch End, Hornsey in 1896, the predecessor of Hornsey Lane Bridge. A tunnel was attempted more than once for the Highgate bypass, to join the Great North Road by avoiding the steep Highgate Hill, todays large cutting was recommended by John Rennie and a high, multi-arched road bridge across this. The minor road over is Hornsey Lane, Archway has come to designate the smaller than 0.4 square miles catchment of its underground station relative to all other stations. The official parishes and neighbourhoods within its definition are Highgate and Upper Holloway with a small part of Islington. Upper Holloway has become in modern use generally restricted to the smaller catchment around its railway station, in todays purely religious ecclesiastical parish system, the area is split between Whitehall Park, Upper Holloway and St John the Evangelist, Upper Holloway. The Archway Road is part of the A1 or Great North Road, from 1813–1864, Archway was the site of a toll gate, where travellers had to pay for the next stage of their journey.
A plaque on the block of flats at 1 Pauntley Street commemorates the gate, Highgate Hill, the road from Archway to Highgate village, was the route of the first motorised cable car in Europe operating between 1884 and 1909. It was at Archway that Dick Whittington heard the Bow Bells ringing, there is a statue on Highgate Hill to commemorate this. Pauntley Street takes its name from the village of Pauntley in the Forest of Dean, for much of the 20th century, the area had a large Irish population. The Whittington hospital on the south-west side of Highgate Hill has many buildings and specialisations, taking up a minority of the west of the area. The Parkland Walk is in the New Orleans Walk neighbourhood and half within Crouch End where defined by proximity to rail or tube station
Postcodes in the United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities.
Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district.
Every post office in the district was to display this information
Highbury is a district in the London Borough of Islington. The area now known as Islington was part of the manor of Tolentone. Tolentone was owned by Ranulf brother of Ilger and included all the north and east of Canonbury. The manor house was situated by what is now the east side of Hornsey Road near the junction with Seven Sisters Road, the site for Highbury Manor was possibly used by a Roman garrison as a summer camp. During the construction of a new Highbury House in 1781, tiles were found that could have been Roman or Norman, unfortunately these have been lost. Ownership of Highbury eventually passed to Alicia de Barrow, who in 1271 gave it to the Priory of St John of Jerusalem, the wealthy Lord Prior built Highbury manor as a substantial stone country lodging with a grange and barn. In 1381, during the Peasants Revolt, Jack Straw led a mob of 20,000 rioters who so offended by the wealth and haughtiness of the Knights Hospitallers destroyed the manor house. The Lord Prior at the time, Robert Hales, who had taken refuge in the Tower of London, was captured and beheaded on Tower Hill.
Jack Straw and some of his followers used the site as a temporary headquarters, the Manor of Highbury remained the possession of the Knights of St John until it was confiscated by Henry VIII in 1540. The land stayed as crown property until Parliament began selling it in the 17th century, John Dawes, a wealthy stockbroker, acquired the site of Jack Straw’s Castle together with 247 acres of surrounding land. In 1781 he built Highbury House at a cost of £10,000 on the spot where Highbury Manor had stood, over the next 30 years the house was extended by new owners, firstly Alexander Aubert and John Bentley, to include a large observatory and lavish gardens. The grounds around Highbury House started to be sold off in 1794, by 1894 Highbury House and its remaining grounds became a school. Finally in 1938 Highbury House was demolished and is now the site of Eton House flats, in 1740 a small ale and cake house was opened in the Barn, Highbury. In 1770 William Willoughby took over Highbury Barn and greatly increased its popularity and he expanded its size and facilities, taking over land and buildings from the farm next door, reaching beyond what is now Kelvin Road and created a bowling green, trap-ball grounds and gardens.
It could cater for company dinners of 2,000 people and dancing, in 1854 events at the annual balls in the grounds of the Barn included the aeronaut Charles Greens balloon ascent. By 1865 there was a dancing platform, a rebuilt theatre, high-wire acts, music hall. The Barn became the victim of its own success, after a riot led by students from Bart’s Hospital in 1869, locals complained about the Barn’s increasingly riotous and bawdy clientele. This led to a case and in 1871 authorities revoked the Barn’s dancing licence
Kentish Town is an area of northwest London, England in the London Borough of Camden, immediately north of Camden Town. The name of Kentish Town is probably derived from Ken-ditch meaning the bed of a waterway and is unrelated to Kent. Kentish Town was originally a settlement on the River Fleet. It is first recorded during the reign of King John as kentisston, by 1456 Kentish Town was a thriving hamlet. In this period a chapel of ease was built for its inhabitants, between the availability of public transport to it from London, and its urbanisation, it was a popular resort. Large amounts of land were purchased to build the railway, which can still be seen today, Kentish Town was a prime site for development as the Kentish Town Road was a major route from London northwards. Karl Marx was a resident, living at 46 Grafton Terrace from 1856. 1877 saw the beginning of work in the area as it was poor. The mission first held their services outside but as their funding increased they built a house, chapel.
One mission house of the area was Lyndhurst Hall which remained in use before being taken over by the Council, the Council wished it to sell it for residential use, and the hall was demolished in 2006. All these streets lay behind the Oxford Arms, some of the freehold of these streets is still in the name of Christ Church Oxford. A network of streets in the north of Kentish Town was formerly part of an estate owned by St Johns College, Cambridge. Lady Margaret Road is named after Lady Margaret Beaufort, foundress of St Johns College, Burghley Road is named after Lord Burghley, Chancellor to Elizabeth I and benefactor of St Johns. Similarly, College Lane, Evangelist Road and Lady Somerset Road are street names linked to the estate of St Johns College. In 1912 the Church of St. Silas the Martyr was finally erected and consecrated and it can still be seen today along with the church of St Luke with St Paul and the Church of St. Barnabas. The present Church of England parish church is St. Benets, in his poem Parliament Hill Fields, Sir John Betjeman refers to the curious Anglo-Norman parish church of Kentish Town.
Kentish Town Road contains one of Londons many disused Tube stations, south Kentish Town tube station was closed in June 1924 after strike action at the Lots Road power station meant the lift could not be used. It never reopened as a station, although it was used as an air raid shelter during World War II
Norman conquest of England
Williams claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged Williams hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson, within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north, Harolds army confronted Williams invaders on 14 October at the Battle of Hastings, Williams force defeated Harold, who was killed in the engagement. Although Williams main rivals were gone, he faced rebellions over the following years and was not secure on his throne until after 1072. The lands of the resisting English elite were confiscated, some of the elite fled into exile, to control his new kingdom, William granted lands to his followers and built castles commanding military strongpoints throughout the land. More gradual changes affected the classes and village life, the main change appears to have been the formal elimination of slavery.
There was little alteration in the structure of government, as the new Norman administrators took over many of the forms of Anglo-Saxon government. In 911 the Carolingian French ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings under their leader Rollo to settle in Normandy as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for the land, the Norsemen under Rollo were expected to provide protection along the coast against further Viking invaders and their settlement proved successful, and the Vikings in the region became known as the Northmen from which Normandy and Normans are derived. The Normans quickly adopted the culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. They adopted the langue doïl of their new home and added features from their own Norse language, in 1002 King Æthelred the Unready married Emma of Normandy, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. Their son Edward the Confessor, who spent many years in exile in Normandy and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons, Edward may have encouraged Duke William of Normandys ambitions for the English throne.
When King Edward died at the beginning of 1066, the lack of a clear heir led to a succession in which several contenders laid claim to the throne of England. Edwards immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, Harold was immediately challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. William and Harald at once set about assembling troops and ships to invade England, in early 1066, Harolds exiled brother, Tostig Godwinson, raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders, joined by other ships from Orkney. Threatened by Harolds fleet, Tostig moved north and raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, but he was back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, King Harald Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying perhaps 15,000 men. Haralds army was augmented by the forces of Tostig, who threw his support behind the Norwegian kings bid for the throne
Caledonian Road tube station
Caledonian Road is a station on the Piccadilly line of the London Underground, between Kings Cross St. Pancras and Holloway Road, and in Travelcard Zone 2. It was opened on 15 December 1906 by the Great Northern, the building was designed by Leslie Green. Caledonian Road station is located on Caledonian Road in Holloway, north London, the station continues to use lifts, never having been upgraded to escalators. Unusually for stations of its era, the lifts descend directly to level with no secondary staircases. In recent times this has meant that the station is now advertised as Step Free on line maps without rebuilding work taking place, the station is a Grade II listed building. The next northbound station from Caledonian Road is Holloway Road while the southbound station was originally York Road. This station closed in 1932, but can still be seen from trains, York Road was planned to be open to relieve congestion at Kings Cross St. Pancras. The station was scheduled to be closed from 4 January 2016 until mid-August 2016, a local campaign against the closure emerged via a Change. org petition and achieved close to 7,500 supporters.
The petitioners claimed that the station could be open while new lifts were installed in two unused lift shafts. This was previously done when lifts were replaced in 1987 and the station remained open throughout, in January 2016, Islington Council announced that it had applied for a Judicial Review of Transport for Londons plan, to be heard on 25 February 2016. On 19 January 2016, Underground management announced that the plan had been shelved. Each station has its own unique tile pattern and colours, London Buses routes 17,91 and 259 serve the station. Caledonian Road and Barnsbury station on the North London Line is about half a mile to the south
Districts of England
The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the structure of government in England is not uniform. Some districts are styled as boroughs, cities, or royal boroughs, these are purely honorific titles, prior to the establishment of districts in the 1890s, the basic unit of local government in England was the parish overseen by the parish church vestry committee. Vestries dealt with the administraction of both parochial and secular governmental matters, parishes were the successors of the manorial system and historically had been grouped into hundreds. Hundreds once exercised some supervising administrative function, these powers ebbed away as more and more civic and judicial powers were centred on county towns. From 1834 these parishes were grouped into Poor Law Unions, creating areas for administration of the Poor Law and these areas were used for census registration and as the basis for sanitary provision. In 1894, based on these earlier subdivisions, the Local Government Act 1894 created urban districts and rural districts as sub-divisions of administrative counties, another reform in 1900 created 28 metropolitan boroughs as sub-divisions of the County of London.
Meanwhile, from this date parish-level local government administration was transferred to civil parishes, the setting-down of the current structure of districts in England began in 1965, when Greater London and its 32 London boroughs were created. They are the oldest type of still in use. In 1974, metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties were created across the rest of England and were split into metropolitan districts, in London power is now shared again, albeit on a different basis, with the Greater London Authority. During the 1990s a further kind of district was created, the unitary authority, metropolitan boroughs are a subdivision of a metropolitan county. These are similar to unitary authorities, as the county councils were abolished in 1986. Most of the powers of the county councils were devolved to the districts but some services are run by joint boards, the districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million. Non-metropolitan districts are second-tier authorities, which share power with county councils and they are subdivisions of shire counties and the most common type of district.
These districts typically have populations of 25,000 to 200,000, the number of non-metropolitan districts has varied over time. Initially there were 296, after the creation of unitary authorities in the 1990s and late 2000s and these are single-tier districts which are responsible for running all local services in their areas, combining both county and district functions. They were created in the out of non-metropolitan districts, and often cover large towns. In addition, some of the smaller such as Rutland, Herefordshire
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide