Nassau County, New York
Nassau County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. At the 2010 census, the county's population was 1,400,000 estimated to have increased to 1,400,514 in 2017; the county seat is Mineola and the largest town is the Town of Hempstead. Nassau County is situated in western Long Island, bordering New York City's borough of Queens to the west, Suffolk County to the east, it is the most densely populated and second-most populous county in New York state outside of New York City, with which it maintains extensive rail and highway connectivity, is considered one of the central counties within the New York metropolitan area. Nassau County contains two cities, three towns, 64 incorporated villages, more than 60 unincorporated hamlets. Nassau County has a designated police department, fire commission, elected executive and legislative bodies. A 2012 Forbes article based on the American Community Survey reported Nassau County as the most expensive county and one of the highest income counties in the United States, the most affluent in the state of New York, with four of the nation's top ten towns by median income located in the county.
Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards. The name of the county comes from an old name for Long Island, at one time named Nassau, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, a member of the House of Nassau, itself named for the German town of Nassau; the county colors are the colors of the House of Orange-Nassau. Several alternate names had been considered for the county, including "Bryant", "Matinecock", "Norfolk", "Sagamore". However, "Nassau" had the historical advantage of having at one time been the name of Long Island itself, was the name most mentioned after the new county was proposed in 1875; the area now designated Nassau County was the eastern 70% of Queens County, one of the original 12 counties formed in 1683, was contained within two towns: Hempstead and Oyster Bay. In 1784, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.
Nassau County was formed in 1899 by the division of Queens County, after the western portion of Queens had become a borough of New York City in 1898, as the three easternmost towns seceded from the county. When the first European settlers arrived, among the Native Americans to occupy the present area of Nassau County were the Marsapeque and Sacatogue. Dutch settlers in New Netherland predominated in the western portion of Long Island, while English settlers from Connecticut occupied the eastern portion; until 1664, Long Island was split at the present border between Nassau and Suffolk counties, between the Dutch in the west and Connecticut claiming the east. The Dutch did grant an English settlement in Hempstead, but drove settlers from the present-day eastern Nassau hamlet of Oyster Bay as part of a boundary dispute. In 1664, all of Long Island became part of the English Province of New York within the Shire of York. Present-day Queens and Nassau were just part of a larger North Riding. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved, Suffolk County and Queens County were established, the local seat of government was moved west from Hempstead to Jamaica.
By 1700 little of Long Island had not been purchased from the native Indians by the English colonists, townships controlled whatever land had not been distributed. The courthouse in Jamaica was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. In 1784, following the American Revolutionary War, the Town of Hempstead was split in two, when Patriots in the northern part formed the new Town of North Hempstead, leaving Loyalist majorities in the Town of Hempstead. About 1787, a new Queens County Courthouse was erected in the new Town of North Hempstead, near present-day Mineola, known as Clowesville; the Long Island Rail Road reached as far east as Hicksville in 1837, but did not proceed to Farmingdale until 1841 due to the Panic of 1837. The 1850 census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition of the old courthouse and the inconvenience of travel and accommodations, with the three eastern and three western towns divided on the location for the construction of a new one.
Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola. As early as 1875, representatives of the three eastern towns began advocating the separation of the three eastern towns from Queens, with some proposals including the towns of Huntington and Babylon. In 1898, the western portion of Queens County became a borough of the City of Greater New York, leaving the eastern portion a part of Queens County but not part of the Borough of Queens; as part of the city consolidation plan, all town and county governments within the borough were dissolved. The areas excluded from the consolidation included all of the Town of North Hempstead, all of the Town of Oyster Bay, most of the Town of Hempstead. In 1899, following approval from the New York State Legislature, the three towns were separated from Queens County, the new county of Nassau was constituted. In preparation for the new county, in November 1898, voters had selected Mineol
Administrative divisions of New York (state)
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages. Cities and villages are municipal corporations with their own governments that provide most local government services. Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is dependent not on population or land area, but rather on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature; each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are local governments, such as school and fire districts. New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 62 cities. In total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions. Counties and incorporated municipal governments in New York State have been granted broad home rule powers enabling them to provide services to their residents and to regulate the quality of life within their jurisdictions.
They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York. Articles VIII and IX of the state constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments; the New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected legislative bodies for counties, cities and villages. These legislative bodies are granted the power to enact local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens and fulfill their various obligations; the county is the primary administrative division of New York. There are sixty-two counties in the state. Five of the counties are boroughs of the city of New York and do not have functioning county governments. While created as subdivisions of the state meant to carry out state functions, counties are now considered municipal corporations with the power and fiscal capacity to provide an array of local government services; such services include law enforcement and public safety and health services, education.
Every county outside of New York City has a county seat, the location of county government. Nineteen counties operate under county charters, while 38 operate under the general provisions of the County Law. Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, "charter counties" are afforded greater home rule powers; the charter counties are Albany, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Herkimer, Nassau, Onondaga, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, Tompkins and Westchester. Sixteen counties are governed through an assembly with the power of a board of supervisors, composed of the supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of these counties, each supervisor's vote is weighted in accordance with the town's population in order to abide by the U. S. Supreme Court mandate of "one person, one vote". Other counties have legislative districts of equal population. Most counties in New York do not use the term "Board of Supervisors." 34 counties have a County Legislature, six counties have a Board of Legislators, one county has a Board of Representatives.
The five counties, or boroughs, of New York City are governed by a 51-member City Council. In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well. Although the legislature can delegate certain functions and duties to a county administrator, who acts on behalf of the legislature, the legislature must maintain ultimate control over the actions of the administrator. Many, but not all, charter counties have an elected executive, independent of the legislature. In New York, each city is a autonomous incorporated area that, with the exceptions of New York City and Geneva, is contained within one county. Cities in New York are classified by the U. S. Census Bureau as incorporated places, they provide all services to their residents and have the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over their residents. The main difference between a city and a village is that cities are organized and governed according to their charters, which can differ among cities, while most villages are subject to a uniform statewide Village Law.
Villages are part of a town, with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town. Cities are neither part of nor subordinate to towns except for the city of Sherrill, which for some purposes is treated as if it were a village of the town of Vernon; some cities are surrounded by a town of the same name. There are sixty-two cities in the state; as of 2000, 54.1% of state residents were living in a city. In 1686, the English colonial governor granted the cities of New York and Albany city charters, which were recognized by the first State Constitution in 1777. All other cities have been established by act of the state legislature and have been granted a charter. Cities have been granted the power to revise the
Freeport, New York
Freeport is a village in the town of Hempstead, Nassau County, New York, US, on the South Shore of Long Island. The population was 43,713 at the 2010 census. A settlement since the 1640s, it was once an oystering community and a resort popular with the New York City theater community, it is now a bedroom suburb but retains a modest commercial waterfront and some light industry. It is serviced by the Freeport station on the Long Island Rail Road. Freeport lies on the South Shore of Long Island, in the southwestern part of Nassau County, within the town of Hempstead. Freeport has its own municipal electric utility, police and water departments. Freeport has a station on the Long Island Rail Road; the south part of the village is penetrated by several canals that allow access to the Atlantic Ocean by means of passage through salt marshes. The oldest canal is the late 19th-century Woodcleft Canal. Freeport has extensive small-boat facilities and a resident fishing fleet, as well as charter and open water fishing boats.
Freeport is located at 40°39′14″N 73°35′13″W. The village is bisected by east-west New York State Route 27. Meadowbrook Parkway defines its eastern boundary. Baldwin lies to the west, Merrick to the east, Roosevelt to the north. Freeport is bounded to the south by salt bays. Freeport's government is made up of a mayor, who are elected to four-year terms. Freeport's first African American mayor, Andrew Hardwick, was elected in 2009; the other current Trustees are, Carmen Piñeyro, Ronald Ellerbe, William White. Freeport's current government is a bipartisan coalition of Republicans; as of the census of 2000, there were 43,783 people, 13,504 households, 9,911 families residing in the village. The population density was 9,531.3 people per square mile. There were 13,819 housing units at an average density of 3,008.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 42.9% White, 32.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 17.2% from other races, 5.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.5% of the population. There were 13,504 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.65. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males. The median income for a household in the village in 1999 was $55,948, the median income for a family was $61,673. Males had a median income of $37,465 versus $31,869 for females; the per capita income for the village was $21,288.
About 8.0% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010, the population was 42,860; the demographics were as follows: Hispanic – 17,858 Black alone – 13,226 White alone – 10,113 Asian alone – 669 Two or more races – 174 Other race alone – 292 American Indian alone – 94 Freeport is served by the Freeport station on the Long Island Rail Road Babylon Branch. It is a hub for several Nassau Inter-County Express bus routes. N4: Freeport – Jamaica N19: Freeport – Sunrise Mall N40: Freeport – Mineola via North Main Street N41: Freeport – Mineola via Babylon Turnpike N43: Freeport – Roosevelt Field Mall N88: Freeport – Jones Beach Before people of European ancestry came to the area, the land was part of the territory of the Meroke Indians.<uref name=Bleyer>Bill Bleyer, Freeport: Action on the Nautical Mile, Newsday.com. Retrieved November 14, 2008. Archival copy at the Wayback Machine.</ref> Written records of the community go back to the 1640s.
The village now known as Freeport was part of an area called "the Great South Woods" during colonial times. In the mid-17th century, the area was renamed Raynor South, Raynortown, after a herdsman named Edward Raynor, who had moved to the area from Hempstead in 1659, cleared land, built a cabin. In 1853, residents voted to rename the village Freeport, adopting a variant of a nickname used by ship captains during colonial times because they were not charged customs duties to land their cargo. After the Civil War, Freeport became a center for commercial oystering; this trade began to decline as early as the beginning of the 20th century because of changing salinity and increased pollution in Great South Bay. Nonetheless as of the early 21st century Freeport and nearby Point Lookout have the largest concentration of commercial fishing activity anywhere near New York City. From 1868, Freeport was served by the Southside Railroad, a major boon to development; the most prominent figure in this boom was developer John J. Randall.
Randall, who opposed all of Freeport's being laid out in a grid, put up a Victori
Cradle of Aviation Museum
The Cradle of Aviation Museum is an aerospace museum located in Garden City, New York on Long Island to commemorate Long Island's part in the history of aviation. It is located on land once part of Mitchel Air Force Base which, together with nearby Roosevelt Field and other airfields on the Hempstead Plains, was the site of many historic flights. So many seminal flights had occurred in the area that, by the mid-1920s, the cluster of airfields was dubbed the "Cradle of Aviation", the origin of the museum's name. Aviation firsts that contributed to Long Island's nickname - the "Cradle of Aviation:" 1873 - First recorded flight over the island, a balloon piloted by W. H. Donaldson from Brooklyn to Queens Village. 1874 - More balloon flights, New York City to Lynbrook and Lynbrook to Hempstead. 1909 - Glenn Curtiss flies a plane 25 miles from Mineola and wins the Scientific American Prize. 1910 - The International Aerial Tournament is held at Belmont Park. 1911 - Cal Rodgers makes the first transcontinental airplane flight from Sheepshead Bay to California in the Vin Fiz. 1916 - First night flight.
1917 - First flight of pilotless aircraft, the Sperry Aerial torpedo. 1919 - First transatlantic crossing by an airship which arrives at Roosevelt Field from England. 1923 - First non-stop transcontinental airplane flight from Mitchel Field to San Diego, CA by John A. Macready and Oakley G. Kelly. 1924 - First round-the-world flight arrives at Mitchel Field. 1927 - First solo transatlantic flight by Charles Lindbergh from Roosevelt Field to Paris, France. 1927 - First transatlantic passenger flight by Clarence D. Chamberlin from Roosevelt Field to Eisleben, Germany. 1929 - First "blind" instrument flight by Jimmy Doolittle at Mitchel Field. Instruments developed by the Kollsman companies of Long Island; the Cradle of Aviation Museum's first curator, William K. Kaiser, participated in an aviation first as one of the pilots on the first transatlantic crossing of non-rigid airships in 1944 as a young ensign in the United States Navy. For his educational contributions and curatorial work at the Cradle of Aviation Museum, Kaiser was named a Jimmy Doolittle Fellow and an Ira Eaker Fellow by the Air Force Association Aerospace Education Foundation in 1986.
The first Cradle of Aviation Museum Newsletters were published periodically by the Friends of Nassau County Museum when the air museum itself was still just a dream of Kaiser and George C. Dade, the museum's first director. Along with Henry Anholzer of Pan American Airlines and a team of volunteers, they acquired and restored numerous aircraft; these aircraft reflected its local aerospace industry. The first acquisition was a World War I Curtiss JN-4D discovered in an Iowa pig barn by Dade in 1973. Lindbergh confirmed that this was his first airplane. According to their Spring 1979 newsletter, the museum had a Ryan Brougham, Republic P-47N Thunderbolt, Republic Seabee, Grumman F-11A Tiger, a Grumman Lunar Module spacecraft; these aircraft were destined to occupy hangars 3 & 4 of Mitchel Air Force Base, acquired by Nassau County when the base closed in 1961. The museum opened with just a handful of aircraft in the un-restored hangars in 1980. A major renovation and expansion program in the late 1990s allowed the museum to re-open in a state-of-the-art facility in 2002.
Today the museum contains over 60 aircraft and scale models of airplanes from various time periods, including Charles Lindbergh's Curtiss Jenny in which he barnstormed, the A-10 Thunderbolt II and Grumman F-14 Tomcat, an actual unused Apollo Lunar Module, LM-13. LM-13 was scheduled to land on the moon with the Apollo 18 mission, but with the mission's cancellation it remained on earth, close to its birthplace in the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation facility in nearby Bethpage, New York. Many of the tour guides and restoration workers worked at Grumman, which contributed much to the museum; the museum is one of the more popular Air and Space museums in the United States and is well known for its innovative installations, including unique audio-visual, hands-on and interactive exhibits. The museum's longtime curator, Joshua Stoff, is a well-respected author in aviation circles. In addition to the museum itself, the complex houses the JET BLUE DOME theater featuring IMAX 70 millimeter format films as well as a state-of-the-art digital planetarium, the Red Planet Cafe, decorated to look like a space station on Mars.
The museum continues to install new exhibitry related to various Long Island topics to this day. Within the same building, the Cradle of Aviation Museum houses the Nassau County Firefighter's Museum and Education Center, it is a nearly 10,000 square foot interactive facility where individuals and groups can experience first-hand the proud tradition of firefighting in the surrounding communities. Visitors can trace the history of firefighting in Nassau County with hands-on exhibits that feature antique and contemporary fire apparatus and gear. List of aerospace museums Cradle of Aviation Museum website A comprehensive written description of the museum's contents Photos of aircraft and other exhibits Long Island Air Museum in Peril: Eric Ricioppo Comptroller Sees Trouble For Museum In Nassau: Eric Ricioppo Nassau County Firefighter's Museum website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
P. T. Barnum
Phineas Taylor Barnum was an American showman and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was an author and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession… and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me". According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers." He is credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute", although no evidence can be found of him saying this. Barnum became a small-business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834, he embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb. In 1850, he promoted the American tour of Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights.
He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum expanded the wax-figure department. Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut, he spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul,'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot—it is still an immortal spirit", he was elected in 1875 as Mayor of Bridgeport, where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, was its first president; the circus business was the source of much of his enduring fame.
He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Caravan & Hippodrome", a traveling circus and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years. Barnum died of a stroke at his home residence in 1891 and was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, which he designed himself. Barnum was born in Bethel, the son of innkeeper and store-keeper Philo Barnum and his second wife Irene Taylor, his maternal grandfather Phineas Taylor was a Whig, landowner, justice of the peace, lottery schemer who had a great influence on him. Barnum had several businesses over the years, including a general store, a book auctioning trade, real estate speculation, a statewide lottery network, he started a weekly newspaper in 1829 called The Herald of Freedom in Connecticut. His editorials against the elders of local churches led to libel suits and a prosecution which resulted in imprisonment for two months, but he became a champion of the liberal movement upon his release, he sold his store in 1834 and moved to New York City because lotteries were banned in Connecticut, cutting off his main income.
He began his career as a showman in 1835 when he was 25 with the purchase and exhibition of a blind and completely paralyzed slave woman named Joice Heth, whom an acquaintance was trumpeting around Philadelphia as George Washington's former nurse and 161 years old. Slavery was outlawed in New York, but he exploited a loophole which allowed him to lease her for a year for $1,000, borrowing $500 to complete the sale. Heth died at no more than 80 years old. Barnum had worked her for 10 to 12 hours a day, he hosted a live autopsy of her body in a New York Saloon where spectators paid 50 cents to see the dead woman cut up, as he revealed that she was half her purported age. Barnum had a year of mixed success with his first variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", followed by the Panic of 1837 and three years of difficult circumstances, he purchased Scudder's American Museum in 1841, located at New York City. He improved the attraction, upgrading the building and adding exhibits renamed it "Barnum's American Museum".
He added a lighthouse lamp which attracted attention up and down Broadway and flags along the roof's edge that attracted attention in daytime, while giant paintings of animals between the upper windows drew attention from pedestrians. The roof was transformed to a strolling garden with a view of the city, where he launched hot-air balloon rides daily. A changing series of live acts and curiosities were added to the exhibits of stuffed animals, including albinos, little people, magicians, exotic women, detailed models of cities and famous battles, a menagerie of animals. In 1842, Barnum introduced his first major hoax: a creature with the head of a monkey and the tail of a fish known as the "Feejee" mermaid, he leased the "mermaid" from fellow museum owner Moses Kimball of Boston, who became his friend and collaborator. Barnum described his hoaxes and justified perpetrating them by saying that they were advertisements to draw attention to the museum. "I don't believe in duping the public," he claimed, "but I believe in first attracting and pleasing them."He followed that with the exhibition of Charles Stratton, the dwarf called "General Tom Thumb", four years old but was stated to be 11.
With heavy coaching and natural talent, th