Student life at Tufts University
The Tufts University school mascot is Jumbo the elephant, in honor of a major donation from circus owner P. T. Barnum in 1882. While Barnum gave the skeleton of the animal to the American Museum of Natural History, the stuffed remains of Jumbo were put on display in the lobby of Barnum Hall until the building burned down in 1974; the alleged ashes of Jumbo reside in a peanut butter jar in the athletic director's office. A large plaster-statue elephant, Jumbo II, now sits on the academic quad; the Tufts mascot is the only school mascot listed in Webster's dictionary. The school colors of Tufts University are blue; the shade of brown is a chocolate brown, the blue is variously described as between light and middle blue, or dusty sky blue. Though this color combination was chosen by the student body in 1876, the colors were not made the colors of Tufts University until 1960, when the Trustees voted on the matter. 93.8 % of students participate in co-curricular activity. The Tufts Community Union funds a number of undergraduate student groups, some 341 are recognized by the university.
Prominent groups include the Beelzebubs, Tufts Financial Group, Tufts Dance Collective, the Amalgamates, Spirit of Color, Tufts Labor Coalition, United for Immigrant Justice, The Observer. The Leonard Carmichael Society, an umbrella organization for community and public service projects, is the largest student group at Tufts, comprising a volunteer corps of over 1,000 and a staff of eighty-five. In The Princeton Review's 2010–2011 "Best 363 Colleges," Tufts was ranked #14 for the happiest students and Tufts' study abroad program was ranked #3 in the country; the Princeton Review has since 2005 listed Tufts in its "Best Campus Food" category, ranking it as high as second. Additionally, The Advocate ranks Tufts as one of the top 20 gay-friendly campuses. In 2009, the school banned sexual activity in dorm rooms; the university may have been the first in the nation to be explicit about this type of conduct. The Naked Quad Run was originated by residents of West Hall and was known as the "West Hall Naked Quad Run".
Though the exact date of its origin remains unknown. In the late'70s the run was revived by residents of Carmichael Hall but faded from the campus until it was again revived and popularized by West Hall residents in the early 1990s. Dorm residents, such as "Quad Man", would warm up the gathering crowd below by stripping on the fire escape to loud music blasting from the upper floor windows. Once the dorm residents were themselves sufficiently'warmed up' with alcohol, they would gather in the basement of the dorm, undress as a group, exit from the rear of the building, many with phone numbers painted on their back or butts; the Naked Quad Run takes place just before fall finals, in December, attracts hundreds of students to unwind by stripping and running a circuit around the Res Quad. Most students run naked. On March 14, 2011, President Larry Bacow announced that the Tufts Quad Run had been banned for the upcoming year due to concerns about alcohol consumption. A re-emergence of the event had come to light in the spring of 2016 during finals week.
A similar event was carried out in the 2017 spring during finals week. Held in 1980, a concert known as Spring Fling takes place in the spring semester before final exams on the President's Lawn. Spring Fling acts have included the following: 1980: Pousette Dart Band, Willie Nineger Band, Beelzebubs 1981: Pousette Dart Band, James Montgomery Band, NRBQ 1982: Clarence Clemons and the Red Bank Rockers, Chubby Checker 1983: Evelyn "Champagne" King, NRBQ, The Kool Rays 1984: The Stompers, Junior Walker and the All-Stars 1985: The Busboys,'Til Tuesday 1986: Ministry, Scruffy the Cat, Plate O' Shrimp 1987: The Smithereens, The Bongos, Plate O' Shrimp 1988: Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, Treat Her Right 1989: The Robert Cray Band, Ivan Neville and the Rooms, Plan B 1990: The Band, Barrence Whitfield and the Savages 1991: Cheap Trick, Heretix 1992: Blues Traveler, Urban Blight 1993: Violent Femmes, The Lemonheads, Digable Planets 1994: Fishbone, They Might Be Giants, Queen Latifah, Thumper 1995: B.
B. King, Denny Dent, Brand Nubian, Buffalo Tom 1996: George Clinton and the P-Funk All-Stars, Violent Femmes, moe. 1997: A Tribe Called Quest, Barenaked Ladies, G. Love & Special Sauce 1998: LL Cool J, Maceo Parker, Less Than Jake, Hall's Corner Band 1999: Ben Folds Five, Cherry Poppin' Daddies, The Sugarhill Gang 2000: The Roots, Better Than Ezra, Reel Big Fish 2001: Busta Rhymes*, Jurassic 5, Redshift 6 2002: moe. Toots and the Maytals, Mobb Deep 2003: Busta Rhymes*, Reel Big Fish 2004: The Roots, Less Than Jake, The Sugarhill Gang 2005: Busta Rhymes*, The Walkmen, The Juice 2006: Guster, The Slip, Melodesiac 2007: T. I. Lupe Fiasco, Oxford Collapse, Ezra Furman and the Harpoons 2008: Dropkick Murphys, Tea Leaf Green, FunkSoulLove 2009: Ludacris, The Decemberists, Asher Roth, The Ride, Brennavin 2010: OK Go, Sammy Adams 2011: The Roots, RJD2 2012: Lupe Fiasco, White Panda, The Rare Occasions 2013: Nelly, Yeasayer, 5 & a Dime 2014: Childish Gambino, The New Pornographers 2015: Ke$ha, MisterWives, Lauren Lane 2016: Matt & Kim, Shaggy, Børns 2017: Tinashe, Metro Boomin, Aminé 2018: Ty Dolla $ign, Quinn XCII, Princess Nokia, Dutch Rebelle, 2019: A$AP Ferg, Rico Nasty, Marcela CruzN
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts. An early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free "Romanesque" manner was Henry Hobson Richardson. In the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. Romanesque Revival is sometimes referred to as the "Norman style" or "Lombard style" in works published during the 19th century after variations of historic Romanesque that were developed by the Normans and Lombards, respectively. Like its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was used for churches, for synagogues such as the New Synagogue of Strasbourg built in 1898, the Congregation Emanu-El of New York built in 1929.
The style was quite popular for university campuses in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States and Canada. See also: Romanesque Revival architecture in the United KingdomThe development of the Norman revival style took place over a long time in the British Isles starting with Inigo Jones's refenestration of the White Tower of the Tower of London in 1637–38 and work at Windsor Castle by Hugh May for Charles II, but this was little more than restoration work. In the 18th century, the use of round arched windows was thought of as being Saxon rather than Norman, examples of buildings with round arched windows include Shirburn Castle in Oxfordshire, Wentworth in Yorkshire, Enmore Castle in Somerset. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl's castle at Inverary, started in 1744, castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Oxenfoord and Seton Palace, 1792. In England James Wyatt used round arched windows at Sandleford Priory, Berkshire, in 1780–89 and the Duke of Norfolk started to rebuild Arundel Castle, while Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire was built by Robert Smirke between 1812 and 1820.
At this point, the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817, Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation, it was now realised that'round-arch architecture' was Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon. The start of an "archaeologically correct" Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper, his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837; the style did not catch on for domestic buildings, though many country houses and mock castles were built in the Castle Gothic or Castellated style during the Victorian period, a mixed Gothic style. However, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, who developed Romanesque Revival church architecture.
Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47, St Agatha’s Llanymynech, 1845, he copied the tower of St. Salvator's Cathedral, Bruges. Other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, the porch to Langedwyn Church, he was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, saving on the expense of stonework. Penson’s last church in the Romanesque Revival style was Rhosllannerchrugog, Wrexham 1852The Romanesque adopted by Penson contrasts with the Italianate Romanesque of other architects such as Thomas Henry Wyatt, who designed Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas Church, in this style at Wilton, built between 1841 and 1844 for the Dowager Countess of Pembroke and her son, Lord Herbert of Lea. During the 19th century, the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations. Whereas high churches and Anglo-Catholic, which were influenced by the Oxford Movement, were built in Gothic Revival architecture, low churches and broad churches of the period were built in the Romanesque Revival style.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches and chapels. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, who designed the Mint Lane Baptist Chapel in Lincoln in a debased Italianate Romanesque revival style in 1870. After about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canada's provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto and the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria, are Romanesque Revival in style. University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style; the building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the final d
Eaton Hall (Tufts University)
Eaton Hall, built in 1908 as Eaton Memorial Library, used to be the main library building at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. The historic building was designed by Whitfield & King and donated to the university by Andrew Carnegie, it was one of the first college libraries built with Carnegie funds and is one of the few that never bore his name. Today the building houses classrooms and a computer lab. In 1904, Andrew Carnegie donated $100,000 to build a library on the Tufts campus; the building was one of 43 libraries. Mrs. Carnegie decided that rather than having the library share the Carnegie name, the building would be a memorial to Rev. Charles H. Eaton who had presided over her wedding in New York City in 1887. Eaton was a Tufts alumnus from the Class of 1874, served as the Mathetican Club. Eaton graduated from the Crane Theological School with a divinity degree in 1887. Eaton served as the president of the New York Association of Tufts College. Construction began in 1905, was completed in 1908.
The books were stored in College Hall, now Ballou Hall where students were allowed to access the collection for one hour a week. On, it was stored in Middle Hall, now Packard Hall; when the collection moved to Eaton, the collection was split up into four specialized libraries in chemistry, physics-mathematics, religion. The cost of equipping the library was over $11,000 and shelving was not completed until 1938; the library could hold 64,000 pamphlets. In 1950, an addition doubled the space for the library; the new wing became the reading room and contained plaques dedicated to 102 Tufts students and alumni who lost their lives during World War II. It was dedicated on December 7, 1950. In 1965, the collection outgrew the building and a new library deemed Wessell library was constructed next to Eaton; the interior has since become a lounge and classrooms and a computer lab. The building is centrally located on top of Walnut Hill; the New York firm Whitfield & King designed the building in a neoclassical style with red brick walls, elaborate marble columns and trim.
The main entrance displays an imposing pediment supported by four Corinthian columns and elevated on a marble slab. The original main entrance opened up to a main hall with a grand staircase, flanked on either end by a reading room and a lecture room. Beneath the stairs was the entrance to the stacks; the stack area was designed to hold 200,000 books. The grand staircase led to a second floor with six spaces for special collections and two archivist offices; the addition built in 1949-50, was designed by Arland Dirlam to match the style of the original section
Tisch Library Wessell Library, is the principal library for the Medford/Somerville campus of Tufts University. The library serves as the main branch of the Tufts library system; the building was designed in a brutalist style by Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott. Construction started in January 1964 and the library was named after Tufts' eight president Nils Yngve Wessell. At a cost of $2.9 million the library was dedicated on September 1965. Wessell Library succeeded Eaton Memorial Library as the main library on campus and was constructed next to it. After a $21 million renovation, the library was enlarged in January 1996 and was renamed after Jonathan and Steve Tisch who donated $10 million for the project. Official Library Site at Tufts.edu Library Digital Collections
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
The Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University brings together biomedical, clinical and behavioral scientists to conduct research and community service programs in the field of human nutrition. Founded in 1981, the school's mission is to generate trusted science, educate future leaders, produce real world impact in nutrition science and policy; the Friedman School is one of the eight schools that comprise Tufts University. Although split between the university's Medford/Somerville campus and the health sciences campus in Boston all of the school's facilities and programs now share the health sciences campus with the School of Medicine and the School of Dental Medicine; the Jaharis Family Center for Biomedical and Nutrition Research, which opened in 2002, houses most of the nutrition school. The school enrolls over 200 masters and doctoral students; the Friedman School is under the supervision of a dean, appointed by the president and the provost, with the approval of the Trustees of Tufts College.
The dean has responsibility for the overall administration of the school, including faculty appointments, curriculum and financial aid, student affairs and facilities. Dariush Mozaffarian, a cardiologist and epidemiologist, was appointed dean of the Friedman School in 2014, assuming the post on July 1 of that year. Faculty at the school include biomedical scientists, nutritionists, physicians, political scientists and psychologists focusing on a myriad of issues with the common thread of nutrition and its role in understanding and fostering the growth and development of human populations; the school's concern with the problems of hunger and malnutrition in United States and abroad is reflected in the research and applied work being done by its faculty and students. Areas of specialty include the socioeconomic parameters of malnutrition, nutrition program design and implementation, social marketing and development policy. Graduates of the programs in these areas are employed in government and non-governmental agencies as well as private voluntary organizations throughout the world and in the United States.
Many Friedman School faculty members hold a dual appointment at the Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging. Supported by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the HNRCA is the largest research institution in the world devoted to investigating the relationship between nutrition and aging. Official website
Tufts University School of Medicine
The Tufts University School of Medicine is one of the ten schools that constitute Tufts University. The Times Higher Education and the Academic Ranking of World Universities rank Tufts among the world's best medical research institutions for clinical medicine. Located on the university's health sciences campus in downtown Boston, the medical school has clinical affiliations with thousands of doctors and researchers in the United States and around the world, as well as at its affiliated hospitals in both Massachusetts, Maine. According to Thomson Reuters' Science Watch, Tufts University School of Medicine's research impact rates sixth among U. S medical schools for its overall medical research and within the top 5 for specialized research areas such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, cholera, public health & health care science, pediatrics. In addition, Tufts University School of Medicine is ranked 57th in research and 46th in primary care according to U. S. News & World Report; the School of Medicine was established by vote of the Trustees of Tufts College on 22 April 1893.
It was formed by the secession of seven faculty from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Boston, a school, formed in 1880. These "original seven" faculty members lobbied to establish a medical school under the auspices of Tufts College; the new school, designated the Medical School of Tufts College, opened its doors in October 1893 with eighty students. The school was, from the beginning, of the twenty-two students who graduated that first year, eight were women; when the trustees changed the name of the institution from "Tufts College" to "Tufts University" in 1954, the medical school became the "Tufts University School of Medicine." The Tufts Medical Center, the principal teaching hospital of TUSM, came into existence in 1930 through the alliance of the Boston Dispensary, the Boston Floating Hospital for Children, the Trustees of Tufts College. The New England Medical Center was established as a non-profit corporation to coordinate the administrative activities of its constituent organizations.
In 1946 the Pratt Diagnostic Clinic, an extension of the Boston Dispensary established in 1938, joined NEMC. In 1950, when the Medical School and Dental School relocated to Harrison Avenue, the NEMC became known as the New England Medical Center Hospital; the name of the institution changed to the Tufts New England Medical Center in 1968, to New England Medical Center in the 1980s, back to T-NEMC in 2002, to the Tufts Medical Center in 2008. Over the years, the governing boards of Tufts University and the medical center negotiated a series of affiliation agreements. Tufts University and Tufts Medical Center are separate corporate entities. However, the president and several other senior officers of Tufts University are ex officio members of the board of directors of the Medical Center; the Tufts University School of Medicine, established in 1893, is under the supervision of a dean, appointed by the president and the provost, with the approval of the Trustees of Tufts College. The dean is responsible for all aspects of the school's operations, including medical education, faculty appointments, clinical relationships, various affiliated research centers and institutes.
The TUSM faculty is divided into seven basic science departments and eighteen clinical science departments. The clinical faculty have primary staff appointments at the Tufts Medical Center, Baystate Hospital, the VA Boston Medical Healthcare System, Faulkner Hospital, seven other teaching hospitals in Massachusetts; the basic science faculty, on the other hand, are full-time members of the Tufts University faculty. TUSM offers a four year curriculum leading to the degree of doctor of medicine as well as several combined degree programs: MD/MPH, MD/PhD, the MD/MS in engineering, a joint program with the School of Engineering, an MD/MBA in Health Management in collaboration with Brandeis University, an MD/MALD with the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. A final unconventional degree program is the early acceptance joint BA/MD program offered to undergraduates at Tufts University, College of the Holy Cross, Boston College, Brandeis University, Northeastern; the School of Medicine offers three free–standing programs: a master of public health degree offered in collaboration with the School of Arts and Sciences and the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and has four tracks that include: a Bachelors/MPH offered with the School of Arts and Sciences, a JD/MPH offered in collaboration with Northeastern University School of Law, an MS in Nutrition/MPH offered with the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, DVM/MPH offered with the School of Veterinary Medicine.
The school offers as a master of science in health communication and a master of science in pain research and policy in collaboration with the Health Institute/Tufts Medical Center. In fall 2004, TUSM enrolled 700 full-time students in first professional degree programs and 40 full-time students in graduate degree programs. In fall 2007, TUSM began a new masters program as part of the Public Health and Professional Degree program, offering a Masters of Science in Biomedical Sciences, with 53 full-time students; the Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences are located in five adjoining research buildings alon
P. T. Barnum
Phineas Taylor Barnum was an American showman and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was an author and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession… and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me". According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers." He is credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute", although no evidence can be found of him saying this. Barnum became a small-business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834, he embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb. In 1850, he promoted the American tour of Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights.
He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum expanded the wax-figure department. Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut, he spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul,'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot—it is still an immortal spirit", he was elected in 1875 as Mayor of Bridgeport, where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, was its first president; the circus business was the source of much of his enduring fame.
He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Caravan & Hippodrome", a traveling circus and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years. Barnum died of a stroke at his home residence in 1891 and was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, which he designed himself. Barnum was born in Bethel, the son of innkeeper and store-keeper Philo Barnum and his second wife Irene Taylor, his maternal grandfather Phineas Taylor was a Whig, landowner, justice of the peace, lottery schemer who had a great influence on him. Barnum had several businesses over the years, including a general store, a book auctioning trade, real estate speculation, a statewide lottery network, he started a weekly newspaper in 1829 called The Herald of Freedom in Connecticut. His editorials against the elders of local churches led to libel suits and a prosecution which resulted in imprisonment for two months, but he became a champion of the liberal movement upon his release, he sold his store in 1834 and moved to New York City because lotteries were banned in Connecticut, cutting off his main income.
He began his career as a showman in 1835 when he was 25 with the purchase and exhibition of a blind and completely paralyzed slave woman named Joice Heth, whom an acquaintance was trumpeting around Philadelphia as George Washington's former nurse and 161 years old. Slavery was outlawed in New York, but he exploited a loophole which allowed him to lease her for a year for $1,000, borrowing $500 to complete the sale. Heth died at no more than 80 years old. Barnum had worked her for 10 to 12 hours a day, he hosted a live autopsy of her body in a New York Saloon where spectators paid 50 cents to see the dead woman cut up, as he revealed that she was half her purported age. Barnum had a year of mixed success with his first variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", followed by the Panic of 1837 and three years of difficult circumstances, he purchased Scudder's American Museum in 1841, located at New York City. He improved the attraction, upgrading the building and adding exhibits renamed it "Barnum's American Museum".
He added a lighthouse lamp which attracted attention up and down Broadway and flags along the roof's edge that attracted attention in daytime, while giant paintings of animals between the upper windows drew attention from pedestrians. The roof was transformed to a strolling garden with a view of the city, where he launched hot-air balloon rides daily. A changing series of live acts and curiosities were added to the exhibits of stuffed animals, including albinos, little people, magicians, exotic women, detailed models of cities and famous battles, a menagerie of animals. In 1842, Barnum introduced his first major hoax: a creature with the head of a monkey and the tail of a fish known as the "Feejee" mermaid, he leased the "mermaid" from fellow museum owner Moses Kimball of Boston, who became his friend and collaborator. Barnum described his hoaxes and justified perpetrating them by saying that they were advertisements to draw attention to the museum. "I don't believe in duping the public," he claimed, "but I believe in first attracting and pleasing them."He followed that with the exhibition of Charles Stratton, the dwarf called "General Tom Thumb", four years old but was stated to be 11.
With heavy coaching and natural talent, th