Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Burke County, Georgia
Burke County is a county located along the eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia in the Piedmont. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,316; the county seat is Waynesboro. Burke County is part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Burke County is an original county of Georgia, created February 5, 1777. In 1779, Col. John Twiggs and brothers Col. William Few and Benjamin Few, along with 250 men, defeated British in the Battle of Burke Jail. Burke County is located within the CSRA. During the antebellum period, it was developed by slave labor for large cotton plantations; the county was majority African American in population in this period, as slaveholders needed high numbers of slaves for laborers to cultivate and process cotton. The military tradition continued during the American Civil War, when Burke County provided volunteers for numerous units: the 2nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company A, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company C, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company K, 48th Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, Cobb's Legion Infantry company E, the Cobb's Legion Cavalry Company F. Agriculture continued as the basis of the economy for decades after the American Civil War, when most freedmen worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers.
Cotton was the major commodity crop. In the early 20th century, mechanization of agriculture caused many African-American farm workers to lose their jobs; as can be seen from the census tables below, the county lost population from 1910-1920, from 1930-1970. Part of the decline was related to the Great Migration, as millions of African Americans left the rural South and Jim Crow oppression for jobs and opportunities in industrial cities of the Midwest, North. From World War II on, primary migration destinations were West Coast cities because of the buildup of the defense industry. In addition, whites left rural areas for industrial jobs in the North, in cities such as Chicago and Detroit. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 835 square miles, of which 827 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county by area in Georgia; the southern half of Burke County, defined by a line running along State Route 80 to Waynesboro southeast to east of Perkins, is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin.
North of Waynesboro, bordered on the north by a line running from Keysville southeast to Girard, the territory is part of the Brier Creek sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. The most northern sliver of Burke County is located in the Middle Savannah River sub-basin of the same Savannah River basin; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people, 8,533 households, 6,110 families residing in the county. The population density was 28.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,865 housing units at an average density of 11.9 per square mile. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people residing in the county. 49.5% were Black or African American, 47.5% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from some other race and 1.3% from two or more races. 2.6 % were Latino. In terms of ancestry, 49.5% have some African ancestry, 11.0% identify as of American, 9.3% are Irish, 5.5% were English, 5.1% were German. Of the 8,533 households, 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 24.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 35.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,155 and the median income for a family was $41,659. Males had a median income of $37,061 versus $24,952 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,934. About 20.0% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 22,243 people, 7,934 households, 5,799 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 8,842 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.00% Black or African American, 46.90% White, 0.23% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,934 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.40% were married couples living together, 22.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.30% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,877, the median income for a family was $31,660. Males had a median income of $29,992 and females had an income of $19,008; the per capita income for the county was $13,136. About 23.80% of families and
Allendale County, South Carolina
Allendale County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,419, making it the second-least populous county in South Carolina, its county seat is Allendale. Allendale County was formed in 1919 from southwestern portions of Barnwell County, along the Savannah River, it is the location of the Topper Site, an archeological excavation providing possible evidence of a pre-Clovis culture dating back 50,000 years. The site is near a source of chert on private land in Martin owned by Clariant Corporation, a Swiss chemical company with a plant there; the site, named after John Topper, a local resident who discovered it, has been under excavation by archeologists from the University of South Carolina for about one month a year since 1999, after an initial exploratory dig in the mid-1980s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 412 square miles, of which 408 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. The Savannah River forms the county's western border with Georgia.
Allendale is 62 miles from Georgia. Before interstate highways were built, Allendale had several motels serving travelers going between Northeastern states and Florida. Traffic that traveled U. S. 301 through Allendale now uses Interstate-95. Bamberg County – northeast Colleton County – east Hampton County – southeast Screven County, Georgia – southwest Burke County, Georgia – west Barnwell County – northwest US 278 US 301 US 321 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,211 people, 3,915 households and 2,615 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 4,568 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.0 percent Black or African American, 27.37 percent White, 0.12 percent Asian, 0.09 percent Native American, 0.06 percent Pacific Islander, 0.85 percent from other races, 0.51 percent from two or more races. 1.61 percent of the population were Latino of any race. There were 3,915 households out of which 30.3 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8 percent were married couples living together, 25.8 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2 percent were non-families.
30.0 percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3 percent had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.6 percent under the age of 18, 9.8 percent from 18 to 24, 28.2 percent from 25 to 44, 22.8 percent from 45 to 64, 12.7 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 108.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,898, the median income for a family was $27,348. Males had a median income of $25,930 versus $20,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,293. About 28.4 percent of families and 34.5 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.1 percent of those under age 18 and 26.00 percent of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,419 people, 3,706 households, 2,333 families residing in the county.
The population density was 25.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,486 housing units at an average density of 11.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.6% black or African American, 23.7% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.6% were American. Of the 3,706 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.5% were married couples living together, 26.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families, 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 38.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $20,081 and the median income for a family was $25,146. Males had a median income of $30,440 versus $28,889 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,190. About 35.7% of families and 42.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.8% of those under age 18 and 27.4% of those age 65 or over.
The county has been Democratic in Presidential voting since 1976 and was among the counties to be carried by Walter Mondale in 1984. In the 2008 U. S. presidential election Barack Obama received 75.1 percent of the county's vote. In the 2012 U. S. presidential election Barack Obama received 78.3 percent of the county's vote. Allendale is an agricultural rural county, its primary products are cotton, soybeans and cantaloupe. Timbering is important for paper pulp. Robert McNair, Democratic Governor of South Carolina from 1965 to 1971, moved to Allendale County as an adult because his wife was from there; because of McNair's influence, USC-Salkahatchie was located in the town of Allendale. The county is the site of WEBA, Channel 14, a broadcast outlet of the South Carolina Educational Television Network. Ranking 45th in population among the state's 46 counties, it is the smallest county to have either a state-supported college or an ETV station. Allendale County School District includes one high school: Allendale-Fairfax High School.
The former C. V. Bing High School served African-American students during the time of segregation
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Barnwell, South Carolina
Barnwell is a city in and county seat of Barnwell County, South Carolina, United States, located along U. S. Route 278; the population was 4,750 at the 2010 census. Barnwell is located east of the center of Barnwell County at 33°14′40″N 81°21′48″W. Turkey Creek, a tributary of the Salkehatchie River, runs through the city just west of the downtown, includes a small impoundment known as Lake Brown in the north part of the city. U. S. Route 278 passes through the city, leading south 17 miles to Allendale and northwest 42 miles to Augusta, Georgia. State highways 3, 70, 64 pass through the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, Barnwell has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 7.8 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 1.86%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,035 people, 2,035 households, 1,353 families residing in the city; the population density was 659.5 people per square mile. There were 2,304 housing units at an average density of 301.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 49.81% White, 47.37% Black, 1.05% Asian, 0.40% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population. There were 2,035 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 22.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,722, the median income for a family was $37,841.
Males had a median income of $35,039 versus $21,912 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,709. Placing it in the top third of the state. About 20.4% of families and 22.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1785 the district of Winton County was formed out of Orangeburg District in order to create another judicial circuit, it was given its current name in 1798 when the county and its seat were named for Revolutionary War leader John Barnwell, who headed a militia in South Carolina. Barnwell County stretched from the Savannah River on the west to the Atlantic Ocean. Built in 1832, the South Carolina Railroad connected Charleston to Hamburg, near Augusta, Georgia, on the Savannah River. Two stops on the railroad created the towns of Blackville and Williston in the mid-nineteenth century. Barnwell gave generously to the Confederate cause. Soon after Hagood's election, one of his constituents asked him if he wished to be called "General" or "Governor".
"Call me General," Hagood said, "I fought for that and begged for the other."Barnwell was hated by Union General W. T. Sherman; when Union General Judson Kilpatrick was in Barnwell, his horses were stabled in the Episcopal Church of the Holy Apostles. Barnwell Army Airfield was built by the United States Army Air Forces and opened in May 1943, it was a satellite airfield of Columbia Army Air Base, supporting B-25 Mitchell medium bomber training for Third Air Force III Air Support Command. After the war it became Barnwell Regional Airport. In 1950 the federal government asked DuPont to build and operate a plutonium production plant near the Savannah River in South Carolina; the company had unmatched expertise in atomic energy, having designed and built the plutonium production complex at the Hanford Site for the Manhattan Project during World War II. A large portion of farmland was bought under eminent domain and converted to the Savannah River Plant, managed by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Several towns and over 100 cemeteries were relocated during this time, including Dunbarton and Ellenton. Dunbarton was the town. Former President George H. W. Bush and his brothers used to visit their grandfather George Herbert Walker at the plantation. Union General William T. Sherman spared the plantation, built in 1835, because a woman and sick child were resting in a bedroom upstairs. U. S. Army soldiers were used as guards at this new facility. A camp was constructed for the soldiers off Clinton Street, earning it the name "Barracks Road" among locals, in an area of the Little Salkehatchie swamp called O'Bannon Point. After discharge, many of these troops stayed on at SRP as civilian guards. DuPont ran the Savannah River Site until 1989, when Westinghouse began the management of the facilities for the Department of Energy; the Savannah River Plant changed its name to the Savannah River Site. It was once one of the largest employers in the county; the Banksia Hall, Bethlehem Baptist Church, Church of the Holy Apostles Rectory, Church of the Holy Apostles, and