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Duke of Albany was a peerage title, bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and the British royal family in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor. The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title was the first Dukedom created in Scotland, it passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch. The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483, his son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old; the fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death.
That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns; the title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown; the cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; the title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings. The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria.
Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward, was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. His grandson, Ernst Leopold, only son of Charles Edward's eldest son Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, sometimes used the title "Duke of Albany", although the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 stipulates that any successor of a suspended peer shall be restored to the peerage only by direction of the sovereign, the successor's petition for restoration having been submitted for and obtained a satisfactory review of the appropriate Privy Council committee. Other titles: Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan, Earl of Atholl Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, third son of Robert IIOther titles: Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425 Other titles: Earl of March, Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482 forfeited them again in 1483Other titles: Earl of March John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515.
The honours became extinct upon his death without issue Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, who tries to claim the British throne after Gorboduc's death through his royal descent. William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, husband to Lear's daughter Goneril. In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character comments that his surname is Mountbatten. Duchess of Albany Duke of York Duke of York and Albany Alba Albany
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
County Wicklow is a county in Ireland. The last of the traditional 32 counties to be formed, as late as 1606, it is part of the Mid-East Region and is located in the province of Leinster, it is named after the town of Wicklow, which derives from the Old Norse name Víkingaló, which means "Vikings' Meadow". Wicklow County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 142,425 at the 2016 census. Wicklow is colloquially known as "the Garden of Ireland", it is the 17th-largest of Ireland's 32 counties by area, being thirty-three miles in length by twenty miles in breadth, 16th-largest by population. It is the fourth-largest of Leinster's twelve counties by size and the fifth-largest in terms of population; the adjoining counties are Wexford to the south, Carlow to the south-west, Kildare to the west and Dublin to the north. Total list of Settlements: The Wicklow Mountains form the largest continuous upland region in Ireland; the highest mountain in the range, rises to 925 metres, giving Wicklow the second-highest county peak after Kerry.
The River Liffey, chief river of Dublin, rises in the county, is a major source of water for Greater Dublin. The Liffey's leading tributary, the River Dodder, rises just across the border in southern County Dublin, receives some minor flows from extreme northern Wicklow; the River Dargle runs to the Irish Sea at Bray. The River Avoca forms from the confluence of the Avonmore and Avonbeg at the Meeting of the Waters, before discharging into the Irish Sea at Arklow; the River Aughrim is a tributary of the Avoca. The River Slaney is in the western part of the county. One of the smaller rivers of the county, the River Vartry is important to Dublin's water supply. Lakes are small but numerous, located in mountain valleys or glacial corries, they include Lough Dan, Lough Tay, Lough Brae, the lakes of Glendalough, the Poulaphouca reservoir. Wicklow is home to hydroelectric facilities; the Turlough Hill pumped-storage scheme, a significant civil engineering project, was carried out in the mountains in the 1960s and 1970s.
Wicklow called "The Garden of Ireland", has been a popular tourist destination for many years, due to its scenery, walking and climbing options, attractions including the ruins of the monastic city of Glendalough, Wicklow Gaol and water-based activities on reservoirs and the coast. The Wicklow Way is the oldest waymarked long-distance walking trail in Ireland; the popular annual mass participation bike ride Wicklow 200 has taken place in the county every year since 1982. County Wicklow was the last of the traditional counties of Ireland to be shired in 1606 from land part of counties Dublin and Carlow. Established as a distinct county, it was aimed at controlling local groups such as the O'Byrnes; the Military Road, stretching from Rathfarnham to Aghavannagh crosses the mountains, north to south, was built by the British Army to assist them in defeating the rebels still active in the Wicklow Mountains following the failed 1798 rebellion. It provided them with access to an area, a hotbed of Irish rebellion for centuries.
Several barracks to house the soldiers were built along the route and the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation was built alongside the remains of barracks there. Battalions of the Irish Army use firing ranges in County Wicklow for tactical exercises the largest one in the Glen of Imaal, used by the British Army prior to independence; the ancient monastery of Glendalough is located in County Wicklow. During the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland, local authorities surrendered without a fight. During the 1798 rebellion, some of the insurgents took refuge in the Wicklow Mountains, resulting in clashes between British troops and the troops commanded by General Joseph Holt near Aughrim and at Arklow; the boundaries of the county were extended in 1957 by the Local Government Act which "detached lands from the County of Dublin and from the jurisdiction and powers of the Council of the County of Dublin" near Bray and added them to the County of Wicklow. The local government authority is Wicklow County Council which returns 32 councillors from five municipal districts.
All of the previous Town Councils were abolished under a new Local Government Act at the 2014 Local Elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the entire county in included in the Wicklow constituency along with some eastern parts of County Carlow; the constituency returns five TDs to the Dáil. Mermaid, County Wicklow Arts Centre is based in Bray. Mermaid is the county's hub of artistic activity and creation, offering a programme in many art forms: visual arts, theatre productions, dance performances, arthouse cinema, comedy and a music programme. Two of the county's festivals take place in Arklow, the Arklow music Festival and the Arklow Seabreeze Festival; the county is a popular film-making location in Ireland. Bray is home to Ardmore Studios, where many of Ireland's best known feature films, including Rawhead Rex John Boorman's Excalibur and Zardoz, Jim Sheridan's Oscar-winning In the Name of the Father, several Neil Jordan films, have been shot; the BBC series Ballykissangel was filmed in County Wicklow.
Scenes from the movie P. S. I Love You were shot in the Wicklow Mountains National Park while several scenes from other movies, from Barry Lyndon to Haywire, have been filmed in the county. WicklowNews.net is a popular news website in the county and was established in 2010. The local radio station in Wicklow is East Coast F
Arklow is a town in County Wicklow on the east coast of Ireland, overlooked by Arklow Hill. It was founded by the Vikings in the ninth century. Arklow was the site of one of the bloodiest battles of the 1798 rebellion, its proximity to Dublin led to it becoming a commuter town with a population of 14,353 as of the 2016 census. Arklow is at the mouth of the longest river wholly within County Wicklow; the town is divided by the river, crossed by the Nineteen Arches Bridge, a stone arch bridge linking the southern or main part of the town with the northern part, called Ferrybank. The Nineteen Arches Bridge is the longest handmade stone bridge in Ireland and is considered a famous landmark; the plaque on the south end of the bridge is testimony to this. The town's English name derives from Arnkell's Lág, its Irish name, Inbhear Mór or An tInbhear Mór, means the large estuary. It is known in Irish as Inbhear Dé, from the River Avonmore's older name, Abhainn Dé, it was a major seafaring town, with both the shipping and fishing industries using the port, with shipbuilding being a major industry.
The town has a long history of industry. After the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, their leader Theobald Walter, ancestor of the Earls of Ormonde, was granted the town and castle of Arklow by King Henry II. In 1264 the Dominicans were granted a large tract of land, now known as Abbeylands, they built an abbey, which became known as the Priory of the True Cross or Holy Cross; some time after 1416, the Manor of Arklow came into the control of the MacMurrough Kings of Leinster after the death of the 4th Earl of Ormonde in 1452. In 1525, Muiris Kavanagh returned the manor and castle of Arklow and its lands to his nephew Piers Butler, the Earl of Ormonde. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, in September 1649, Oliver Cromwell arrived at Arklow on his way to Wexford and took the surrender of the town. In 1714, James Duke of Ormonde sold the Manor of Arklow to John Allen of County Dublin. In 1750, Allen's eldest granddaughter, Elizabeth Allen, married John Proby, raised to the peerage in 1752 as Baron Carysfort of County Wicklow and came into possession of the Arklow Estate.
On 9 June 1798, the town was the scene of one of the bloodiest battles of the 1798 rebellion when a large force of Wexford rebels attacked the town in an attempt to spread the rising to Dublin but were repulsed by the entrenched British forces with huge slaughter. There are eight primary schools located around the town, including one Gaelscoil. There are four secondary schools serving the town, which are St. Mary's College, St. Kevin's C. B. S. Glenart College and Gaelcholáiste na Mara; the M11 from Dublin to Rosslare bypasses Arklow between junctions 20 and 21. A 16.5 km upgrade to the N11 between Arklow and Rathnew began in April 2014 and was completed in July 2015. This connected the existing M11 Arklow Bypass with the existing M11 Rathnew/Ashford Bypass creating motorway from Dublin to Gorey; this project included the construction of a service area on the M11 Northbound, just north of Gorey, with direct access from the M11 Southbound via an overpass. Rail connections are provided by Iarnród Éireann along the Dublin-Rosslare railway line, including commuter and intercity services in and out of the capital.
There is a train to Dundalk available daily. Arklow railway station opened on 16 November 1863. Bus Éireann provides several routes including the 002, 005, 133 and 384 services. In addition, Wexford Bus operates night linking Arklow with Dublin Airport. In 1884, Charles Stewart Parnell rented Big Rock townland from his cousin William Proby, Earl of Carysfort, commenced quarrying. Parnell was a supporter of the Arklow harbour scheme; the Parnell quarries closed in the 1920s. In the early part of the 20th century, a large munitions factory, was established on the north side of the town; this factory employed several thousand workers during the First World War but closed shortly after it, all production being moved to South Africa. 17 workers were killed in an explosion at Kynoch in 1917. The town is famous for its pottery and for its shipbuilding industry. In the 1960s, a state-owned fertiliser factory, Nitrogen Éireann Teoranta Irish Fertiliser Industries, was established on the outskirts of the town.
This factory complex comprised a number of chemical plants and manufactured a range of fertilisers from basic raw materials. It was one of the first major chemical plants in Ireland and contributed to the present-day success of the Irish chemical industry, it closed in 2002. There is still a good industry base in Arklow, with Servier and Allergan still remaining, just two of the biggest manufacturers in Arklow. Allergan confirmed on 30 January 2008; this will take place over the next two years. In 2009, Elavon, a credit card processing company, purchased its business site at Arklow Business Park which signified a long-term commitment to the town; the former national sail training vessel Asgard II was built by John Son Ltd in Arklow. Another John Tyrrell & Son boat Gipsy Moth III was sailed to victory by Francis Chichester in the 1st Single-Handed Trans-Atlantic Race in 1960, his time of 40 and 1/2 days was 16 days faster than the previous record crossing. Recent times have seen large reductions in both fishing.
However the town retains its significance to shipping in Ireland as the headquarters of A
Duke of Sussex is a substantive title, one of several royal dukedoms, created twice in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It takes its name from the county of Sussex in England; the dukedom was first conferred on 24 November 1801 upon Prince Augustus Frederick, the sixth son of King George III. He was made Baron Arklow and Earl of Inverness at the same time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the title became extinct upon Prince Augustus Frederick's death in 1843. Although he was survived by a son and daughter by Lady Augusta Murray, their marriage had been annulled for lack of royal permission under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, rendering the children illegitimate under English law and unable to inherit titles from their father. Both children by the annulled marriage died childless, rendering the issue of their inheritance moot. In 2018, the title was recreated and granted to Prince Harry to mark the occasion of his wedding to Meghan Markle. Prince Harry was granted the subsidiary titles Earl of Dumbarton in Scotland and Baron Kilkeel in Northern Ireland at the same time.
A title associated with Sussex first appeared with the Kingdom of Sussex, an Anglo-Saxon kingdom, annexed by the Kingdom of Wessex about 827 and that became part of the Kingdom of England. In charters, Sussex's monarchs were sometimes referred to as ealdormen, or duces in Latin, sometimes translated as "dukes"; the title of Duke of Sussex was conferred upon Prince Augustus Frederick, the sixth son of King George III, on 24 November 1801. Prince Augustus Frederick purportedly married first Lady Augusta Murray at St George's Hanover Square Church, Westminster in 1793, second Lady Cecilia Gore at Great Cumberland Place, London, on 2 May 1831. Both "marriages" were in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Not being the Prince's legitimate wife, Lady Cecilia could not be received at court. On 30 March 1840, she was given the title of Duchess of Inverness in her own right by Queen Victoria. Since Augustus Frederick had no legitimate issue, his titles became extinct on his death in 1843. In 1999, before the wedding of Prince Edward, the youngest son of Elizabeth II, some had suggested the Dukedoms of Sussex or Cambridge as the most titles to be granted to him.
Instead, Prince Edward was created Earl of Wessex, it was announced that he would be created Duke of Edinburgh, a title held by his father, Prince Philip. There was again speculation that Prince William might be given the Sussex title on his wedding to Catherine Middleton in April 2011, but he was instead created Duke of Cambridge. On 19 May 2018 Prince Harry was created Duke of Sussex in England, Earl of Dumbarton in Scotland, Baron Kilkeel in Northern Ireland to mark the occasion of his wedding to Meghan Markle, who thereby became the first Duchess of Sussex. Earl of Sussex