The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to the Quasi-War. The name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats Hottinguer and Hauteval in documents released by the Adams administration. An American diplomatic commission was sent to France in July 1797 to negotiate a solution to problems that were threatening to break out into war; the diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin. Although such demands were not uncommon in mainland European diplomacy of the time, the Americans were offended by them, left France without engaging in formal negotiations. Gerry, seeking to avoid all-out war, remained for several months after the other two commissioners left.
His exchanges with Talleyrand laid groundwork for the eventual end to diplomatic and military hostilities. The failure of the commission caused a political firestorm in the United States when the commission's dispatches were published, it led to the undeclared Quasi-War. Federalists who controlled the government took advantage of the national anger to build up the nation's military, they attacked the Jeffersonian Republicans for their pro-French stance, Elbridge Gerry for what they saw as his role in the commission's failure. In the wake of the 1789 French Revolution, relations between the new French Republic and the American administration of President George Washington became strained. In 1792, France and the rest of Europe went to war, a conflict in which Washington declared American neutrality. However, both France and Great Britain, the major naval powers in the war, seized ships of neutral powers that traded with their enemies. With the Jay Treaty, ratified in 1795, the United States reached an agreement on the matter with Britain that angered members of the Directory that governed France.
The French Navy stepped up its efforts to interdict American trade with Britain. By the time John Adams assumed the presidency in early 1797, the matter was reaching crisis proportions. In March 1797, not long after assuming office, President Adams learned that Charles Cotesworth Pinckney had been refused as U. S. minister because of the escalating crisis, that American merchant ships had been seized in the Caribbean. Popular opinion in the United States on relations with France was divided along political lines: Federalists took a hard line, favoring a defensive buildup but not advocating war, while Republicans expressed solidarity with the Republican ideals of the French revolutionaries and did not want to be seen as cooperating with the Federalist Adams administration. Vice President Thomas Jefferson, who had lost the contentious 1796 election to Adams, looked at the Federalists as monarchists who were linked to Britain and therefore hostile to American values. In late May 1797 Adams' cabinet met to discuss French relations and to choose a special commission to France.
Adams proposed that John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry join Pinckney on the commission, but his cabinet objected to the choice of Gerry because he was not a strong Federalist. Francis Dana was chosen instead of Gerry, but he declined to serve, Adams, who considered Gerry one of the "two most impartial men in America", submitted his name to the United States Senate in Dana's stead without consulting his cabinet. Adams, in introducing the matter to Congress, made a somewhat belligerent speech in which he called for a vigorous defense of the nation's neutrality and expansion of the United States Navy, but stopped short of calling for war against France. Congress approved this choice of commissioners, Adams instructed them to negotiate similar terms to those, granted to Britain in the Jay Treaty; the commissioners were instructed to refuse loans, but to be flexible in the arrangement of payment terms for financial matters. Marshall left for Europe in mid-July to join Pinckney, with Gerry following a few weeks later.
The political divisions in the commission's makeup were reflected in their attitudes toward the negotiations: Marshall and Pinckney, both Federalists, distrusted the French, while Gerry was willing to be flexible and unhurried in dealing with them. The French Republic, established in 1792 at the height of the French Revolution, was by 1797 governed by a bicameral legislative assembly, with a five-member Directory acting as the national executive; the Directory was undergoing both internal power struggles and struggles with the Council of Five Hundred, the lower chamber of the legislature. Ministerial changes took place in the first half of 1797, including the selection in July of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand as foreign minister. Talleyrand, who had spent a few years in the United States, was concerned about the establishment of closer ties between the U. S. and Britain. The Directory not well-disposed to American interests, became notably more hostile to them in September 1797, when an internal coup propelled several anti-Americans into power.
These leaders, Talleyrand, viewed President Adams as hostile to their interests, but did not think that there was significant danger of war. In part based on advice imparted to French diplomats by Jefferson, Talleyrand decided to adopt a measured, slow pace to the negotiations; the American commission arrived in Paris
Redwood Library and Athenaeum
The Redwood Library and Athenaeum is a subscription library located at 50 Bellevue Avenue, Rhode Island. Founded in 1747, it is the oldest community library still occupying its original building in the United States; the original building was designed by Peter Harrison and completed in 1750, is a National Historic Landmark. 18th Century The original section of the building was constructed built between 1748 and 1750 by architect Peter Harrison. Only the Library Company of Philadelphia is older, founded in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin; the Redwood Library and Athenaeum predates the Charleston Library Society, New York Society Library, the Boston Athenaeum. It was the first classical public building built in America, designed in the manner of Italian Renaissance Architect Andrea Palladio, in the Georgian-Palladian style; the main facade facing Bellevue avenue is based upon a plate in Edward Hoppus' Andrea Palladio's Architecture published in 1735. The oldest section, today called the Harrison Room, still houses the majority of the original books that were purchased as a collection in London.
Occupying British troops looted numerous books prior to the Battle of Rhode Island during the American Revolution. Ezra Stiles was one of the most prominent librarians at the Library, the influential founder of Brown University and president of Yale University. 19th Century In 1833 the Library furthered its abilities as an institution, re established itself as The Company of the Redwood Library and Athenaeum. By 1858, membership and collection had grown so much as; this expansion, which became known as the Roderick Terry Reading Room was produced by George Snell of Boston. Within 10 years of the Reading Room being completed, architect Richard Morris Hunt was contacted to furnish another expansion for the library, his plans called for "an new and enlarged structure of stone and marble shall take the place of the existing wooden erections." Hunt's plans were rejected, although it is unclear whether, due to monetary restriction on the part of the Redwood Library, or their disapproval of what could be construed as Hunt's irreverence for Peter Harrison's architecture.
In 1875, plans did go forward to develop another expansion to the Library. The Rovensky Delivery Room was designed by famed architect George Champlin Mason. At the time, the collections were in closed stacks, when a book was requested, the librarian would retrieve it and bring it to the member in the delivery room. 20th Century In 1915, historian and architect Norman Isham restored the eighteenth century Harrison room to what he concluded was its original appearance. The Library's modern collection now includes more than 200,000 volumes as well as a museum collection of art and artifacts; the building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. List of National Historic Landmarks in Rhode Island National Register of Historic Places listings in Newport County, Rhode Island Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. RI-100, "Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport County, RI", 18 photos, 5 measured drawings, 19 data pages HABS No. RI-274, "Abraham Redwood Garden House, 50 Bellevue Road, Newport County, RI", 1 photo, supplemental material
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Hottinger first appears in the annals of the town of Zöllikon, near Zurich, in 1362. The town had joined the Swiss Confederation, was poised to become a thriving center for trade. In 1401, three members of the Hottinger family were named Burghers of the city, their names Hans and Rudolf – or, in their French variants, Jean and Rodolphe – have marked the family dynasty for over 500 years. During the 15th and 16th centuries, their descendants oversaw the canton's progressive transformation from a rural to a financial economy, taking an active role in the region's political and religious life all the way into the 18th century. Klaus Hottinger, was the first martyr of the Swiss Protestant movement, his grandson Sébastien Hottinger, was a deputy of the Zurich City Council. Hans-Heinrich Hottinger, Sébastien Hottinger's brother, produced for his part an illustrious line of mathematicians, physicists and theologians, among which Hans-Heinrich Hottinger, better known as Johann Heinrich Hottinger, a famous orientalist, historian and Dean of the University of Heidelberg.
Wolfgang Hottinger's son, Hans-Rudolf charted a new destiny for the Hottingers as clergymen. His son and grandson Hans-Rudolf became pastors. Zurich prospered during the second half of the 17th century with the end of the Thirty Year War, the Treaty of Westphalia, Switzerland's independence from the Holy Roman Empire proclaiming the Confederacy's neutrality. There is little surprise, that a branch of the Hottinger family would become involved in commerce and trade, it is from this branch. Johannes Hottinger was born in 1712, the sole surviving son among Hans-Rudolf and Verena Hottinger's five children; the year of Johannes's birth was marked by the end of the 2nd Battle of Villmergen, following which Zurich was able to capitalize on its position as a major European crossroads and trading center. Johannes's career would be further aided by the fact that his uncle, Christof Hottinger, was Deputy of the City Council for the powerful saffron corporation and Treasurer of the Grossmünster. In 1734, Johannes married the daughter of Johannès Cramer, a draper and Deputy of the City Council as representative of the saffron corporation.
The couple's three sons – Johann-Heinrich and Johann-Rudolf would all be raised from an early age with a keen appreciation for trade and business. All three would marry the daughters of well-established merchants, expanded their business by establishing relations with the Geneva banking house Passavant, de Candolle, Bertrand & Cie. Johann-Konrad, or Jean-Conrad in its French version, was Johann-Rudolf Hottinger's second son, the one who would definitively establish the family as a financial dynasty. Like many sons of wealthy Zurich families, he was sent to Mulhouse in 1779 for a traineeship with a cotton factory, but Jean-Conrad was less interested in cotton trading, silk printing or smelting than in impressing the economist M. Wolf, with whom he resided, with his aptitude for drawing and mathematics; as he became more and more interested in finance, Jean-Conrad answered the call of his uncle Johann Heinrich Hottinger to join him in Geneva in 1783. Home to many Protestant banking firms, Geneva was better suited to Jean-Conrad Hottinger’s aspirations.
Thanks to his uncle’s connections, Jean-Conrad was able to train as a banker with Passavant, de Candolle, Bertrand & Cie. Over the ensuing years, Jean-Conrad Hottinger would display a thirst for knowledge and a deepening interest in the issue of public debt, notably in France and Great Britain. Soon he expressed a desire to go to Paris, following in the footsteps of Jacques Necker, director-general of the French royal finances. Jean-Conrad Hottinger left for the French capital that same year with a letter of introduction by his former employees; this enabled him to start clerking for Le Couteulx & Cie, a reputable business, ennobled in the time of Louis XIV. Back in Zurich, a number of illustrious wealthy businessmen – among whom Jean Conrad and Salomon Escher, Martin Usteri, Jean Conrad Ott – gathered in early 1786 to discuss how to invest in Paris and which banks to contact. Jean Conrad Escher put forward the name of Hottinger, “the son of Jean Rodophe Hottinger and a young clerk in the service of Le Couteulx.”Arriving in Paris, Jean Conrad and Salomon Escher met with Denis de Rougemont de Chatellois, at the head of an old Parisian banking house, which, at the time, was experiencing credit problems.
The Eschers were therefore able to suggest a partnership with the person of their choice. They met with 23-year-old Jean-Conrad Hottinger, an immediate bond was forged between the three men. Within the short space of a meeting, Jean-Conrad went from banking clerk to bank owner. In September 1786, the creation of “Rougemont, Hottinger & Cie” was announced. A few months in early 1787, the new bank was listed in the Royal Almanac, with offices at Rue Croix des Petits-Champs, Hôtel de Beaupreaux; the bank expanded markedly within months, differences appeared between the two associates: “M. Hottinger intelligent and capable, aims to make a fortune. Soon thereafter, de Rougemont encountered problems that cause the bank's Swiss underwriters and Escher, to lose confidence in him. Arriving in Paris amidst social upheaval in 1788, they decide to break ranks with de Rougemont; the following month, however, a number of bankruptcies forced them to reconsider, matters were further complicated the following year by the Fre
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness; the word baron comes from a Late Latin barō "man. The scholar Isidore of Seville in the 7th century thought the word was from Greek βᾰρῠ́ς "heavy", but the word is of Old Frankish origin, cognate with Old English beorn meaning "warrior, nobleman". Cornutus in the first century reports a word barones which he took to be of Gaulish origin, he glosses it as meaning servos militum and explains it as meaning "stupid", by reference to classical Latin bārō "simpleton, dunce". During the Ancien Régime, French baronies were much like Scottish ones. Feudal landholders who possessed a barony were entitled to style themselves baron if they were nobles; these baronies could be sold until 1789 when feudal law was abolished. The title of baron was assumed as a titre de courtoisie by many nobles, whether members of the Nobles of the Robe or cadets of Nobles of the Sword who held no title in their own right. Emperor Napoléon created a new imperial nobility.
The titles could not be purchased. In 1815, King Louis XVIII created a new peerage system and a Chamber of Peers, based on the British model. Baron-peer was the lowest title, but the heirs to pre-1789 barons could remain barons, as could the elder sons of viscount-peers and younger sons of count-peers; this peerage system was abolished in 1848. In pre-republican Germany all the knightly families of the Holy Roman Empire were recognised as of baronial rank, although Ritter is the literal translation for "knight", persons who held that title enjoyed a distinct, but lower, rank in Germany's nobility than barons; the wife of a Freiherr is called a Freifrau or sometimes Baronin, his daughter Freiin or sometimes Baroness. Families which had always held this status were called Uradel, were heraldically entitled to a three pointed coronet. Families, ennobled at a definite point in time had seven points on their coronet; these families held their fief in vassalage from a suzerain. The holder of an allodial barony was thus called Freiherr.
Subsequently, sovereigns in Germany conferred the title of Freiherr as a rank in the nobility, without implication of allodial or feudal status. Since 1919, hereditary titles have had no legal status in Germany. In modern, republican Germany and Baron remain heritable only as part of the legal surname. In Austria, hereditary titles have been banned. Thus, a member of the reigning House of Habsburg or members of the former nobility would in most cases be addressed as Herr/Frau in an official/public surrounding, for instance in the media. Still, in both countries, honorary styles like "His/her Highness", "Serenity", etc. persists in social use as a form of courtesy. In Luxembourg and Liechtenstein, barons remain members of the recognized nobility, the sovereigns retain authority to confer the title Generally, all legitimate males of a German baronial family inherit the title Freiherr or Baron from birth, as all legitimate daughters inherit the title of Freiin or Baroness; as a result, German barons have been more numerous than those of such countries where primogeniture with respect to title inheritance prevails as France and the United Kingdom.
In Italy, barone was the lowest rank of feudal nobility except for that of vassallo. The title of baron was most introduced into southern Italy by the Normans during the 11th century. Whereas a barony might consist of two or more manors, by 1700 we see what were single manors erected into baronies, counties or marquisates. Since the early 1800s, when feudalism was abolished in the various Italian states, it has been granted as a simple hereditary title without any territorial designation or predicato; the untitled younger son of a baron is a nobile dei baroni and in informal usage might be called a baron, while certain baronies devolve to heirs male general. Since 1948 titles of nobility have not been recognised by the Italian state. In the absence of a nobiliary or heraldic authority in Italy there are, in fact, numerous persons who claim to be barons or counts without any basis for such claims. Baron and noble are hereditary titles and, as such, could only be created or recognised by the kings of Italy or the pre-unitary Italian states such as the Two Sicilies, Parma or Modena, or by the Holy See or the Republic of San Marino.
Beginning around 1800, a number of signori began to style themselves barone but in many cases this was not sanctioned by decree, while there was less justification in the holder of any large landed estate calling himself a baron. Both were common p
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh
Boissy-Saint-Léger is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 16.9 km from the center of Paris. Boissy-Saint-Léger is served by Boissy-Saint-Léger station on Paris RER line A; the station is the line's terminus. Public schools in the commune: 7 preschools 7 elementary schools Two junior high schools: Amédée Dunois and Blaise Cendrars Two senior high schools: Lycée Gillaume Budé and Lycée Christoph ColombePrivate schools: Lycée Bernard-Palissy École des Sacrés-Cœurs Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Boissy-Saint-Léger official website