Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
The Palliser Baronetcy, of The Vache in the County of Buckingham, was a title in the Baronetage of Great Britain. It was created on 6 August 1773 for the naval commander Admiral Hugh Palliser; the title became extinct on the death of the third Baronet in 1868. Sir Hugh Palliser, 1st Baronet. Admiral of the White, died unmarried on 19 March 1796; the Baronetcy passed to his great-nephew Hugh Palliser Walters. The estate of The Vache was inherited by Sir Hugh's illegitimate son George Thomas. Sir Hugh Palliser Palliser, 2nd Baronet. Born Hugh Palliser Walters on 27 October 1768 in Ross, County Wexford; the eldest son of George Robinson Walters and his wife Mary née Orfeur. He succeeded to the Baronetcy 19 March 1796 on the death of his great-uncle, he assumed by Royal Licence dated 18 January 1798 the surname and arms of Palliser, he married Mary Yates daughter of John Yates of Dedham, Essex on 18 January 1790 in Queen Square Chapel Bath. They had four children: Hugh Palliser Walters Mary Anne Rachel Palliser.
Mary Jane Palliser. Married firstly William Lockhart, Captain Bengal Native Infantry, on 16 April 1822 in Walcott Bath, married secondly John Manly Arbuthnot Keane the 3rd Baron Keane on 11 May 1848 in St George's Hanover Square London. Fanny Palliser, Born in Valenciennes, France, 24 June 1809 when her father was prisoner. Married firstly to Jean-Baptiste Museur, married secondly to Philippe Jacques Sowaal. Died in Brussels 18 March 1859, she was the grand-mother of Blanche Georgiana Vulliamy. Sir Hugh, 2nd Baronet, died on 17 November 1813 in Troyes France, he was succeeded by his only son Hugh Palliser Palliser. Sir Hugh Palliser Palliser, 3rd Baronet. Born 8 May 1796 Greenwich, Kent baptised Hugh Palliser Walters 17 June 1796 in Kent. Succeeded to the Baronetcy 17 November 1813 upon the death of his father the second baronet. Died unmarried 3 August 1868 in Castletown Carne, County Wexford, when the Baronetcy became extinct. Sir Hugh Palliser, 1st Baronet, died unmarried on 19 March 1796; the estate of The Vache was inherited by Sir Hugh's illegitimate son George Thomas.
George Thomas the natural son of Sir Hugh Palliser, assumed the name Palliser in 1796. In 1826 George Palliser together with his eldest son George Hugh Palliser sold The Vache to Thomas Allen of Newlands in Chalfont St. Peter, he married Ann Parminter on 21 November 1791, they had twelve children:George Hugh Thomas. Was a Captain in the Royal Marines, he married Mary White Westropp daughter of Colonel Westropp on 22 April 1829 at Plymouth. They had a son: George Hugh Palliser. Henry Thomas Major General Royal Artillery, his Royal Artillery regimental number was 1523 and he was 16 years 8 months old when commissioned as Ensign on 4 June 1810, he was promoted to Lieutenant on 18 February 1814, Captain on 27 September 1832, Major 9 November 1846, Colonel 28 November 1854. He served in the Peninsula and France, from November 1812 to May 1814, including the siege of San Sebastian, battles of Vitoria and Toulouse, for which he received the Silver War Medal with four Clasps. Served subsequently in the American war, including the battles of Bladensburg and Baltimore, the capture of Washington, operations before New Orleans.
He was with the army of occupation in France from June 1815 to November 1818,and present at the capture of Paris. There was a memorial monument to him at Hartlepool Headland, he married Caroline Hardinge, children included: Fanny Ann Palliser Charles Henry Palliser Major General Bengal Staff Corps. He was educated at Addiscombe and entered the army in 1847, he was wounded on the Derajat frontier 1853, he was involved in the Indian mutiny with Renaud’s force from Allahabad to Cawnpur, with General Havelock’s force. Commanded the Irregular Cavalry at Fatehpur, at the Alambagh and the first relief of Lucknow where he defended the residency until the second relief by Sir Colin Campbell, he was at the Alambagh under Sir James Outram from November 1857 to March 1858. He was with Hodson's Horse, he commanded the 10th Bengal Cavalry in Abyssinia. He was in the Afghan war 1879-80 and was with Sir Donald Stewart’s force to Kandahar and commanded the Cavalry Brigade at Ahmad Kheyl and Urzoo, he married Harriet Bertha Cotton in 1871 in Kensington London George Hugh Palliser Caroline Palliser Mary Palliser Emily Louisa Georgiana Palliser Henry John Palliser John Costobadie Palliser Ann Palliser Caroline Palliser married Fortesque Graham in 1828 Elizabeth Palliser married John Henry Stewart Sarah Palliser Anthony Palliser Georgiana Palliser Louisa Palliser Robert Warren Palliser Mary Palliser married Edward William Churchill on 1 May 1
The Keane Baronetcy, of Belmont in the County of Waterford, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 1 August 1801 for John Keane, Member of Parliament for Youghal from 1801 to 1806 and from 1808 to 1818, he had earlier represented Bangor in the Irish House of Commons. The second Baronet was Whig Member of Parliament for County Waterford between 1832 and 1835; the third Baronet served as High Sheriff of County Waterford in 1856 and the fourth Baronet in 1881. The fifth Baronet was Governor of the Bank of Ireland; the sixth Baronet, Sir Richard Keane, excelled in the military and worked in 1930s as a diplomatic correspondent for The Times newspaper. Sir Richard Keane was partly responsible for bringing the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem to Ireland in 1962 and was a Knight of St. Lazarus; as of 2014 the title is held by his son, the seventh Baronet, who succeeded in 2010. This is the same baronetcy sometimes known as Keane of Cappoquin in Waterford.
The second son of the first baronet, Gen. John Keane, was raised to the peerage as Baron Keane of Ghuznee and Cappoquin for his capture of the city during the First Afghan War; the family seat is Cappoquin House, near County Waterford. Sir John Keane, 1st Baronet Sir Richard Keane, 2nd Baronet Sir John Henry Keane, 3rd Baronet Sir Richard Francis Keane, 4th Baronet Sir John Keane, 5th Baronet Sir Richard Michael Keane, 6th Baronet Sir Charles Keane, 7th Baronet Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets
Cappoquin spelt Cappaquin or Capaquin, is a town in west County Waterford, Ireland. It is on the Blackwater river at the junction of the N72 national secondary road and the R669 regional road, it is positioned on a sharp 90-degree bend in the river and nestles at the foot of the Knockmealdown Mountains. It is the birthplace of the poet Thomas McCarthy. Cappoquin is the birthplace of Michael Cavanagh, a prominent poet, writer and Fenian, involved in the attack on the constabulary barracks in Cappoquin, soon after which he went to America with fellow rebels, where he and fondly wrote and spoke of Cappoquin and its inhabitants. Popular local pursuits include Gaelic games and fishing. In the 1980s at Lefanta, just south of the town, 7,000-year-old artifacts were discovered, which evidence some of Ireland's earliest inhabitants. Today the town features include coarse angling and the Glenshelane woodland walk. Rowing is a popular sport on the river; the town is only a few miles from Mount Melleray and Lismore, County Waterford.
Within the towns centre, employment is provided by a variety of shops and businesses typical of a rural Irish town, with businesses like Kelleher's supervalue, Feerick's pharmacy, the post office and Cappoquin credit union. Some of the largest individual local employers are located on the Cappoquin industrial estate, located a half mile into adjoining Lefanta. Businesses located here include Pat Denn feeds, Calmark Ireland, FBA laboratories Ltd, Glenside woodside design and Paul Flynn hardware, among others. Being surrounded by fertile fields on all sides and agriculture plays an important role in the town, providing employment on farms and orchards scattered around the area. Near Cappoquin is West Waterford Vineyards, an Irish wine producer; the Local economy has suffered over the years with lack of a brain drain. Cappoquin has lost both local banks as well as local small shops, local pub and local secondary school; as a result a number of buildings within the town have become dilapidated. Affane Cappoquin GAA is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Cappoquin, County Waterford, Ireland.
The club was formed in 1969 with the merging of Affane GAA and Cappoquin GAA. At present, the team is called Cappoquin when playing hurling and Affane when playing Gaelic football, its finest hour in football came in 1974 when, having beaten Stradbally in the quarter-final and The Nire in the semi-final, Affane defeated Dunhill by 1-8 to 0-6 to win its only Waterford Senior Football Championship title. Affane went on to represent Waterford in the Munster Senior Club Football Championship, losing to Austin Stacks of Kerry; as Cappoquin, the club has reached one Waterford Senior Hurling Championship final, losing to Mount Sion in 1956. Cappoquin rowing Club is the town's oldest sporting and social organisation, a club with an illustrious history and proud tradition, was founded in 1862 by James M. Moore and John Stanley, assisted by Sir John H. Keane who became the first president of the rowing club, his presidency was invested with significant rowing pedigree as he had captained the Trinity Boat at Cambridge three decades and rowed for Cambridge in 1936 when they defeated Oxford.
In the 1880s Cappoquin joined with other rowing clubs nationwide to establish the Irish Amateur Rowing Association. This early attempt at forming a national association was to prove provisional however, in 1899 the Irish Amateur Rowing Union was founded; the club continues and found much success nationally and internationally through with the success of both Milo and Patrick Murray during the 1990s and 2000s period. The club continues to nurture new talent. Railway Athletic FC is situated at Danes Field, Cappoquin. Cappoquin Market House is a three bay two storey house used as a shop; the town has suffered with the decline in the local economy and the loss of both Cappoquin pork and bacon as well as Cappoquin chickens as well as local shops and secondary school. A number of buildings in the town square have become dilapidated. Cappoquin House overlooks the town; the House is surrounded by notable formal gardens and landscaped grounds which are open to the public. Since December 2015 significant improvements to the frequency of the Local Link bus service are in effect.
There are now four services a day each way Mondays to Saturdays inclusive to Dungarvan including a commuter service. Connections to Waterford and Rosslare Europort can be made at Dungarvan. In the other direction there are four services to and from Tallow via Lismore. Connections for Fermoy can be made at Tallow. On Saturdays a local bus company operate a service to Cork. On Sundays Bus Éireann route 366 provides one service to Waterford; this route only comprises a single journey in one direction. Cappoquin railway station opened on 12 August 1878, but closed on 27 March 1967, it was located on the now dismantled Waterford to Mallow line and served by the Cork to Rosslare boat train. The construction of the railway bridge below the river bend was to result in tall-masted schooners being no longer able to pass under what was now known as the'red bridge'; as compensation for this, a new'steamers' quay' was constructed just down river. The station is still extant. Cappoquin is twinned with Chanat-la-Mouteyre Locals believe that a Fairy Ring or Faery Ring is situated by the Ringfort in the woods of Fadduaga.
List of towns in the Republic of Ireland Market Houses in the Republic of Ireland Cappoquin'a window on the past' published by Cappoquin Heritage Group in 2007, printed by Modern Printers, Kilke
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Brookwood Cemetery known as the London Necropolis, is a burial ground in Brookwood, England. It is one of the largest in Europe; the cemetery is listed a Grade I site in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Brookwood Cemetery was conceived by the London Necropolis Company in 1849 to house London's deceased, at a time when the capital was finding it difficult to accommodate its increasing population, of living and dead; the cemetery is said to have been landscaped by architect William Tite. In 1854, Brookwood was the largest cemetery in the world, its initial owner incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1852, Brookwood Cemetery was consecrated by Charles Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, on 7 November 1854 and opened to the public on 13 November 1854 when its first burials took place. Brookwood was accessible by rail from a special station – the London Necropolis railway station – next to Waterloo station in Central London. Trains had passenger carriages reserved for different classes and other carriages for coffins, ran into the cemetery on a dedicated branch from the adjoining South Western Main Line – there was a junction just to the west of Brookwood station.
From there and coffins were transported by horse-drawn vehicles. The original London Necropolis station was relocated in 1902 but its successor was demolished after suffering bomb damage during World War II. There were South for Anglicans, their platforms still exist along the path called Railway Avenue. For visitors wishing to use the South Western Main Line, Brookwood station has provided direct access since June 1864. A short piece of commemorative track, with signpost and plaque, purposefully gives way to a grass field and recollects the old final stage of the journey of the deceased; the LNC offered three classes of funerals: A first class funeral allowed buyers to select the grave site of their choice anywhere in the cemetery. The LNC charged extra for burials in some designated special sites. At the time of opening prices began at £2 10s for a basic 9-by-4-foot with no special coffin specifications, it was expected by the LNC that those using first class graves would erect a permanent memorial of some kind in due course following the funeral.
Second class funerals allowed some control over the burial location. The right to erect a permanent memorial cost an additional 10 shillings. Third class funerals were reserved for pauper funerals. Although the LNC was forbidden from using mass graves and thus the lowest class of funeral provided a separate grave for the deceased, third class funerals were not granted the right to erect a permanent memorial on the site. Despite this, Brookwood's pauper graves granted more dignity to the deceased than did other graveyards and cemeteries of the period, all of which other than Brookwood continued the practice of mass graves for the poor. Brookwood was one of the few cemeteries to permit burials on Sundays, which made it a popular choice with the poor as it allowed people to attend funerals without the need to take a day off work; as theatrical performances were banned on Sundays at this time, it made Brookwood a popular choice for the burial of actors for the same reason, to the extent that actors were provided with a dedicated section of the cemetery near the station entrance.
While the majority of burials conducted by the LNC were pauper funerals on behalf of London parishes, the LNC reached agreement with a number of societies, religious bodies and similar organisations. The LNC provided dedicated sections of the cemetery for these groups, on the basis that those who had lived or worked together in life could remain together after death. Although the LNC was never able to gain the domination of London's funeral industry for which its founders had hoped, it was successful at targeting specialist groups of artisans and trades, to the extent that it became nicknamed "the Westminster Abbey of the middle classes". A large number of these dedicated plots were established, ranging from Chelsea Pensioners and the Ancient Order of Foresters to the Corps of Commissionaires and the LSWR; the Nonconformist cemetery includes a Parsee burial ground established in 1862, which as of 2011 remained the only Zoroastrian burial ground in Europe. Dedicated sections in the Anglican cemetery were reserved for burials from those parishes which had made burial arrangements with the LNC.
The first burial was of the stillborn twins of a Mrs Hore of Ewer Street, Southwark Borough. The Hore twins, along with the other burials on the first day, were pauper funerals and buried in unmarked graves; the first burial at Brookwood with a permanent memorial was that of Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Goldfinch, buried on 25 November 1854, the 26th person to be buried in the cemetery. The first permanent memorial erected in the Nonconformist section of the cemetery was that of Charles Milligan Hogg, son of botanist Robert Hogg, buried on 12 December 1854. Goldfinch and Hogg's graves are not the oldest monuments in the cemetery, as on occasion gravestones were relocat