The captain of a cricket team referred to as the skipper, is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is experienced and has good communication skills, is to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, shrewdness in the field, may contribute to the team's success. Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports. Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails.
The captain who wins the toss bowl first. The decision depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast; the decision depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test Cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets in the match. A side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen; the captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, the captain's assessment of the state of the match; the captain decides. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen.
The captain may change the bowlers around to introduce variation, to prevent the batsmen getting "set". In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are looking to take risks to attack and score quickly. In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it; when the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is'out of form'.
If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play the specialist batsman will have been protected, will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat; the captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat. In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides; the captain is consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match the captain may refuse.
As well as decisions taken either before or during a match, captains often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, for how long. In professional cricket the captain has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, may decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, how members of the squad who are not selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice. Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches; the captain may be assisted in some instances joint vice-captains. This is useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding; some teams allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, dis
Governor-General of Australia
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is shared with the 15 other Commonwealth realms, resides in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out constitutional duties within the Commonwealth of Australia; the governor-general has formal presidency over the Federal Executive Council and is commander-in-chief of the Australian Defence Force. The functions of the governor-general include appointing ministers and ambassadors. In general, the governor-general observes the conventions of the Westminster system and responsible government, maintaining a political neutrality, has always acted only on the advice of the prime minister or other ministers or, in certain cases, parliament; the governor-general has a ceremonial role: hosting events at either of the two official residences—Government House in the capital and Admiralty House in Sydney—and travelling throughout Australia to open conferences, attend services and commemorations, provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities.
When travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of Australia, the Queen of Australia. The governor-general is supported by a staff headed by the official secretary to the governor-general. A governor-general is not appointed for a specific term, but is expected to serve for five years subject to a possible short extension. Since 28 March 2014, the Governor-General has been General Sir Peter Cosgrove. From Federation in 1901 until 1965, 11 out of the 15 governors-general were British aristocrats. Since all but one of the governors-general have been Australian-born. Only one Governor-General, Dame Quentin Bryce, has been a woman. On 16 December 2018 it was announced that General Sir Peter Cosgrove would be replaced with General David Hurley the Governor of New South Wales. To provide continuity through general elections both federally and in New South Wales, Hurley would succeed Cosgrove, who had planned to retire in March 2019, on 28 June 2019; the selection of a Governor-General is a responsibility for the Prime Minister of Australia, who may consult with staff or colleagues, or with the monarch.
The candidate is approached to confirm whether they are willing to accept the appointment. Having agreed to the appointment, the monarch permits it to be publicly announced in advance several months before the end of the current Governor-General's term. During these months, the person is referred to as the Governor-General-designate; the actual appointment is made by the monarch. After receiving his or her commission, the Governor-General takes an Oath of Allegiance to the Australian monarch, an Oath of Office, undertaking to serve Australia's monarch "according to law, in the office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia", issues a proclamation assuming office; the oaths are taken in a ceremony on the floor of the Senate and are administered by the Chief Justice of Australia in the presence of the Prime Minister of Australia, the Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, the President of the Australian Senate. In 1919, Prime Minister Billy Hughes sent a memorandum to the Colonial Office in which he requested "a real and effective voice in the selection of the King's representative".
He further proposed that the Dominions be able to nominate their own candidates and that "the field of selection should not exclude citizens of the Dominion itself". The memorandum met with strong opposition within the Colonial Office and was dismissed by Lord Milner, the Colonial Secretary; the following year, as Ronald Munro Ferguson's term was about to expire, Hughes cabled the Colonial Office and asked that the appointment be made in accordance with the memorandum. To mollify Hughes, Milner offered him a choice between three candidates. After consulting his cabinet he chose 1st Baron Forster. In 1925, under Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, the same practice was followed for the appointment of Forster's successor Lord Stonehaven, with the Australian government publicly stating that his name "had been submitted, with others, to the Commonwealth ministry, who had selected him"; the Prime Minister now advises the monarch to appoint their nominee. This has been the procedure since November 1930, when James Scullin's proposed appointment of Sir Isaac Isaacs was fiercely opposed by the British government.
This was not because of any lack of regard for Isaacs but because the British government considered that the choice of Governors-General was, since the 1926 Imperial Conference, a matter for the monarch's decision alone. Scullin was insistent that the monarch must act on the relevant prime minister's direct advice. Scullin cited the precedents of the Prime Minister of South Africa, J
Baron Wynford, of Wynford Eagle in the County of Dorset, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1829 for the lawyer Sir William Best, he served as Chief Justice of the Common Pleas from 1824 to 1829. His eldest son, the second Baron, represented Mitchell in the House of Commons from 1831 to 1832, when the constituency was abolished. On the death of his younger son, the fourth Baron, this line of the family failed; the late Baron was succeeded by the fifth Baron. He was the son of third son of the first Baron; as of 2010 the title is held by his great-grandson, the ninth Baron, who succeeded his father in 2002. William Draper Best, 1st Baron Wynford William Samuel Best, 2nd Baron Wynford William Draper Mortimer Best, 3rd Baron Wynford Henry Molyneux Best, 4th Baron Wynford George Best, 5th Baron Wynford Philip George Best, 6th Baron Wynford Samuel John Best, 7th Baron Wynford Robert Samuel Best, 8th Baron Wynford John Philip Robert Best, 9th Baron Wynford The heir apparent is the present holder's only son the Hon. Harry Robert Francis Best Kidd, Williamson, David.
Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Lionel Tennyson, 3rd Baron Tennyson
Lionel Hallam Tennyson, 3rd Baron Tennyson was known principally as a first-class cricketer who captained Hampshire and England. The grandson of the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, he succeeded his father to the title in 1928, having been known before that as "The Hon Lionel Tennyson", he should not be confused with his uncle, after whom he was named, "The Hon Lionel Tennyson". As a schoolboy at Eton College, Tennyson was a fast bowler, but by the time he took up regular first-class cricket with Hampshire in 1913, he bowled rarely, he was a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1914. During World War I he served with The Rifle Brigade in France, he was three times wounded. Tennyson played nine Test matches for England, five of them on the tour of South Africa under Johnny Douglas in 1913/14. In 1921, England having lost six Test matches in succession to the Australians under Warwick Armstrong, Tennyson was recalled to the side for the second Test at Lord's, though the game was again lost, he scored an undefeated 74 in the second innings against Jack Gregory and Ted McDonald at their fastest.
That innings led him to be appointed captain for the three remaining matches of the series, succeeding Douglas. The next game was lost. At Headingley in the first of these three games as captain, Tennyson split his hand while fielding in the Australians' first innings but, patched up with what Wisden called a "basket guard", he made 63 and 36, he led several non-Test match tours overseas, to South Africa and the West Indies. Tennyson was captain of Hampshire from 1919 to 1932, he was in charge of the side in the remarkable match against Warwickshire in 1922, when Hampshire were bowled out for 15 runs in their first innings and, having been forced to follow on scored 521 in the second innings and won the match by 155 runs. In 1933 he published his autobiography, From Verse to Worse. Returning from his second war-wound to the Western Front he records: "I have never liked travelling light and so, though the amount of kit I arrived with may, in fact have aroused a certain amount of astonishment, I was forgiven by my commanding officer as well as by everyone else, when they found out that it included, among other things, a case of champagne."
He published a second volume of memoirs, Sticky Wickets, in 1950. He was appointed Honorary Colonel of 51st Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery on 9 August 1931 and held the position until 1947, he married Clare Tennant in 1918. They had three sons before they divorced in 1928, he was married to Carroll Elting from 1934 until their divorce in 1943. Cricinfo page on Lionel Tennyson From Verse To Worse by Lionel Tennyson
Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt
Sir Eustace Henry William Tennyson d'Eyncourt, 1st Baronet, KCB, FRS was a British naval architect and engineer. As Director of Naval Construction for the Royal Navy, 1912–1924, he was responsible for the design and construction of some of the most famous British warships, he was chairman of the Landship Committee at the Admiralty, responsible for the design and production of the first military tanks to be used in warfare. D'Eyncourt was born in April 1868 at Hadley House, Hertfordshire, he was the sixth child of his wife Sophia Yates. Through his father, he was a cousin of Lord Tennyson, he was educated at Charterhouse before becoming an apprentice in naval architecture at the shipyard of Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. in Elswick. By 1898, he was employed as a naval architect in Glasgow. There he met a widow whom he married that same year, she had two children from her first marriage and Gwyneth. Janet Tennyson d'Eyncourt died in 1909 when accompanying her husband on a business trip to Buenos Aires.
D'Eyncourt received a number of awards and honours: in 1921, he was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society, in 1930, he was created a baronet, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in 1946. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son Gervais; the writer Adam Nicolson is Eustace d'Eyncourt's great grandson. As an apprentice at Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. D'Eyncourt worked on the design of warships for the Austrian, Norwegian, Spanish and Turkish governments, he joined the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan in 1898, before returning to Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. in 1902. In 1904, he undertook consultancy work on the state of the Turkish navy which earned him the Order of the Medjidie, Third Class. In 1912, d'Eyncourt was appointed director of naval construction with the Royal Navy, he pioneered new forms of ship construction. On 20 February 1915, First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill asked him to be Chairman of the Landship Committee, a group of Royal Naval Air Service officers and engineers assembled to design a vehicle capable of crossing No Man's Land and suppressing the enemy machine guns that had caused heavy casualties in the first six months of the First World War.
The machine, developed was given the name "tank". D'Eyncourt resigned from the Admiralty in 1924 and rejoined his former company, Whitworth & Co. However, the firm failed in the late 1920s owing to the building slump following the end of the war. In 1928, d'Eyncourt joined the board of Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company until he retired in 1948, he lived for most of his retirement in Hailsham, but died in London in 1951. He is buried in Brookwood Cemetery. In his battlecruisers, "large light cruisers" and the Hawkins-class cruisers, d'Eyncourt evolved a novel hull form: in cross-section the hull was an isosceles trapezoid, with the ship's sides sloping inboard at an angle of 10 degrees from the vertical, while outboard of this, external bulges extended over the full length of the machinery spaces; the result was a hull structure of great strength, the sloping sides increased the possible spread of impact of shells, thus giving greater resistance to penetration. The aesthetic side of naval architecture has been given much attention, though it is as much of an art as the architecture of buildings.
D'Eyncourt was not the principal designer of the vessels listed below, but had ultimate responsibility for them. Brazilian battleship HMS Agincourt Turkish battleship HMS Erin Chilean battleships Almirante Latorre HMS Canada and Almirante Cochrane HMS Eagle Revenge-class battleship Renown-class battlecruiser HMS Hood battlecruiser Several large capital ship designs, both battleships and battlecruisers, rendered inadmissible under the Washington Naval Treaty HMS Nelson battleship GRC Katsonis HMS Chester Arethusa class C class Caroline class Calliope class HMS Champion Cambrian class Centaur class Caledon class Ceres class Carlisle class Hawkins-class large cruisers Danae-class cruisers HMS Danae HMS Dragon HMS Diomede HMS Enterprise ) HMS Kent HMS Courageous HMS Furious R and S-class destroyers V and W-class destroyers Scott-class flotilla leaders J class K class Monitors, Patrol boats, Sloops, Gunboats for China Station, Merchant ship conversions into seaplane carrier D'Eyncourt was chairman of the Landship Committee, created by Winston Churchill, which oversaw the design and production of Britain's first military tanks during World War 1.
D'Eyncourt summarized his World War I work in an article "Naval Construction During the War", published in Engineering, 11 April 1919, pp. 482–490. He published an autobiography entitled A Shipbuilder's Yarn. Churchill, Winston; the World Crisis. 1992. ISBN 0-684-19453-8. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets D'Eyncourt. A Shipbuilder's Yarn.
The Regency in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent. On the death of George III in 1820, the Prince Regent became George IV; the term Regency can refer to various stretches of time. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of the reign of George III and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, fashions and culture, it ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria succeeded William IV. The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture; this era encompassed a time of great social and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally, as well as politics. Despite the bloodshed and warfare, the Regency was a period of great refinement and cultural achievement and altering the societal structure of Britain as a whole.
One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself. Upper-class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of refinement; as one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture. This required dipping into the treasury and the Regent, the King's exuberance outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense. Society was considerably stratified. In many ways, there was a dark side to the fashion in England at this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London, womanising, the existence of rookeries, constant drinking ran rampant; the population boom—the population increased from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820—created a wild, roiling and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed: The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle.
Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one; this change was influenced by the Regent himself, kept removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father. Driving these changes was not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but significant technological advancements. In 1814, The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand; this development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals.
The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something out of reach yet tangibly there. 1811 George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era began the formal Regency; the Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent held a fete at 9:00 p.m. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot. 1812 Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrived in England. Sarah Siddons retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States; the British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. Gas company founded. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812.
1813 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen was published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry started her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey became Poet Laureate. 1814 Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris, ended one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon was exiled to Elba; the Duke of Wellington was honoured at Burlington House in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair was held, the last time the river froze. Gas lighting introduced in London streets. 1815 Napoleon I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena; the English Corn Laws restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted. 1816 Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein. William Cobbett published his newspaper as a pamphlet.
The British returned Indonesia to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, phase one of c
Baron Ellenborough, of Ellenborough in the County of Cumberland, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1802 for the lawyer and politician Sir Edward Law, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench from 1802 to 1818, his son, the second Baron, notably served as Governor-General of India. In 1844 the second Baron was created Viscount Southam, of Southam in the County of Gloucester, Earl of Ellenborough, in the County of Cumberland; these titles were in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. His only son predeceased him and on his death in 1871 the viscountcy and earldom became extinct. However, he was succeeded in the barony by the third Baron, he was the son of the Hon. Charles Law, Member of Parliament for Cambridge University, second son of the first Baron. In 1885 he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Towry. On the death of his son, the fourth Baron, this line of the family failed, he was succeeded by the fifth Baron. When he died the title passed to his younger brother, the sixth Baron.
As of 2016 the title is held by the latter's great-grandson, the ninth Baron, who succeeded his father in 2013. The family seat is near Leicestershire. Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough Edward Law, 2nd Baron Ellenborough Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough Charles Edmund Towry-Law, 3rd Baron Ellenborough Charles Towry Hamilton Towry-Law, 4th Baron Ellenborough Edward Downes Law, 5th Baron Ellenborough Cecil Henry Law, 6th Baron Ellenborough Henry Astell Law, 7th Baron Ellenborough Richard Edward Cecil Law, 8th Baron Ellenborough Rupert Edward Henry Law, 9th Baron Ellenborough The heir apparent is the present holder's son, the Hon. James Rupert Thomas Law. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages