Dudley Marjoribanks, 3rd Baron Tweedmouth
Lieutenant-Colonel Dudley Churchill Marjoribanks, 3rd Baron Tweedmouth, CMG, MVO, DSO was a British army officer and courtier. Marjoribanks was the son of Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth and Lady Fanny Spencer-Churchill, daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, he succeeded his father as the 3rd Baron Tweedmouth and is thus descended from Joseph Marjoribanks, a wine and fish merchant in Edinburgh who died in 1635. Joseph Marjoribanks is thought to have been the grandson of Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho, head of the lowland Clan Marjoribanks, he was a pupil at Harrow School and joined the Royal Horse Guards in 1895. He was promoted to lieutenant in 1897 and served with a composite regiment of the Household Cavalry in the Second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa from 1899-1902, he was present at the Relief of Kimberly and several other battles in Orange Free State, the Transvaal Colony and the Cape Colony. He was Mentioned in dispatches, was awarded the Queen's South Africa Medal with six clasps and was appointed a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order on 29 November 1900.
In early 1901 he was asked by the new King Edward VII to take part in a special diplomatic mission to announce the King´s accession to the governments of France and Portugal. The following year, he was appointed a Member of the Royal Victorian Order. In September 1902, Marjoribanks accompanied Lord Roberts, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, St John Brodrick, Secretary of State for War, on a visit to Germany to attend the German army maneuvers as guest of the Emperor Wilhelm. During the visit he was created a Knight 2nd class of the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle, he was promoted to the rank of captain in 1904 and from 1905-1908 he was appointed Military Secretary to the High Commissioner in South Africa. In 1908 he was promoted to Major and was Director of Army Accounts and Quarter Master General for the West Lancashire Division from 1908-1910. In the First World War he served with the Royal Horse Guards from 1914-1918 and was involved in the early battles. On 25 October 1914,'Beef' as he was known was shot in the leg when trying to carry out a regimental action.
"I had to get into Hugh Grosvenor's trench. Got out presently and shot my horse with my revolver and saved all my kit. We were lucky considering the fire we came in for." At the end of the war he served with the Guards Machine Gun Regiment from 1918-1919. During the war he was promoted to Lieutenant-colonel and created a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George. After succeeding as Lord Tweedmouth, he was Lord-in-waiting to King Edward VII and King George V, he was said to be an excellent shot - having spent much time at his father's Glen Affric Shooting Estate - and had an amiable personality but had financial difficulties throughout his life. Lord Tweedmouth married, at St George's, Hanover Square, London on 30 November 1901, Lady Muriel Brodrick, eldest daughter of St John Brodrick, 1st Earl of Midleton and Lady Hilda Charteris, they had two daughters and Millicent Joan and the title Baron Tweedmouth became extinct on his death
Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth
Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth, was a moderate British Liberal Party statesman who sat in the House of Commons from 1880 until 1894 when he inherited his peerage and sat in the House of Lords. He served in various capacities in the Liberal governments of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tweedmouth was the son of Dudley Marjoribanks, 1st Baron Tweedmouth, Isabella, daughter of Sir James Hogg, 1st Baronet. Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, was his sister, he is descended from Joseph Marjoribanks, a wine and fish merchant in Edinburgh who died in 1635 and is thought to have been the grandson of Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho, head of the lowland Clan Marjoribanks. Tweedmouth was returned to Parliament for Berwickshire in 1880, a seat he held until 1894, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Comptroller of the Household in between February and July 1886 and was sworn of the Privy Council the same year. When the Liberals returned to power under Gladstone in 1892, he was made Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury.
He succeeded his father in the barony in March 1894, only a few days before Gladstone resigned and Lord Rosebery became Prime Minister. Rosebery appointed Tweedmouth Lord Privy Seal, with a seat in the cabinet, in May 1894 he became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, he retained these posts until the government fell in 1895. After ten years in opposition, the Liberals again came to power in December 1905 under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who appointed Tweedmouth First Lord of the Admiralty, with a seat in the cabinet. In early 1908 he was criticised for corresponding with German emperor William II on the British naval programme; the matter was referred to the House of Commons. Chancellor of the Exchequer H. H. Asquith stated that the correspondence was "a purely personal and private communication, conceived in an friendly spirit" and no action was taken. However, when Asquith succeeded Campbell-Bannerman as Prime Minister in April 1908 Tweedmouth was removed as head of the Admiralty and became Lord President of the Council.
He suffered a nervous breakdown in June 1908, a condition, said to explain his indiscretion in communicating with the German Emperor on naval matters. Although his health recovered, he resigned in October 1908, he was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1908. An advocate of worker’s rights and social legislation, Tweedmouth was supportive of the Liberal Party’s alliance with the Labour Party in the lead-up to the 1906 General Election, believing that the Liberals could not win without it, regarded as “humbug” the view that such an alliance meant class legislation, he died on 15 September 1909. Lord Tweedmouth married Lady Fanny Octavia Louise, daughter of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough and aunt of Sir Winston Churchill, in 1873, she died from cancer in August 1904, aged 51 "at Lord Tweedmouth's Glen Affric shooting lodge". They had heir. Lord Tweedmouth's parliamentary career saw him reported as being the Laird of Guisachan and Glenaffric who was, on occasions, "in a fighting mood".
Following Lady Tweedmouth's death, Lord Tweedmouth sold the Lairdship of Glen Affric, the property including the Guisachan Estate and deer park that his family had owned since the 1850s. He was reported as being a "generous laird", like his father, "did much for the people" of his estate. Lord Tweedmouth survived his wife by five years and died in September 1909, aged 60, he was succeeded in the barony by Dudley. From 1883 until 1896, he was an owner of and investor in Rocking Chair Ranche located in the Collingsworth County, Texas along with his father Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks, 1st Baron Tweedmouth and his brother-in-law John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair. Secondary sourcesMosley, Charles, ed.. Burke's Baronetage. London: The Boydell Press. "Marjoribanks, Edward". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth Portraits of Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth at the National Portrait Gallery, London Photograph of Lord Tweedmouth at vandaprints.com
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair
Ishbel Maria Hamilton-Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, GBE was a Scottish author, an advocate of woman's interests. As the wife of John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, she was viceregal consort of Canada from 1893 to 1898 and of Ireland from 1906-1915. Born in London, Marjoribanks was the third daughter of the 1st Baron Tweedmouth and Isabella Weir-Hogg, she received a well-rounded education in English, mathematics and geography, was such a good student that her teacher recommended she attend college. However, Lady Aberdeen’s father shared the held opinion that university was no place for a woman. Instead, her education continued at home at her parents’ social events, where she met the famous politicians of the day; this experience helped prepare her for a lifetime of political involvement. After a six-year acquaintance, she married John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, the 7th Earl of Aberdeen, on 7 November 1877 in St. George's Church, St. George Street, Hanover Square, London.
The couple had four surviving children: George, Marjorie and Archibald. Lord Aberdeen was a Liberal and a member of the House of Lords, Lady Aberdeen supported him by hosting social events. An intelligent and determined woman, she soon established her own political life as an activist; because of political obligations, the family divided their time between London and their Scottish estate in Aberdeenshire. They called their home Haddo House, it was here that Lady Aberdeen began her involvement with social reforms, she organized a Household Club that held classes for servants to learn singing, carving and other activities. The Aberdeens attended their servants’ evening socials and meetings, in London society it was rumoured that they had dined together, they funded a local school and hospital – healthcare was a cause that Lady Aberdeen supported throughout her life. Lady Aberdeen’s influence extended beyond her country estate, she established the Onwards and Upward Association, which provided servant girls with postal courses on topics ranging from geography to literature to domestic science.
This program spread from Aberdeenshire to include thousands of servants. In 1883 she became the first president of the Ladies’ Union of Aberdeen, an organization that focused on the well-being of young women living in cities. An Emigration Committee chose suitable women and sponsored them to move to the colonies Canada. Lady Aberdeen was the head of the Women’s Liberal Federation, which advocated for women’s suffrage. In 1893, Lord Aberdeen was appointed the Governor General of Canada, a post he would occupy until 1898; the Aberdeens were no strangers to the country. On that same visit they crossed the prairies, Lady Aberdeen was struck by the difficult and isolated lifestyle of pioneers, she subsequently founded the Aberdeen Association for Distribution of Good Literature to Settlers in the West, which sent settlers packages of books and magazines. Lady Aberdeen was dedicated to her role as Governor General’s wife, she hosted many popular social events, such as winter festivals and costume balls, was more politically involved than her predecessors.
She travelled extensively, collecting information for her husband. She offered him advice, in fact newspapers commented that it appeared she held the power in their relationship. In 1893, the year she arrived in Canada, Lady Aberdeen was named the first president of the International Council of Women, an organization that campaigns for women’s rights, she organized the National Council of Women of Canada and traveled the country establishing local branches. One of the activists she worked with was Adelaide Hoodless, who went on to found the Women's Institute. Lady Aberdeen was the first sponsor of the Women's Art Association of Canada, founded in 1892, yet another of her endeavours was the May Court Club, an association that enabled well-off young women to do charitable work. A key organization that she helped establish is the Victorian Order of Nurses, which aimed to give women better training and a higher salary so they could provide services to rural and disadvantaged populations. Lady Aberdeen and the group’s supporters had to overcome resistance from the medical community before receiving the organization’s royal charter in 1898.
That same year and Lady Aberdeen returned to England. Lord Aberdeen belonged to the Liberal Party, when it regained power in parliament in 1906 he was named the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for the second time, he had been Lord Lieutenant, or viceroy, for six months in 1886. During that time, Lady Aberdeen had promoted Irish crafts and became chairman of the Association of Irish Industries, their second term in Ireland lasted from 1906 to 1915, this time she focused on healthcare and social well-being. Lady Aberdeen was involved with medical organizations like the Women’s National Health Association of Ireland that were dedicated to treating and preventing tuberculosis and improving children’s health, her name lives on in Lady Ishbel Avenue, part of the former Purdysburn Fever Hospital site in south Belfast. In 1911 she served as the first president of the Housing and Town Planning Association of Ireland, advocating for better housing and public spaces to address the prevalent poverty. Lady Aberdeen's Cottages in Mullingar are named after her.
Although she had b
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.