Nangar National Park
Nangar is a national park in located New South Wales, Australia, 252 kilometres west of Sydney. The park is located in the Nangar-Murga Range between Canowindra, it features Nangar Mountain, which rises to 778 metres AHD . Trees consist of eucalyptus, scribbly gum and ironbark. Shrubs include spider flowers, thyme spurge, nodding blue waxlip orchids. Birds recorded include wrens, falcons, peregrine falcons and glossy black cockatoos. Eastern grey kangaroos and grey and swamp wallabies are common; the park was established in 1983 when 1,550 hectares of bushland were declared a national park. "Dripping Rock" was added to the park in 1988 and, in 1994, the Nangar State Forest was added to the park to expand its size to 9,196 hectares. "Dripping Rock" was a grazing property established in 1928 and named after a local seasonal waterfall. The original "Dripping Rock" homestead was converted to a shearing shed and a new homestead, built in 1935, was destroyed by a bushfire in September 2009. Protected areas of New South Wales Page on NPWS official site
Dorrigo National Park
Dorrigo National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 580 kilometres north of Sydney on Dome Road off the Waterfall Way, 5 kilometres east of the town of Dorrigo. The park is part of the New England Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007; the area protected by the park is recognised for its exceptional natural beauty with significant habitats of outstanding value to science and conservation. The Rainforest Centre is a major CERRA interpretation centre; the interactive display, The Rainforest Revealed, explains how the rainforest evolved and gives insights into the animal and plant species that live there. Several tracks in the park allow hikers to view the park's waterfalls and vistas to the coastal plain. A notable feature of the park is the Skywalk, an elevated walkway through and above the treetops, providing birdwatchers with an excellent view of local bird life. Protected areas of New South Wales Official website
Goobang National Park
Goobang is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 296 kilometres northwest of Sydney. It protects the largest remnant forest and woodland in the central west region of the state, where interior and coastal New South Wales flora and fauna species overlap. Named Herveys Range by John Oxley in 1817, the area was reserved in 1897 as state forest because of its importance as a timber resource, was designated a national park in 1995; the park contains a camping ground and a hiking trail, Burrabadine Peak Walking Track, a 3.6 km round trip moderate hike. Goobang National Park is in a temperate to semi-arid zone experiencing hot summers and cool winters with temperatures ranging from 4 to 15 °C in winter and 17 to 32 °C in summer; the heaviest rain fall is in the summer and can range from 645 millimetres on the east side of the ranges to 564 millimetres west of the ranges. There are 459 species recorded in several that are threatened. Tylophora linearis is listed as vulnerable according to the TCS ACT 1995 and endangered according to the EPBC ACT 1999.
Eriostemon ericifolius is vulnerable based on TCS ACT 1995 and Astrotricha linearis only known record west of the Great Dividing Range. Pomaderris queeslandica endangered TSC ACT 1995 and Philotheca ericifoia vulnerable EPBC ACT 1999. There are 135 ecological communities in the South West Slope bioregion, most are considered poorly protected. There are 11 ecological communities in the park; these include red stringybark woodland found on siliceous hillslopes of the Hervey Range. Red stringybark, long leaved box black cypress pine, hummock grass, shrubby low woodland found on siliceous volcanic and sedimentary ranges. Red ironbark in association with black cypress shrubby woodland found on shallow sandy soils derived from sandstone. Red ironbark, red stringybark tumbledown gum heathland found on siliceous ridges and scribbly gum dominated open forest in association with black cypress pine and red ironbark. A further four communities that are protected in Goobang are considered to be of significance.
Mugga ironbark, black cypress, red stringybark, Blakely's red gum and red ironbark woodland which are found on hillslopes and in valleys on the ranges. Buloke and white cypress pine. Riparian Blakely's red gum, apple box, yellow box and inland grey box, with shrub and grass tall open forest in valleys. White box, with black cypress and red gum shrubby woodlands in the hills. Fires are an intrinsic feature of the Australian bush, to ensure continual biodiversity prescribed burns are carried out at the appropriate times within the park. Wildfires at Goobang have occurred due to dry lightning strikes in the hot summer months. There have been 52 wildfires recorded since 1942. There are 31 species of reptiles, 14 species of frogs and 31 species of mammals recorded in the park including echidnas, kangaroos and bats as well as exotics such as rabbits, foxes, goats and dogs. Threatened species include carpet python, Sloane's froglet, brush tailed rock wallaby, grey-headed flying-fox, yellow-bellied sheathtail bat, Corben's long eared bat (Nyetophilus corbeni and New Holland mouse Rabbits pose a threat to the survival of tree seedlings competition with native herbivores.
Weeds such as blackberry are significant as far as causing havoc within the natural environment forming large thickets blocking creeks suppressing native ground covers and providing a hiding spot for feral animals such as rabbits. Exotic grasses and weeds have replaced native undergrowth in most of the scattered white box communities. Grazing in and around remnant woodlands. Clearing of native vegetation that might act as connective corridors between the park and any other patchy native landscapes. Species that require specialized niches and or cannot disperse and colonize suitable habitat will be affected if this current
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Bongil Bongil National Park
Bongil Bongil National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 427 km northeast of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales List of reduplicated Australian place names
High Conservation Value Old Growth forest
The High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is a heritage-listed forest located across twelve local government areas in the Northern Rivers, Mid North Coast, New England regions of New South Wales, Australia. The conservation area is known as Old Growth Forest. Broadly speaking, the conservation area forms part of the much larger Gondwana Rainforests, a UNESCO World Heritage site totalling more than 366,000 hectares; the conservation area is owned by the NSW Department of Primary Industries and the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, both agencies of the Government of New South Wales. The conservation area was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 22 December 2000; the heritage area comprises all those parts, pieces or parcels of land containing HCVOG forest within national parks and nature reserves and state forests in the Upper North East Region as described below: depicted in the Geographic Information System theme in ESRI grid format called "hcovog1_prtctd" in the sub-directory called "Protected_HCVOG" on the CD-ROM, lodged with Department of Urban Affairs and Planning and having the volume label "991221_1516".
The Upper North East Region is the area as described in section 1.4 of the Forest Agreement for the Upper North East Region, New South Wales Government, 5 March 1999. The heritage-listed conservation area is contained within the Armidale Region, Byron, Clarence Valley, Coffs Harbour, Glen Innes Severn, Lismore, Mid-Coast, Richmond Valley and Tweed local government areas. National parksThe following twenty-four national parks form part of the heritage-listed conservation forest area:Bald Rock National Park, Barool National Park, Basket Swamp National Park, Boonoo Boonoo National Park, Border Ranges National Park, Bundjalung National Park, Butterleaf National Park, Capoompeta National Park, Chaelundi National Park, Guy Fawkes River National Park, Gibraltar Range National Park, Indwarra National Park, Maryland National Park, Mebbin National Park, Mount Jerusalem National Park, Mount Nothofagus National Park, Nightcap National Park, Nymboi-Binderay National Park, Nymboida National Park, Richmond Range National Park, Warra National Park, Washpool National Park, Wollumbin National Park, Yuraygir National Park.
Nature reservesThe following nineteen nature reserves form part of the heritage-listed conservation forest area:Burnt Down Scrub Nature Reserve, Chambigne Nature Reserve, Cudgen Nature Reserve, Limpinwood Nature Reserve, Moore Park Nature Reserve, Mount Hyland Nature Reserve, Mucklewee Mountain Nature Reserve, Tabbiemoble Swamp Nature Reserve, Toonumber Nature Reserve, Woodford Island Nature Reserve, Captains Creek Nature Reserve, Couchy Creek Nature Reserve, Demon Nature Reserve, Mann River Nature Reserve, Morro Creek Nature Reserve, Mount-Neville Nature Reserve, Sherwood Nature Reserve, Tallawudjah Nature Reserve, Uralba Nature Reserve. As at 22 September 2017, High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is ecologically mature eucalypt forest showing few signs of human disturbance; the upper canopy trees are no longer growing in height or spreading their crowns and show signs of old age. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest represents the best examples remaining of such forests. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 22 December 2000 having satisfied the following criteria.
The place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is important for its potential to demonstrate the history of their use and exploitation, as well as key sites demonstrating evidence of Aboriginal occupation over a long time period; the place is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in New South Wales. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest are by the nature of their tall trees areas of high aesthetic values which are valued and sought after by the community; the place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is important for its potential to contribute to our understanding of the life cycle of eucalypt forests; the place possesses uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales.
High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is a forest type, now rare or uncommon at a regional and statewide basis. They provide a valuable habitat for a wide range of native animal species including a number of rare and endangered species. Gondwana Rainforests Protected areas of New South Wales Forests of Australia List of World Heritage Sites in Australia Rainforest Way "NSW Government Gazette No 103, Page 5612 of 22 September 2017". 2017. National Parks. "Visitor Information for part of High Conservation Value Old Growth Forest". NSW Government. Forest Agreement for the Upper North East Region; this Wikipedia article was based on High Conservation Value Old Growth forest, entry number 01487 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register publ
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund