Kapunda is a town on the Light River and near the Barossa Valley in South Australia. It was established after a discovery in 1842 of significant copper deposits; the southern entrance to the town has been dominated since 1988 by the 8-metre-tall statue of Map Kernow, a traditional Cornish miner. The statue was destroyed by a fire on the morning of 1 June 2006 but has since been rebuilt by its creator, Ben van Zetten. Francis Dutton and Charles Bagot, who both ran sheep in the area, discovered copper ore outcrops in 1842, they purchased 80 acres around the outcrop. Mining began with the removal of surface ore and had progressed to underground mining by the end of the year. Copper was mined until 1879. There are quarries near the town which provide fine marble ranging from dark blue to white. Marble from the Kapunda quarries was used to face Parliament House in Adelaide, the pedestal of the statue of Venus on North Terrace, Adelaide is made of Sicilian and Kapunda marble. Ore was exported to Swansea, but Welsh smelters migrated to South Australia and the ore was smelted locally by 1851.
The miners were Cornish, labourers were Irish and smelter specialists were Welsh. Trade and agriculture were Scottish and English. German farmers and timber cutters at nearby Bethel had been in the area. Underground mining became more difficult. A steam engine to drive a water pump was installed in 1847, replaced by a larger one in 1851. In 1865, the mine was leased to a Scottish company which switched to open cut mining methods and replaced the smelters with a different treatment method. Copper prices fell in 1877 and the mine closed in 1879. Mining operations ground to a halt in 1851 with the impact of the Victorian gold rush, restarted in 1855. A railway from Adelaide was opened in 1860, extended to Eudunda and Morgan in 1878. Kapunda had a strong Catholic community and Saint Mary MacKillop visited and established a convent there. St John's Reformatory for Girls operated from 1897 to 1909. Kapunda is famous as the home of Sir Sidney Kidman, he was a major cattle pastoralist who at one time owned 68 properties with a total area larger than the British Isles.
He held annual horse sales at Kapunda with up to 3,000 horses sold during the week. His house, was donated to the Education Department, is still used as the administration building for Kapunda High School; the town has the unfortunate honour of being titled the most haunted town in Australia after a television documentary focused on the town. Most locals were not amused, however it has led to an increase in the number of tourists that visit the area. Owing to this, the ruins of the Reformatory, located outside the town, were bulldozed, although some locals still believe in the ghost stories popular in town; the town is close to the historical Anlaby Station and the manor, houses and other buildings on the property, many of which are being restored by its current owners. Kapunda was home to several notable manufacturers of farm and mining machinery: Robert Cameron, Joseph Mellors, James Rowe and Adamson Brothers, it was with this last-named company that T. J. Richards, the founder of one of Australia's largest coach-building firms, started his career.
Today, Kapunda is a producer of cereal crops wheat and oats. Value-added services carried out by local industry include hay processing. Kapunda is a contributor to the wine-growing industry centred in the nearby Barossa Valley. Kapunda has hosted the Kapunda Celtic Music Festival since 1976. Kapunda was home to several newspapers; the Kapunda Herald was printed in the town until 1951, when it was merged with the Barossa News to become the Barossa and Light Herald. Another publication, the Farmers' Weekly Messenger was printed in Kapunda by Ebenezer Ward. Within a month, in May 1874, it absorbed another Ward newspaper, Northern Guardian, which itself was a continuation of the Guardian and Northern and North-eastern Advertiser and the short-lived Gumeracha Guardian and North-eastern Advertiser. Kapunda is in the state electoral district of Stuart, the federal Division of Wakefield, the centre of the Light Regional Council. Ellen Ida Benham, educationist Vivian Bullwinkel, Australian Army nurse, P.
O. W. Albert Hawke, Premier of Western Australia Rosanne Hawke, Author Alice Rosman, writer Sidney Kidman, Pastoralist Drew, G. J.. Discovering historic Kapunda, South Australia. Adelaide: Department of Mines and Energy, Kapunda tourism committee. ISBN 0-7243-4277-X. Drew, G. J.: Captain Bagot's Mine: Kapunda Mine, 1844–1916. Published by the author. ISBN 9780646969497 Charlton, Rob: The History of Kapunda Published by the District Council of Kapunda. ISBN 0-7256-0039-X Media related to Kapunda, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons
State Library of South Australia
The State Library of South Australia, located on North Terrace, Adelaide, is the official library of the Australian state of South Australia. It is the largest public research library in the state with a collection focus on South Australian information, general reference material for information and research purposes, it holds the "South Australiana" collection, which documents South Australia from pre-European settlement to the present day. Reference material comes in a wide range of formats from digital and electronic to film, sound recordings, photographic and microfiche. Library collections must be used on site. Customers can gain access to a large array of journals and other resources from the comfort of their own home by registering for Home Access; the State Library of South Australia: provides information and referral services for the community collects and give access to the state's documentary heritage, enhances the cultural life of the state through public programs and other lifelong learning opportunities, supports public libraries, co-operates with other agencies to enhance economic and social benefits of the state.
The origins of the State Library of South Australia are found in the South Australian Institute, established in 1856. This consolidated the work of the Mechanics Institute, founded in 1847 which had merged with the South Australian Library in 1848 creating the "Mechanics' Institute and South Australian Library", based in Peacock's Buildings, Hindley Street; however it was subsequently moved to Exchange Chambers, King William Street, by 1855 had gone into decline. The South Australian Legislative Council passed Act No. 16 which incorporated the South Australian Institute, to whose ownership the old library was transferred. This act ensured the library would be open to the public free of charge and grant funding was allocated to it; this made the library popular amongst artisans and workmen who filled it to capacity in the evenings. As new books arrived from Britain the library was expanded and soon needed new accommodation, found in North Terrace in 1860; the building now known as the Mortlock Wing was opened on 18 December 1884 as a "Public Library and Art Gallery for the colony of South Australia" with 23,000 books and a staff of three.
It had taken over 18 years to complete after the initial foundations were laid in 1866. The foundation stone was laid on 7 November 1879 by Sir William Jervois and the building was constructed by Brown and Thompson at a total cost of £43,897, opened in 1884. Supervision for the Board of Directors was undertaken by secretary Robert Kay general director and secretary of the Public Library and Art Gallery of South Australia; the building is French Renaissance in style with a mansard roof. The walls are constructed of brick with Sydney freestone facings with decorations in the darker shade of Manoora stone; the interior has two galleries, the first supported by masonry columns, the second by cast iron brackets. The balconies feature wrought iron balustrading ornamented with gold while the glass-domed roof allows the chamber to be lit with natural light. Two of the original gas "sunburner" lamps survive in the office space located on the second floor at the southern end. Restoration of the building occurred in 1985 as a Jubilee 150 project by Danvers Architects, consultant architect to the South Australian Department of Housing and Construction.
The $1.5 million project was jointly funded by the community. In honour of a substantial bequest from John Andrew Tennant Mortlock, the Libraries Board of South Australia resolved that a percentage of the South Australiana Collections would be housed in the wing and named the Mortlock Library of South Australiana in 1986. After the State Library underwent a substantial redevelopment, commencing in 2001 and reaching completion in 2004, the main chamber of the Mortlock Wing became an exhibition space providing a glimpse into the history and culture of South Australia. In August 2014 the Mortlock Wing featured in a list of the top 20 most beautiful libraries of the world, compiled by the U. S. magazine Travel + Leisure. The general reference and research material in the State Library was named the Bray Reference Library in 1987 after former SA Chief Justice, Dr John Jefferson Bray, who served on the Libraries Board of South Australia from 1944 to 1987; the State Library has a national responsibility to collect and give access to historical and contemporary South Australian information.
The South Australiana collections document South Australia from pre-white settlement to the present day, the Northern Territory to 1911. The South Australiana collection is one of the most comprehensive in the world due to legal deposit requirements for published material, through donations of unpublished material. A well known donation is the Bradman Collection of cricketing memorabilia; the York Gate Library was acquired from the estate of Stephen William Silver, of S. W. Silver and Co. a London based company who not only sold clothing and equipment suitable for emigrants to the British Colonies, but a series books providing relevant information for such emigrants. William had started to collect objects and books related to the areas to which their custom
David James (Australian politician)
David James was an Australian politician who represented the South Australian House of Assembly multi-member seat of Wooroora from 1902 to 1918 for the Australasian National League and the Liberal Union. Hundred of James
Port Augusta is a small city in South Australia. A seaport, it is now a road traffic and railway junction city located on the east coast of the Spencer Gulf south of the gulf's head and about 322 kilometres north of the state capital, Adelaide; the suburb of Port Augusta West is located on the west side of the gulf on the Eyre Peninsula. Other major industries included, up until the mid-2010s, electricity generation. At June 2015, the estimated urban population was 14,214; the city consists of an urban area extending along the Augusta and Eyre Highways from the coastal plain on the west side of the Flinders Ranges in the east across Spencer Gulf to Eyre Peninsula in the west. The urban area consists of the suburbs, from east to west, of Port Augusta and Davenport, Port Augusta West on the Eyre Peninsula, it is a natural harbour, proclaimed on 24 May 1852 by Alexander Elder and John Grainger, having discovered it while aboard the Government schooner Yatala, captained by Edward Dowsett. The port was named after Augusta Sophia, Lady Young, the wife of the Governor of South Australia, Sir Henry Edward Fox Young.
Lady Young was the daughter of Charles Marryat Snr., a slaveholder in the British West Indies. According to the 2011 Census, the population of the Port Augusta census area was 13,504 people, making it the second largest urban area after Whyalla on the Eyre Peninsula. 50.2% of the population were female, 85.2% are Australian born, over 88.6% of residents are Australian citizens and 17.3% were Aboriginal. The most popular industries for employment were Technicians and Trades Workers and Personal Service Workers and Clerical and Administrative Workers, while the unemployment rate is 7%; the median weekly household income is A$789 or more compared with $924 in Adelaide. 17.4% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while a higher 26.2% identify with no religion at all. Spencer Gulf is a natural barrier to land transport, so Port Augusta has become the "crossroads of Australia", it is at the junction of major rail links. Port Augusta is the eastern end of the Eyre Highway to Perth, it is the northern end of the Augusta Highway to Adelaide.
It is the southern end of the Stuart Highway to Darwin. All traffic across southern Australia passes through Port Augusta. In 1878, the town became the southern terminus of a proposed North South transcontinental line, headed for Darwin 2,500 km away; this 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge railway was taken over by the Commonwealth in 1910 and renamed the Central Australia Railway. In 1929, it was extended to its last terminus at Alice Springs. Between 1913 and 1917, a 2,000 km long east–west transcontinental railway was built from Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; this was built to standard gauge as part of a long term plan to harmonise gauges between the mainland states, causing a break-of-gauge at Port Augusta until the standard gauge track was extended to Port Pirie in 1937. The standard gauge Adelaide-Darwin railway was completed in 2003. Port Augusta is a stop on the Indian Pacific transcontinental train service on the Sydney–Perth railway and on The Ghan service between Adelaide, Alice Springs and Darwin.
One service a week for each train in each direction serve the station. In the 1990s, the narrow gauge line between Port Augusta and Quorn was re-opened as the Pichi Richi Heritage Railway. Port Augusta is served by Port Augusta Airport. Sharp Airlines used to connect the city to Adelaide twice daily, however this service ceased to operate on the 31st of May 2017. Port Augusta has a hot desert climate, however some authors is defined as semi-arid steppe climate. In terms of vegetation the same is given as desert, although counterintuitivamente the city maintains with governmental aid with some plants adapted to aridity. Considered desert by the city hall. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are damp with mild days and cool nights. A record high temperature of 49.5°C was recorded on 24 January 2019. Electricity was generated at the Playford B and Northern power stations from brown coal mined at Leigh Creek, 250 km to the north; the only coal-fired electricity generating plants in South Australia, in 2009 they produced 33% of the state's electricity, but over 50% of the state's CO2 emissions from electricity generation.
Playford B has not been operational since 2012. In October 2015, Alinta Energy announced the permanent closure of both Northern and Playford B in early 2016, following which the Northern Power Station went offline on 9 May 2016. In 2016, a local community group was lobbying for assistance to replace the coal-fired plants with a solar thermal power station; the premier of South Australia, Jay Weatherill announced on 14 August 2017 that construction would commence in 2018 and was expected to be completed in 2020. The Aurora Solar Thermal Power Project is expected to cost A$650M to build, including a A$110M loan from the Federal Government, deliver 150MW of electricity. SolarReserve has a contract to supply all of the electricity required by the state government's offices from this power project. Separately, Sundrop Farms has a combined solar power tower and desalination plant, used to produce tomatoes near the old power station site, it opened in October 2016 and produces 39MW of thermal energy from over 23 000 mirrors and a 127 metres tower, used for heating and desalination to irrigate tomatoes in greenhouses.
Sundrop has a 10-year contract to supply Coles Supermarkets with at least 15,000 tonnes of truss tomatoes per year. Port Aug
Port Broughton, South Australia
Port Broughton is a small South Australian town located at the northern extent of the Yorke Peninsula on the east coast of Spencer Gulf. It is situated about 170 km north-west of Adelaide, 56 km south of Port Pirie. At the 2011 census, the town of Port Broughton had a population of 1,034; the close proximity to Adelaide makes it a popular tourist destination, with the number of people in town swelling to over 4000 in the summer holidays. The land around Port Broughton was used for grazing, however the local conditions were unsuitable and the land was divided up into acre lots and sold. Port Broughton was surveyed in 1871 to service the surrounding wheat and barley growers on the recommendation of Captain Henry Dale, it is on a sheltered inlet called Mundoora Arm Inlet at the extreme northern end of Yorke Peninsula. The town is named after the Broughton River, the mouth of, about 40 kilometres north of the township. Built in 1876, the'T'-shaped jetty was serviced by an isolated 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge railway line from Mundoora, 16 km inland and uphill.
The Port Broughton railway line opened on 11 March 1876, brought the grain down to the port. Horses were used to tow the empty wagons uphill, but they were sent downhill powered only by gravity, with a driver to operate the brakes; the passenger service ceased on 17 September 1925. During January, 1926, a Fordson rail tractor displaced the animal power. From 1931, the railways contracted out the service to a private operator; the service ceased altogether on 3 August 1942, but the tractor continued to shunt wheat wagons between the station yard and the jetty until moved elsewhere. Ketches carried the grain from the jetty 8 kilometres out into the gulf where the larger windjammers were anchored to carry the grain back to England; the windjammers ceased to call in 1949. Locomotives were proposed in 1906. In June 1943, Edward Gage, an electrical fitter who worked for BHP in Whyalla, was killed after his Tiger Moth plane ran out of fuel and crash landed in Spencer Gulf, he was last seen flying over enroute to Whyalla from Parafield.
A coronial inquiry followed but neither his remains nor that of the plane were found. In January 1990, Goolwa man Ron Anchor arranged a search party to find the wreck. Lying on the eastern side of Spencer Gulf, Port Broughton's coastline is protected, resulting in large expanses of shallow water and seagrasses, tidal flats and vast areas of mangroves that flank the inlet on which the town is built; the small town of Fisherman Bay lies 5 km north of Port Broughton and has much the same coastal features. Between the mouth of Fisherman Bay and Port Broughton lies Shag Island, an important breeding site for several species of cormorant; the Broughton River lies further north toward Port Pirie. Further inland, most of the land is featureless farming country, with only fragments of the original vegetation remaining. Port Broughton was home to a short lived newspaper published by William John George and James Sisely. Called Port Broughton Echo, it was printed by the Northern Argus in Clare, it was renamed to Broughton Echo, but soon ceased publication in July 1888.
Since its establishment, Port Broughton's economy has been driven agriculture, in particular cereal crops. Commercial fishing is an important part of the economy, with scalefish and Blue Swimmer Crabs accounting for much of the catch; as of 2010 Port Broughton supports a prawning fleet. Like many towns on the Yorke Peninsula, Port Broughton is a prime tourist destination, with activities such as fishing, crabbing and a variety of watersports being popular; the town has a boat ramp for such activities. The town has a number of units, as well as a motel. Nearby Fisherman's Bay has many shacks belonging to holiday-makers, as well as its own small boat ramp; the recorded population the township of Port Broughton at the time of the 2011 census was 982. The majority of the population were Australian born, with the majority of immigrants coming from the United Kingdom; the census found that over half the population of Port Broughton is over 55, with the median age being 61, suggesting the town is popular with retirees.
Christianity is the dominant religion in the region, is well serviced by a number of churches. The town has a number of sporting clubs including Cricket and Netball clubs, an Australian rules football club playing in the Northern Areas Football Association as the Broughton-Mundoora Eagles. Port Broughton Area School and Port Broughton District Hospital & Health Service provide the towns educational and medical needs Phil Cummings. Author George Hewett. AFL player Port Broughton is the seat of the District Council of Barunga West; the mayor is Cynthia Axford. It is in the federal Division of Grey. Yorke Peninsula website Postcards feature on Port Broughton
Port Pirie is the sixth most populous city in South Australia after Adelaide, Mount Gambier, Murray Bridge and Port Lincoln. It is a seaport on the east coast of 223 km north of Adelaide. At June 2015 Port Pirie had an estimated urban population of 14,247; the settlement was founded in 1845 and is the site of the world's largest lead smelter, operated by Nyrstar. It produces refined silver, zinc and gold. Prior to European settlement, the location that became Port Pirie was occupied by the indigenous tribe of Nukunu; the location was called'Tarparrie', suspected to mean "Muddy Creek". The first European to see the location was Matthew Flinders in 1802 as he explored the Spencer Gulf by boat; the first land discovery by settlers of the location was by the explorer Edward Eyre who explored regions around Port Augusta. John Horrocks discovered a pass through the Flinders Ranges to the coast, now named Horrocks Pass; the town was called Samuel's Creek after the discovery of Muddy Creek by Samuel Germein.
In 1846, Port Pirie Creek was named by Governor Robe after the John Pirie, the first vessel to navigate the creek when transporting sheep from Bowman's Run near Crystal Brook. In 1848, Matthew Smith and Emanuel Solomon bought 85 acres and subdivided it as a township to be known as Port Pirie. Little development occurred on site and by the late 1860s there were only three woolsheds on the riverfront; the government town was surveyed in December 1871 by Charles Hope Harris. The thoroughfares and streets were named after the family of George Goyder, Surveyor General of South Australia, with the streets running parallel and at right angles to the river. In 1873 the land of Solomon and Smith was named Solomontown. On 28 September 1876, Port Pirie was declared a municipality, with a population of 947. With the discovery of rich silver-, lead- and zinc-bearing ore at Broken Hill in 1883, the completion of a narrow gauge railway from Port Pirie to close to the Broken Hill field in 1888, the economic activities of the town shifted.
In 1889 a lead smelter was built by the British Blocks company to treat Broken Hill ore. Broken Hill Proprietary leased the smelter from British Blocks and began constructing their own smelter from 1892. In 1915 the smelter was taken over by a major joint venture of Broken Hill-based companies, Broken Hill Associated Smelters. Led by the Collins House Group, BHAS became the biggest lead smelter in the world by 1934; the smelter passed to Pasminco Zinifex, is now operated by Nyrstar. By 1921 the town's population had grown to 9801 living in 2308 occupied dwellings. By this date there were 62 boarding houses to cater for the labour demands at the smelter and on the busy waterfront. Port Pirie was declared South Australia's first provincial city in 1953, today it is South Australia's second largest port, it is characterised by some interesting and unusual historic buildings. Port Pirie has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Alexander Street: Barrier Chambers Offices 32 Ellen Street: Adelaide Steamship Company Building 64-68 Ellen Street: Sampson's Butcher Shop 69-71 Ellen Street: Port Pirie Customs House 73-77 Ellen Street: Port Pirie railway station 79-81 Ellen Street: Port Pirie Post Office 85 Ellen Street: Development Board Building 94 Ellen Street: Sample Rooms, rear of Portside Tavern 134 Ellen Street: Family Hotel 32 Florence Street: Carn Brae 50-52 Florence Street: Waterside Workers' Federation Building 105 Gertrude Street: Good Samaritan Catholic Convent School Memorial Drive: Second World War Memorial Gates 5 Norman Street: AMP Society Building, Port Pirie According to the 2006 Census, the population of the Port Pirie census area was 13,206 people.
51.8% of the population were female, 86.9% are Australian born, over 92.7% of residents are Australian citizens and 2.6% were Aboriginal people. The most popular industries for employment were Basic Non-Ferrous Metal Manufacturing, School Education, Hospitality and Animal Husbandry, while the unemployment rate is approx. 11%. The median weekly household income is A$608 or more compared with $924 in Adelaide. 27.1% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while 23.7% identify with no religion at all. Port Pirie is at an elevation of 4 metres above sea level, it is 8 kilometres inland, on the Pirie River, a tidal saltwater inlet from Spencer Gulf. It is on the coastal plain between the Flinders Ranges to the east. Port Pirie exists in a region with a semi-arid climate, outside Goyder's Line, surrounded by mallee scrub. Average daily maximum temperatures vary from a mild 16.4 °C in winter to 32.0 °C in summer. Its average annual rainfall is 345.2 millimetres. According to the Köppen climate classification, Port Pirie has a warm semi-arid climate, noted as BSh.
Port Pirie is 5 km off the Augusta Highway. It is serviced by Port Pirie Airport, six kilometres south of the city; the first railway in Port Pirie opened in 1875 when the South Australian Railways 1,067 mm gauge Port Pirie-Cockburn line opened to Gladstone being extended to Broken Hill. The original Ellen Street station was located on the street with the track running down the middle; the station today is occupied by the Port Pirie National Trust Museum. In 1937, it became a break-of-gauge station when the broad gauge Adelaide-Redhill line was extended to Port Pirie. At the same time the Commonwealth Railways standard gauge Trans-Australian Railway was extended south from Port Augusta to terminate at the new Port Pirie Junction station
Tanunda, South Australia
Tanunda is a town situated in the Barossa Valley region of South Australia, 70 kilometres north-east of the state capital, Adelaide. The town derives its name from an Aboriginal word meaning water hole; the town's population is 4600. The postcode is 5352 The first settlement in the vicinity of what is today known as Tanunda was the village of Bethanien, settled in 1842; this village was settled by Prussian immigrants. In 1843, the village of Langmeil was established nearby by Prussian immigrants who relocated from Klemzig on the Torrens River where they had settled in 1838, after arriving with Pastor August Kavel. Tanunda village was settled sometime later; the village of Langmeil was named after a village of the same name near Zullichau in Prussia, the area from which the German immigrants had originated. The original German village of Langmeil is now the Polish village of Okunin. Due to anti-German sentiments, both Langmeil and Bethanien in South Australia were renamed during the Great War to Bilyara, Bethany respectively.
Langmeil had its name reverted from Bilyara in 1975. As development of the Tanunda area continued, the villages of Langmeil and Tanunda were joined. Today the township is called Tanunda. Tanunda and the Barossa Valley comprise one of Australia's premier wine-growing areas, the town is surrounded by vineyards. One such vineyard, Turkey Flat, is home to Shiraz vines that were planted in 1847 and are believed to be the world's oldest continually producing commercial vineyard, authenticated; the regions main newspaper, the Barossa and Light Herald, has been operating in the area since 1951. The German heritage of Tanunda is still present today; the town has a male choir the Tanunda Liedertafel, the history of, thought to date back to 1850. There is a Kegel club; the Tanunda Town Band celebrated 150 years as a band in 2007 and is the oldest brass band in the southern hemisphere Historically, Tanunda was the home to number of the earliest South Australian newspapers that were printed in German. German newspapers were setup by early settlers, but many being forced to close or merge due to labour shortages caused by the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s-1860s.
Deutsche Zeitung für Süd-Australien Süd Australische Zeitung - Tanunda/Adelaide Australisches Unterhaltungsblatt - a supplement to the Süd Australische Zeitung and Australische Zeitung Tanunda Deutsche Zeitung - renamed Australische Deutsche Zeitung Australische Deutsche Zeitung - Tanunda/Adelaide: a Melbourne edition of the newspaper was printed 1870-1872. Australische Zeitung - Tanunda/Adelaide: formed by the merger of Süd Australische Zeitung, Australische Deutsche Zeitung.