A Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis; this happens early in embryonic development at random in mammals, except in marsupials and in some extra-embryonic tissues of some placental mammals, in which the father's X chromosome is always deactivated. In humans with more than one X chromosome, the number of Barr bodies visible at interphase is always one fewer than the total number of X chromosomes. For example, men with Klinefelter syndrome have a single Barr body, whereas women with a 47, XXX karyotype have two Barr bodies. Barr bodies can be seen in the nucleus of neutrophils, at the rim of the nucleus in female somatic cells between divisions. A genotypical human female has only one Barr body per somatic cell, while a genotypical human male has none.
Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation is initiated from the X inactivation centre or Xic found near the centromere. The center contains twelve genes, seven of which code for proteins, five for untranslated RNAs, of which only two are known to play an active role in the X inactivation process and Tsix; the centre appears to be important in chromosome counting: ensuring that random inactivation only takes place when two or more X-chromosomes are present. The provision of an extra artificial Xic in early embryogenesis can induce inactivation of the single X found in male cells; the roles of Xist and Tsix appear to be antagonistic. The loss of Tsix expression on the future inactive X chromosome results in an increase in levels of Xist around the Xic. Meanwhile, on the future active X Tsix levels are maintained; this shift allows Xist to begin coating the future inactive chromosome, spreading out from the Xic. In non-random inactivation this choice appears to be fixed and current evidence suggests that the maternally inherited gene may be imprinted.
Variations in Xi frequency have been reported with age, the use of oral contraceptives, fluctuations in menstrual cycle and neoplasia. It is thought that this constitutes the mechanism of choice, allows downstream processes to establish the compact state of the Barr body; these changes include histone modifications, such as histone H3 methylation and histone H2A ubiquitination, as well as direct modification of the DNA itself, via the methylation of CpG sites. These changes help inactivate gene expression on the inactive X-chromosome and to bring about its compaction to form the Barr body. Reactivation of a Barr body is possible, has been seen in breast cancer patients. One study showed that the frequency of Barr bodies in breast carcinoma were lower than in healthy controls, indicating reactivation of these once inactivated X chromosomes. X-inactivation Sex-determination system Demethylation Acetylation Xist Tsix Links to full text articles are provided where access is free, in other cases only the abstract has been linked.
Alberts, B.. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Fourth Edition. Garland Science. Pp. 428–429. ISBN 978-0-8153-4072-0. Turnpenny & Ellard: Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics 13E
Nadim Sabagh is a Syrian footballer. He plays for Tishreen, which competes in the Syrian Premier League the top division in Syria, he plays as a defender, wearing the number 12 jersey for Arbil and for the Syrian national football team he wears the number 13 shirt. Al-Jaish Syrian Premier League: 2009–10Erbil Iraqi Premier League: 2011–12Al-Zawraa Iraqi Premier League: 2017–18 Iraq FA Cup: 2016–17 Iraqi Super Cup: 2017 Nadim Sabagh at National-Football-Teams.com Nadim Sabagh at Goalzz.com Nadim Sabagh at Kooora.com
Runaway 2: The Dream of the Turtle is a 2006 graphic adventure game developed by Pendulo Studios and published by Focus Home Interactive. It is the sequel to Runaway: A Road Adventure; the French version of the game was the first available for purchase, followed shortly by the German version, both published in fall 2006. Other versions like the original Spanish version and the English localizations were kept on hold until 2007 due to publishing issues, most notably with its homeland, where a special collector's edition was released in order to please fans. Runaway 2 was first released on Microsoft Windows and subsequently ported to the Nintendo DS in 2007 and Wii in 2009; the sequel and third installment of the series is Runaway: A Twist of Fate, released on November 26, 2009. On October 17, 2013, French publisher and developer Bulkypix released Runaway: The Dream of the Turtle Part 1 for iOS, followed by Part 2 on October 31, 2013. Much of Runaway 2 takes place as a flashback sequence, narrated by Brian via instant messages to his hacker friend Sushi Douglas.
In possession of $20 million following the conclusion of Runaway: A Road Adventure and Gina go on vacation in Hawaii. However, as the two take a private jet ride, their pilot experiences health problems over Mala Island. Before they crash, Brian pushes Gina out of the plane with the sole parachute on board, after which the plane lands in a jungle on the island. However, Gina is shot with a tranquilizer dart by a sniper while falling, her parachute sinks into a lake. Brian finds that the pilot has disappeared. Managing to escape the jungle, Brian stumbles upon an American military camp near the lake where Gina landed, he seeks help from the soldiers there and meets with their leader, Colonel Kordsmeier, who refuses to explain the military's presence on Mala Island and claims to have no information about a parachutist. Convinced that Kordsmeier is lying, Brian investigates the rest of the island. Most of the residents had been evacuated by the military, but a few remain: Lokelani, a barmaid and former theatrical makeup artist.
Joshua claims that he is on a mission from the Trantorians, Brian agrees to help him. A local soldier named Zachariah O'Connor becomes convinced that Brian is an undercover superior officer, he tells Brian that he is waiting to escort an Afro-French scientist named Pignon to Kordsmeier's camp. Lokelani and Brian have sex. O'Connor takes him to Kordsmeier, fooled by Brian's disguise and authorizes him to explore the camp. Brian is taken to a secured Tiki temple and asked to activate a device called the A. M. E. B. A, but he manages to escape Kordsmeier's surveillance in an attempt to find Gina. Unable to leave the area because of its surrounding military presence, Brian inspects the A. M. E. B. A. and learns. Soon after, Brian discovers a secret chamber guarded by special operatives under the command of a ruthless woman named Tarantula, he overhears a conversation between Kordsmeier and Tarantula that reveals the two as collaborators, that the two have seen through his disguise. Using the A. M. E. B. A. Brian escapes to the beaches of Mala Island and meets with Joshua, who claims that the Trantorians who had abducted him were behind the teleportation technology.
Brian and Joshua escape in a motorboat and travel to Alaska: as part of Joshua's mission from the Trantorians, he must meet with Professor Simon, a reclusive scientist somehow involved with the aliens. Outside the professor's walled compound in Alaska, Joshua eats poisonous berries and forgets the password to enter the area, which leaves Brian stranded. Searching the surrounding area for a solution, Brian meets the bear specialist Ben Wazowski and a violent, condescending loner named Archibald. With help from the two men, Brian prepares a dish of sushi with local salmon, which counteracts the effects of the berries and restores Joshua's memory. Afterward and Joshua enter Professor Simon's home; the scientist explains that the Trantorians are a scientifically-advanced race that communicates via telepathy. Kordsmeier seeks to use their technology as a weapon, is holding hostage a substance called Trantonite, to which the Trantorians have a special bond, to pressure the aliens into complying. Arriving to assassinate Professor Simon on Kordsmeier's orders and her men attack the cabin.
Brian and Joshua escape. Their new goal is to find a cache of Trantonite in an ancient Mesoamerican ruin in Palenque—left behind when aliens contacted mankind in antiquity—to remove Kordsmeier's leverage over the Trantorians. Brian's instant-message conversation with Sushi ends during the attack, after escaping, he wakes up on Sushi's yacht with no memory of how he got there, as a side-effect of party drugs that Sushi's friend Rutger had slipped him in celebration. While he was unconscious, Sushi had gone to Palenque and learned that the Trantonite had been stolen centuries ago by a pirate named Malantùnez, who had subsequently disappeared. With the help of Sushi and her friends, Brian locates the shipwreck and dives for the Trantonite, but is knocked unconscious by a falling timber. While unconscious, Brian dreams. Characters from throughout the game and Runaway: A Road Adventure appear in new guises, Brian locates the Trantonite. After waking up on Sushi's yacht, rescued by a crewmember, he realizes that he knows the Trantonite's location and locates it on a subsequent dive.
The crew pr
The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 2011 were the 41st FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, held 7–20 February in Germany at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria. These were the second alpine world championships in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, which hosted in 1978, it hosted the first Olympic alpine skiing competition, a combined event at the 1936 Winter Olympics. The FIS awarded the championships on 25 May 2006, in Vilamoura, Portugal; the runner-up was Schladming, which hosted the next championships in 2013. Prior to landing the 2011 event in 2006, Garmisch-Partenkirchen had unsuccessfully bid to host the world championships five times in the previous two decades. Most of the competitions took place on the Kandahar slopes of Garmisch Classic, one of the two skiing areas of Garmisch-Partenkirchen; the slalom course was at Gudiberg, adjacent to the Große Olympiaschanze. Unseasonal spring-like conditions prevailed during the two weeks of competition. * Host nation 525 athletes from 69 countries will compete.
Kings County Academy is a Canadian school established in 1870 by the provincial Government of Nova Scotia. It is a public school located on 35 Gary Pearl Drive in Nova Scotia; the first building of the Academy burnt down in 1893, was replaced with a newer and larger building. In 1929, a new High School was built and called the "New Academy". In 1933, a fire swept through some of the Old Academy, destroying the Junior High part of the school. A few months a new building was built, the first Junior High School in Nova Scotia. In 1952 a larger building, including a gymnasium, was built for the Junior High and in 1955 a section was built for the Elementary. Around 1964, a new extension to the High School was built with new labs and adding some more classrooms to the Elementary. In the 1980s the Elementary was torn down and they moved to their present location in the Junior High building and the Junior High moved to the old Elementary building. In 1987 the first cafeteria the school had was built, a new gym and stage was added.
In 2001 the school's last High School class graduated and the school sent their Grade 9,10,11 and 12 students to the newly built Northeast Kings Education Centre in the village of Canning. The school is a Primary to Grade 8 school and moved to a new location on 35 Gary Pearl Drive in 2011 after a long process of planning and building a modern building; the old building, deemed unsafe due to age and other factors, was dismantled over several years, the now empty lot is for sale. John Alexander McDonald Louis Comeau, Images of our past:Kentville Mabel G. Nichols, The Devil's Half Acre Town of Kentville website Kings County Museum
Tyrone Mitchell was an American criminal who fatally shot two students and wounded twelve others who were leaving 49th Street Elementary School in South Central Los Angeles, California, on February 24, 1984. Mitchell committed suicide by shooting himself in the head with a double-barreled shotgun. Mitchell was born to Annie Lee Mitchell in Alabama, he grew up in a South Central Los Angeles house, razed to build the 49th Street Elementary School. Mitchell and his family were members of the Reverend Jim Jones's Peoples Temple, they followed Jones — without Mitchell — in 1977 to Jonestown in Guyana. Mitchell lost both of his parents, four sisters and a brother in the mass murder-suicide that took place at Jonestown on November 18, 1978. According to Mitchell's fiancée, 29-year-old Marylou Hill, who would join the Peoples Temple, he suffered a nervous breakdown as a result. Mitchell returned to the South Central Los Angeles neighborhood, he lived with his fiancée, Hill, in a two-story, white Victorian house at 730 East 50th Street, just 50 feet away from the school that now stood on the property where his childhood home had been.
The house bore a crudely lettered sign "God's Love" and commanded a sweeping view of the school playground. Mitchell developed a reputation in the neighborhood for his irrational behavior and as a user of narcotics such as PCP, his fiancée vehemently denied. On December 5, 1979, about a year after his return, Mitchell was arrested at his residence, he had been in a dispute with his uncle and landlord, Willie Lee Mitchell, about who would relight the pilot light on Tyrone's water heater. The uncle had threatened to arm himself during the dispute, Tyrone, in turn, fired three shots from a.30-caliber rifle into the air before police arrived. Two months he was convicted of a misdemeanor charge of discharging a firearm within city limits, fined $200 and placed on two years' probation. Hill said that Mitchell kept a "high-powered rifle" in the house and, by 1984, he fired it at the sky. According to adjacent neighbors, in February 1984 Mitchell shot at airliners passing overhead, which were landing at Los Angeles International Airport, located about five miles to the west.
These incidents were not reported to police out of fear. In an incident on February 11, one of Mitchell's uncles reported to police that Mitchell had pointed a machine gun at him. No weapon was confiscated, no arrest made, the matter was turned over to the city attorney. Mitchell was a student at California State University, Long Beach for several years, where he attended a variety of classes, he did not hold a job. His fiancée, Marylou Hill, worked as a preschool teacher. Mitchell wanted to marry Hill right away, but she wanted to wait until their financial situation improved. At 2:23 pm on Friday, February 24, 1984, about 100 children of the 49th Street Elementary School had just emerged from their classrooms and onto the school's playground when Mitchell opened fire from the bay window of his house located just across the street. Police in a squad car heard shots reported the incident immediately. Mitchell shot 39 rounds from an AR-15 rifle and 18 rounds from two shotguns down into the crowd of students.
Several children fell from their wounds in the schoolyard, while most escaped running back into the school and were taken to the library on the building's opposite side, where they waited while their parents were telephoned to pick them up. Those who remained outside hid behind trees, garbage cans, any other available cover; some of the children were crying. Seven ambulances were dispatched to the scene. A team of paramedics rescued several children while Mitchell continued to fire from his second-story window. Los Angeles Fire Department paramedic Jack Frye and his partner drove directly onto the schoolyard and pulled children into their ambulance. "We pulled the kids, into the ambulance. We just wanted to get them safe. We didn't know what could happen," said Frye later; some of the injured students were flown out by police helicopter. When the barrage had ceased minutes the school, which enrolled 1,164 students, was evacuated, Mitchell's house was surrounded by police. A siege ensued during which Hill arrived and asked police to allow her to enter the house to try to talk with Mitchell.
Authorities refused her pleas. The LAPD SWAT team arrived and evacuated houses adjacent to Mitchell's house; the siege ended when a four-man SWAT team stormed the house minutes before 6 p.m. Police fired at least 16 canisters of tear gas into the house before the SWAT team entered. Mitchell was found laying face up on the floor of his second-story bedroom, he was dressed in camouflage pants, a khaki shirt and jungle-style combat boots, an empty knife scabbard attached to his belt. Mitchell had killed himself with a single wound to the head from a 12 gauge double-barreled shotgun. No one else was found in the house. At the time of the incident, Mitchell had injured 14 people children. Most of them were treated at local hospitals. One of the first children to fall under the attack was 10-year-old Shala Eubanks. A schoolyard supervisor, Albert Jones, 50, made several attempts to reach her, but every time he approached, more shots rang out, forcing him to take cover. Eubanks was carried into a classroom by two Los Angeles police officers.
Two Los Angeles paramedics tried to save her. She died on the classroom floor. By late Friday night, three other casualties were in guarded b