Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ossau-Iraty is a Franco-Basque cheese made from sheep milk. Ossau-Iraty or Esquirrou is produced in south-western France, in the Northern Basque Country and in Béarn, its name reflects its geographical location, the Ossau Valley in Béarn and the Irati Forest in the Basque Country. It has been recognized as an appellation d'origine contrôlée product since 1980, it is one of only two sheep's milk cheeses granted AOC status in France. It is of ancient origin, traditionally made by the shepherds in the region. Production techniques are much in the essence of old world methods whereby the sheep still graze mountain pastures; the milk must come from Red-face Manech, or Black-face Manech. This is an uncooked cheese made through pressing; when offered as a farm-produced cheese the AOC regulations stipulate that only raw, unpasteurized milk be used. 3,067 tonnes 60 producers 8 manufacturers: private industries and cooperatives 2,045 milk producers According to the official description, the cheese crust is yellow-orange to gray, the body color ranges from white to cream depending on how it has been matured.
It is smooth and firm, may have some small eyes. Idiazabal cheese List of sheep milk cheeses
Institut géographique national
The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière Institut géographique national or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940 to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories. The IGN depends on the French Ministry of Equipment, Transport and Country Planning and Sea, its missions are fixed by decrees. State subsidies represent 51% of the budget, sales 49%; the IGN runs four laboratories to research geographical information acquisition, production and applications. It runs its own school to teach techniques to its staff and other students: École nationale des sciences géographiques or ENSG; the IGN is responsible for the management and updating of: geodesic and levelling networks, aerial photographs, geographical data bases and maps. It has to lead research, to take part in the standardization process in the field of geographical information, it has to manage ENSG, the documentation service about its products and services.
A group of French public administrations, in partnership with the IGN, establish the Large Scale Reference: orthophoto, cadastral survey and address databases which can be superimposed on all the French territory, with a 1-meter resolution. Covering the whole French territory: topographic maps on the 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales road maps on the 1:250,000 and 1:1,000,000 scales. Maps of foreign countries ICAO aeronautical maps on the 1:500,000 scale for visual flying; the IGN is in charge of the Géoportail. The shop Le Monde Des Cartes at 50 rue de la verrerie 75004 in Paris closed in 2017; the IGN is the successor to the Geographical Service of the Army, founded in 1887 and disbanded in 1940. The old maps produced by the SGA were divided into two batches: one which remained at the Institute and one which joined the military files of Vincennes; the general Louis Hurault, at the origin of these modifications, was the first director of the IGN. He tried, in vain. A law in ten articles is signed the 14 in order to define the functions of the IGN.
The statutes had been signed the 8. This established the national School of geographical sciences in order to train Cartographical engineers. During the Second World War, the IGN became famous for its counterfeiters; the cartographers are indeed experts in penmanship and the material necessary to the production of fake identity papers was available to the Institute. Certain engineers of the IGN were in contact with the services of allied information based in London. In secret, they brought a complete set of maps to London covering France and North Africa in order to replace maps destroyed in a bombardment; the agents of the IGN took an active part in armed resistance in 1943. Several agents were died in action. Between September 1944 and on 8 May 1945, the IGN was under the control of the "provisional government" and most of its personnel and of his services are transformed into "military geographical Service". At the end of the war, the IGN received the thanks of Generals Eisenhower. Between 1945 and 1946, the debate is intense concerning the future of the IGN, last creation of the Third Republic.
A law is signed the 8. It confirms the membership of the IGN to the Ministry of works and create the "geographical Section of staff of the Army", new section in charge of the military map. In 1947, the IGN receives the mission of covering the whole France, but all the dependents’ territories, like North Africa, Western Africa, the countries associated with Indochina and the departments and overseas territories; the task is considerable with more than 12 million km ² being covered. The independence of these countries will have as a consequence the creation of national services in each country. To carry out the aerial survey task, the IGN was equipped in 1948 with several ex USAAF Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, specially modified for the task, they were based at Creil airfield to the north of Paris. The aircraft were replaced by French-built Hurel-Dubois HD.34 twin engined survey aircraft in the late 1950s. The IGN initiates a period of active co-operation with the majority of these organizations by providing some engineers of the IGN and receive the students of the ENSG who intended to become the executives of the cartographic services of new independent countries.
The activity of the IGN apart from the French territory develops by the control geodesic project, of cartography. 1982 to 1988, the control of a large topometric project and numerical cartography in Riyadh is the occasion to massively introduce digital techniques into the processing production. Publicly owned establishment related to administration since 1 January 1967, it is placed under the supervision of the ministry for Transport, the equipment and the sea. In 1971, the IGN and the CNES form the "Group of research of geodesic space"; this collaboration between the IGN and the CNES continues with the
Andrein is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Andreinais or Andreinaises Andrein is a béarnaise commune located on the left bank of the Gave d'Oloron 5 kilometres east of Sauveterre-de-Béarn and some 16 km south-west of Orthez. Access to the commune is by road D27 from Sauveterre-de-Bearn passing through the commune and the village and continuing east to Laàs; the D23 road from Burgaronne to L'Hôpital-d'Orion passes through the north of the commune. The commune is mixed farmland. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the southern border of the commune is formed by the Gave d'Oloron. Numerous streams flow south through the commune to the Gave d'Oloron including the Malourau and the Lourou which forms the eastern border; the northern border is formed by the Arrec Heurre which flows west to join the Gave d'Oleron east of Abitain. The commune name in Béarnese dialect and in Gascon Occitan is Andrenh.
Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicated that the name came from the family name Andréas with the suffix -enh. She mentioned that the villagers were once called "cherry eaters"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Census: Census of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Navarrenx: Notaries of Navarrenx Denombrement: Denombremont of Andrein Paul Raymond on page 6 of his 1863 dictionary noted that the commune had a Lay Abbey, a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. In 1385 Andrein depended on the bailiwick of Sauveterre. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of five intercommunal structures: the inter-communal centre for Social Action of Sauveterre-de-Béarn; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is agricultural; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. The Touron de Larochelle is 195 metres high. Emmanuel Berl, born 2 August 1892 in Vésinet and died 21 September 1976 in Paris, was a journalist and French essayist. In 1920 he married Jacqueline Bordes in Andrein. Arthur Hugenschmidt stayed in Andein in 1928 and 1929 with the Countess of Viforano according to correspondence from the Presidency of the Republic. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Andrein on Lion1906 Andrein on Google Maps Andrein on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Andrein on the 1750 Cassini Map Andrein on the INSEE website INSEE
Abitain is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants Abitaonoises. Abitain is bordered on the eastern side by the Gave d'Oloron about 20 km southeast of Peyrehorade and 11 km southwest of Salies-de-Béarn. Access to the commune is by road D936 from Escos in the north, passing south down the eastern side of the commune through the village and continuing to Autevielle-Saint-Martin-Bideren in the south. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune's eastern border is the Gave d'Oloron, which joins the Gave de Pau at Peyrehorade which flows a further 10 km as the Gaves Réunis before joining the Adour river. A number of small streams flow in the commune including Le Crabé which flows into the Gave d'Oloron at the northern border of the commune and the Arrioutèque creek; the commune's name in Béarnais is Avitenh. Michel Grosclaude proposed the Gascon suffix - enh; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Census: Census of Béarn Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Regulations: Regulations of the States of Béarn Denombrement: Denombremont Terrier: Terrier of Abitain. Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne The village of Abitain formed on the left bank of the Gave d'Oloron around its Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Bearn, a building which still remains; the families of Belloc Claverie were the abbot patrons of the parish. The tomb of the last lay abbot of Abitain, who died in 1785, is in the church of Saint-Pierre. Paul Raymond, on page 2 of his 1863 dictionary, noted that in 1385 the town had 15 fires and depended on the bailiwick of Sauveterre.
In 1648 the barony of Lons became a marquisate, which included Abitain, Baleix, Juillacq, Le Leu, Samsons-Lion, Maspie, Oraàs, Peyrède, Viellepinte. The village had one at Séguabache - now a sawmill. In 1856, Ferdinand Carrère, heir to the last Lay Abbey demolished the old abbey castle to build Carrère castle in Escos. In February 1814, the town was occupied by the troops of General Morillo and by the English, facing the French entrenched in Oraàs. A famous ferry - where there was a tragic accident in 1845 - has long been in service between Moliède and Athos. List of Successive Mayors of Abitain The town is a member of seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Sauveterre-de-Béarn the Public agency for local management the inter-communal centre for social action of Sauveterre-de-Béarn. A sawmill is in operation; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. There are only the ruins of the Leu mill. Another mill, called Séguabache, is the current sawmill and is visible in the commune.
During the construction of the clock tower in 1926 what remained of the old lay abbey was destroyed. In the old abbey there was a special room where the Lord of the Manor could overlook the church choir and follow the Mass without being in the crowd; the abbey enclosure can still be seen. The Tombstone of the last lord of Abitain was discovered during the restoration of the church, it was marked on the wall of the church to preserve its memory. The Parish Church of Saint Pierre, of Romanesque origin, still has the arms of the Abitain abbots from the burial of the last abbot. There is a 16th-century window of Germanic origin. In the church is an altarpiece from the 17th century; the Cemetery contains the graves of priests and that of Father Joffre, Capuchin missionary in Canada who died at Abitain in 1909. There is the tomb of Colonel Count Pierre de Chevigne, Companion of the Liberation, one of the greats of béarnaise politics and a strong and faithful supporter of General de Gaulle; the coat of arms of Chevigne are engraved on his tomb with the motto "Quod decet".
He donated equipment to the communes of Abitain and Escos. Pierre de Chevigné, born in Toulon in 1909 and died in Biarritz in 2004 was a colonel and French politician, a Minister in the Fourth Republic and a companion of the Liberation, he was mayor of Abitain from 1935 to 1940 and from 1945 to 1965. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
Espiute is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
The Gave d'Oloron is a river of south-western France near the border with Spain. It takes its name from the city Oloron-Sainte-Marie, where it is formed from the rivers Gave d'Aspe and Gave d'Ossau, it joins the Gave de Pau in Peyrehorade to form a tributary of the Adour. The Gave d'Oloron is used for fishing; the Gave d'Oloron flows through the following départements and towns: Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Sauveterre-de-Béarn. Landes: Peyrehorade. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Gave d'Oloron at the Sandre database