Somali Civil War
The Somali Civil War is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. It grew out of resistance to the military junta led by Siad Barre during the 1980s. By 1988–90, the Somali Armed Forces began engaging various armed rebel groups, including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast, the Somali National Movement in the northwest, the United Somali Congress in the south; the clan-based armed opposition groups managed to overthrow the Barre government in 1991. Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed in the south. In 1990–92 customary law temporarily collapsed due to the fighting; this precipitated the arrival of UNOSOM I UN military observers in July 1992, followed by larger peacekeeping forces. Factional fighting continued in the south. In the absence of a central government, Somalia became a "failed state"; the UN withdrew in 1995, having incurred significant casualties, but no central authority had yet been reestablished.
After the collapse of the central government, there was some return to customary and religious law in most regions. In 1991 and 1998, two autonomous regional governments were established in the northern part of the country; this led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting, with SIPRI removing Somalia from its list of major armed conflicts for the years 1997 and 1998. In 2000, the Transitional National Government was established, followed by the Transitional Federal Government in 2004; the trend towards reduced conflict halted in 2005, sustained and destructive conflict took place in the south in 2005–07. However, the fighting was of intensity than in the early 1990s. In 2006, Ethiopian troops seized most of the south from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU-mandated AMISOM peacekeeping force for control of the country. Somalia topped the annual Fragile States Index for six years between 2008 and 2013.
In October 2011, following preparatory meetings, Kenyan troops entered southern Somalia to fight Al-Shabaab, to establish a buffer zone inside Somalia. Kenyan troops were formally integrated into the multinational force in February 2012; the Federal Government of Somalia was established in August 2012, constituting the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. International stakeholders and analysts have subsequently begun to describe Somalia as a "fragile state", making some progress towards stability. In May 1986, Mohamed Siad Barre suffered serious injuries in an automobile accident near Mogadishu, when the car, transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm, he was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries, broken ribs and shock over a period of a month. Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar Vice President, subsequently served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself as the sole presidential candidate for re-election over a term of seven years on December 23, 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him in power.
Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, at the time the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Samatar. In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council became totalitarian and arbitrary; this caused opposition to his government to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle, exploiting historical clan animosities. By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas in the northern regions; the clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988. In 1990, as fighting intensified, Somalia's first President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation.
A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested. Barre's heavy-handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements, although these groups' only common goal was the overthrow of his government, it played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia. By mid 1990, United Somali Congress rebels had captured most towns and villages surrounding Mogadishu, which prompted some to give Barre the ironic title'Mayor of Mogadishu.' In December the USC entered Mogadishu. Four weeks of battle between Barre's remaining troops and the USC ensued, over the course of which the USC brought more forces into the city. By January 1991, USC rebels had managed to defeat the Red Berets, in the process toppling Barre's government; the remainder of the government's forces finally collapsed. Some became irregular regional forces and clan militias. After the USC's victory over Barre's troops, the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it, as each instead drew primary support from their own constituencies.
Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement and Somali Democratic Alliance, a Gadabuursi group, formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement Isaaq militia. For its part, the SNM refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisio
Ethiopian National Defense Force
The Ethiopian National Defense Force is the military of Ethiopia. Civil direction of the military is carried out through the Ministry of Defense, which oversees the ground forces, air force, as well as the Defense Industry Sector; the current defense minister is Motuma Mekassa. The size of the ENDF has fluctuated since the end of the Ethiopia-Eritrea war in 2000. In 2002 the Ethiopian Defense Forces had a strength of 400,000 troops; this was the same number maintained during the Derg regime that fell to the rebel forces in 1991. However, that number was reduced, in January 2007, during the War in Somalia, Ethiopian forces were said to comprise about 300,000 troops. In 2012, the IISS estimated that the ground forces had 135,000 personnel and the air force 3,000; as of 2012, the ENDF consists of two separate branches: the Ground Forces and the Ethiopian Air Force. Ethiopia has several defense industrial organisations that produce and overhaul different weapons systems. Most of these were built under the Derg regime.
The ENDF relies on voluntary military service of people above 18 years of age. Although there is no compulsory military service, armed forces may conduct call-ups when necessary and compliance is compulsory. Being a landlocked country, Ethiopia today has no navy. Ethiopia reacquired a coastline on the Red Sea in 1950 and created the Ethiopian Navy in 1955. Eritrea's independence in 1991 left Ethiopia landlocked again, but the Ethiopian Navy continued to operate from foreign ports until it was disbanded in 1996; the Ethiopian army's origins and military traditions date back to the earliest history of Ethiopia. Due to Ethiopia's location between the Middle East and Africa, it has long been in the middle of Eastern and Western politics, has been subject to foreign invasion and aggression. In 1579, the Ottoman Empire's attempt to expand from a coastal base at Massawa was defeated; the Army of the Ethiopian Empire was able to defeat the Egyptians in 1876 at Gura, led by Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV.
Clapham wrote in the 1980s that the "Abyssinians from a'superiority complex' which may be traced to Gundet and Adwa". In accordance with the order of the emperor of Ethiopia, Directly Nikolay Leontiev organized the first battalion of the regular Ethiopian army in February 1899. Leontiev formed the first regular battalion, the kernel of which became the company of volunteers from the former Senegal shooters, which he chose and invited from Western Africa, with training of the Russian and French officers; the first Ethiopian military orchestra was organized at the same time. The Battle of Adowa is the best known victory of Ethiopian forces over invaders, it maintained Ethiopia's existence as an independent state. Fought on 1 March 1896 against the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, it was the decisive battle of the First Italo–Ethiopian War. Assisted by all of the major nobles of Ethiopia including, Alula Abanega, Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, Sebhat Aregawi, Ras Makonnen, Ras Mengesha Yohannes, Ras Mikael of Wollo, Emperor Menelek II of Ethiopia struck a powerful blow against the Italians.
The Ethiopian army had been able to execute the strategic plan of Menelik's headquarters, despite a feudal system of organization and adverse circumstances. A special role was played by the volunteers of Leontiev's mission; the first problem was the quality of its arms, as the Italian and British colonial authorities were able to sabotage the transportation of 60,000 to 100,000 modern Berdan rifles from Russia into landlocked Ethiopia. Secondly, the Ethiopian army was based on a feudal system of organization, as a result, nearly the entire army was a peasant militia. Russian military experts advising Menelik II suggested trying to achieve full battle collision with Italians, to neutralize the superior firepower of their opponent and nullify their problems with arms and organization, rather than engaging in a campaign of harassment. In the battle that ensued wave upon wave of Menelik's warriors attacked the Italians. After the successful colonial capture of the Sudan and Uganda, the British expansion against Ethiopia became a real danger, which diminished only after the start of the Second Boer War in 1899.
The Ethiopian army became more effective against British colonial forces. The numerous expeditions of Ethiopian forces stopped colonial expansion; as the Russian Alexander Bulatovich, one of the Russian military advisers and a participant in the expedition of the legendary army of Ras Wolde Giyorgis, wrote: "Many consider the Abyssinian army to be undisciplined. They think that it is not in any condition to withstand a serious fight with a well-organized European army, claiming that the recent war with Italy doesn't prove anything. I will not begin to guess the future, will say only this. Over the course of four months, I watched this army closely, it is unique in the world. And I can bear witness to the fact that it is not quite so chaotic as it seems at first glance, that on the contrary, it is profoundly disciplined, though in its own unique way. For every Abyssinian, war is normal business, military skills and rules of army life in the field enter in the flesh and blood of each of them, just as do the main principles of tactics.
On the march, each soldier knows how to arrange necessary comforts for himself and to conserve his strength. You see remarkable expediency in all the skills of this army. Despite such quali
Somali Civil War (2006–2009)
The Somali Civil War was an armed conflict involving Ethiopian and Somali Transitional Federal Government forces and Somali troops from Puntland versus the Somali Islamist umbrella group, the Islamic Court Union, other affiliated militias for control of the country. There is a clear connection between Somali Civil War and the War of 2006; the war began shortly before July 20, 2006 when U. S. backed. The TFG in Somalia invited Ethiopians to intervene, which became an "unpopular decision". Subsequently, the leader of the ICU, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, declared "Somalia is in a state of war, all Somalis should take part in this struggle against Ethiopia". On December 24, Ethiopia stated it would combat the ICU. Ethiopia's prime minister, Meles Zenawi, said Ethiopia entered hostilities because it faced a direct threat to its own borders. "Ethiopian defense forces were forced to enter into war to protect the sovereignty of the nation," he said. "We are not trying to set up a government for Somalia, nor do we have an intention to meddle in Somalia's internal affairs.
We have only been forced by the circumstances."The ICU, which controlled the coastal areas of southern Somalia, engaged in fighting with the forces of the Somali TFG, the autonomous regional governments of Puntland and Galmudug, all of whom were backed by Ethiopian troops. The outbreak of heavy fighting began on December 20 with the Battle of Baidoa, after the lapse of a one-week deadline the ICU imposed on Ethiopia to withdraw from the nation. Ethiopia, refused to abandon its positions around the TFG interim capital at Baidoa. On December 29, after several successful battles, TFG and Ethiopian troops entered Mogadishu unopposed; the UN stated that many Arab nations including Egypt were supporting the ICU through Eritrea. Although not announced until a small number of U. S. Special Forces troops accompanied Ethiopian and TFG troops after the collapse and withdrawal of the ICU to give military advice and to track suspected al-Qaida fighters. Both American support for the TFG and various Arab Nations' support for the ICU were isolated cases from the central motive of the war between the allied Ethiopian & Somali government forces and the allied ICU & Eritrean forces.
As of January 2007, Ethiopia said it would withdraw "within a few weeks" but the TFG, US and UN officials oppose Ethiopian withdrawal because it would create a "security vacuum," while the ICU has demanded immediate Ethiopian withdrawal. The two sides had traded war declarations and gunfire on several occasions before. Eastern African countries and international observers fear the Ethiopian offensive may lead to a regional war, involving Eritrea, which has a complex relationship with Ethiopia and whom Ethiopia claims to be a supporter of the ICU; as of January 2009, Ethiopian troops withdrew from Somalia following a two-year insurgency, which led to loss of territory and effectiveness of the TFG and a power-sharing deal between Islamists splinter group led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed's Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia and TFG Prime Minister Nur Hassan in Djibouti. The al Shabaab who has separated from the ICU rejects the peace deal and continued to take territories including Baidoa.
Another Islamist group, Ahlu Sunnah Waljama'ah, allied to the transitional government and supported by Ethiopia, continues to attack al Shabab and take over towns as well. After the parliament took in 200 officials from the moderate Islamist opposition, ARS leader Sheikh Ahmed was elected TFG President on January 31, 2009. Since the al shabab radical Islamists have accused the new TFG President of accepting the secular transitional government and have continued the civil war since he arrived in Mogadishu at the presidential palace. Forces involved are difficult to calculate because of many factors, including lack of formal organization or record-keeping, claims which remained masked by disinformation. Ethiopia for months leading up to the war maintained it had only a few hundred advisors in the country, yet independent reports indicated far more troops. According to the BBC, "The United Nations estimated that at least over 9,000 Ethiopian troops may be in the country while the AP suggests the number closer to 12–15,000, while regional rival Eritrea has been accused of deploying some 2,000 troops in support of the Islamic group.
This claim are there any indications that they are true. Wars between Somalia, or its precursor Islamic states, Ethiopia, stretch back to 16th century. For example, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi was a 16th-century Islamic leader popular in Somali culture for his jihad against the Ethiopians during the rise of the Adal Sultanate; the painful living history and cultural traditions, long-standing ethnic divisions and sectarian differences lay a foundation of conflict between the two nations. More boundary disputes over the Ogaden region date to the 1948 settlement when the land was granted to Ethiopia. Somali disgruntlement with this decision has led to repeated attempts to invade Ethiopia with the hopes of taking control of the Ogaden to create a Greater Somalia; this plan would have reunited the Somali people of the Ethiopian-controlled Ogaden with those living in the Republic of Somalia. These ethnic and political tensions have caused cross-border clashes over the years. 1960–1964 Border Dispute 1977–1978 Ogaden War 1982 August Border Clash 1998–2000 Cross-border warfare during the chaotic fraction leader-led era.
Before the beginning of the war, there have been significant assertions and accusations of the use of disinformation and propaganda tactics by various parties to shape the causes and course of the con
Somalia the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djabuti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, its terrain consists of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. And has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in the southern regions; the official languages of are Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Sultanate of the Geledi. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Darwiish repelled the British four times, forcing a retreat to the coast, before succumbing in the Somaliland campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government; the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out.
During this period most regions returned to religious law. The early 2000s saw the creation of interim federal administrations; the Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which reestablished the military. In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized, a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012; the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, telecommunications, it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have b
Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan
Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan is a Somali military and faction leader. He is the son-in-law of Siad Minister of Defense of Somalia. Said Hersi, his military campaign in Southern Somalia in 1992 was one of the main causes of the famine in Somalia. Mohammed Said Hersi received his military training in both Italy and the USA; as a colonel he was commander of the Mogadishu sector, where the elite units of the Armed Forces were stationed. He went on to become commander of the Red Berets, responsible for the suppression of the revolt of the Majerteen united in the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in 1982. From 1986 to 1988, as a general, he was the military commander of the 26th Sector and in September 1990 he was appointed as minister of defense and substitute head of state. In 1988, operations conducted by the Barre government against Somali National Movement rebels in the northern part of the country led to the death and imprisonment of thousands of Somali civilians by the Somali National Army. Hersi Morgan was in charge of these operations, thus became known as the "Butcher of Hargeisa."
Mohammed Said Hersi led the shelling and bombing of Hargeisa in response to the city being taken over by the SNM. The shelling and subsequent battles that took place in the North of Somalia led the deaths of an estimated 50 - 60,000 people. After the fall of the government on 26 January 1991 Mohammed Said Hersi together with Siad Barre fled from Mogadishu to the South-West of the country. In Gedo he regrouped the army. Together with Barre's son General Maslah, Mohammed Said Hersi went abroad through Kenya on an arms purchasing mission. According to a report of the Minority Rights Group based in Britain they purchased $27 Million worth of arms and petroleum at various black markets. Mohammed Said Hersi became the chairman of the newly founded Somali National Front; the SNF made two efforts to recapture the capital Mogadishu. Both efforts failed; the SNF was pushed back to the Kenyan border. It survived in a diminished form in and around Kismayo. Mohammed Said Hersi tried to unite the Marehan with the other Darod to conquer the region around Kismayo.
Siad Barre fled to Kenya in April 1992. On January 8, 1993 Mohammed Said Hersi was one of the signatories of agreement reached at the UN-sponsored Informal Preparatory Meeting on National Reconciliation, the March 1993 Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia, both in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. However, fighting continued in the country unabated. In December 1993, Mohammed Said Hersi's troops captured Kismayo, awaited the departure of Belgian UN peacekeepers who were stationed there, his troops had taken advantage of the UN's preoccupation with Mohamed Farah Aidid and had rearmed and regrouped. Mohammed Said Hersi remained in control of Kismayo until 1999. In that period Hersi Morgan cooperated with his former enemies, the Majerteen of the SSDF. Operating from Kismayo, Mohammed Said Hersi was active in the Kenyan border area, his militia fought those Siyad Hussein, Col. Omar Jess, Ahmed Hashi which operated in this region; the area around Dobley refugee camp earned a reputation as one of the most dangerous and violent places in the entire region.
After the SNF had split up between Marehan and other factions Hersi had lost his position as leader of that faction. He joined the Somali Patriot Movement, which consisted of Darod tribe militias, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, the South Somali National Movement. Hersi Morgan was head of the self-created entity Jubaland between September 3, 1998—June 11, 1999; however he lost the territory to the Juba Valley Alliance under Ahmed Warsame in 1999 and only recaptured Kismayo on 6-7 Aug 2001. The town remained in the hands of the JVA until 2006. Hersi Morgan was present at the conclusion of the peace Talks in Kenya in which a transitional Somali Transitional National Government was formed; this conclusion, was put to risk in September 2004 by the withdrawal of Said Hersi Morgan, who prepared his forces to attack Kismayu, controlled by the JVA which had ousted him in 1999. Ambassador Kiplagat requested IGAD to impose sanctions against Hersi Morgan for withdrawing from the peace process; the JVA and other warlords began to mobilize forces to oppose him.
In September there was some fighting at a distance from Kismayu and the local population fled, but within some days the conference facilitators had persuaded Hersi Morgan to return to Nairobi and re-join the reconciliation conference, although he was not selected as a member of parliament. According to Amnesty International "his presence at the peace talks, more than any of the other warlords, had highlighted the significance of the issue of impunity and its effect on human rights in the future."In May 2005 Said Hersi Morgan left Nairobi to pay a short visit with his militia in Mogadishu and talked to representatives of the USC. The battle between the militia and the ICU for the control of the capital would start February 2006. Members of this same USC have been the victim of atrocities of troops of Said Hersi Morgan in 1992. In that year the SNF retook with assistance of the Gedo region. In October 1992
Military science is the study of military processes and behavior, along with the study of warfare, the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is focused on theory and practice of producing military capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the strategic, economic, social, operational and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of military force. Military scientists include theorists, experimental scientists, applied scientists, engineers, test technicians, other military personnel. Military personnel obtain weapons and training to achieve specific strategic goals. Military science is used to establish enemy capability as part of technical intelligence. In military history, military science had been used during the period of Industrial Revolution as a general term to refer to all matters of military theory and technology application as a single academic discipline, including that of the deployment and employment of troops in peacetime or in battle.
In military education, military science is the name of the department in the education institution that administers officer candidate education. However, this education focuses on the officer leadership training and basic information about employment of military theories, concepts and systems, graduates are not military scientists on completion of studies, but rather junior military officers; until the Second World War, military science was written in English starting with capital letters, was thought of as an academic discipline alongside Physics and the Medical Science. In part this was due to the general mystique that accompanied education in a World where as late as the 1880s 75% of the European population was illiterate; the ability by the officers to make complex calculations required for the complex "evolutions" of the troop movements in linear warfare that dominated the Renaissance and history, the introduction of the gunpowder weapons into the equation of warfare only added to the veritable arcana of building fortifications as it seemed to the average individual.
Until the early 19th century, one observer, a British veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, Major John Mitchell thought that it seemed nothing much had changed from the application of force on a battlefield since the days of the Greeks. He suggested that this was so because as Clausewitz suggested, "unlike in any other science or art, in war the object reacts"; until this time, after the Franco-Prussian War, military science continued to be divided between the formal thinking of officers brought up in the "shadow" of Napoleonic Wars and younger officers like Ardant du Picq who tended to view fighting performance as rooted in the individual's and group psychology and suggested detailed analysis of this. This set in motion the eventual fascination of the military organisations with application of quantitative and qualitative research to their theories of combat. Military implements, the supply of an army, its organization and discipline, have constituted the elements of military science in all ages.
The breakthrough of sorts made by Clausewitz in suggesting eight principles on which such methods can be based, in Europe, for the first time presented an opportunity to remove the element of chance and error from command decision making process. At this time emphasis was made on the Topography, Military art, Military history, Organisation of the Army in the field and Science of Projectiles, Field fortifications and Permanent fortifications, Military legislation, Military administration and Manoeuvres; the military science on which the model of German combat operations was built for the First World War remained unaltered from the Napoleonic model, but took into the consideration the vast improvements in the firepower and the ability to conduct "great battles of annihilation" through rapid concentration of force, strategic mobility, the maintenance of the strategic offensive better known as the Cult of the offensive. The key to this, other modes of thinking about war remained analysis of military history and attempts to derive tangible lessons that could be replicated again with equal success on another battlefield as a sort of bloody laboratory of military science.
Few were bloodier than the fields of the Western Front between 1914 and 1918. Fascinatingly the man who understood Clausewitz better than most, Marshal Foch would participate in events that nearly destroyed the French Army, it is not however true to say that military theorists and commanders were suffering from some collective case of stupidity. Their analysis of military history convinced them that decisive and aggressive strategic offensive was the only doctrine of victory, feared that overemphasis of firepower, the resultant dependence on entrenchment would make this all but impossible, leading to the battlefield stagnant in advantages of the defensive position, destroying troop morale and willingness to fight; because only the offensive could bring victory, lack of it, not the firepower, was blamed for the defeat of the Imperial Russian Army in the Russo-Japanese War. Foch thought that "In strategy as well as in tactics one attacks". In many ways military science was born as a result of the experiences
Abudwak is a town in the central Galguduud province of Somalia. Abudwak is inhabited by members of the Marehan, it is the capital of the Abudwak District. The city is situated about 20 km west of the main highway that connects the country's southern and northern regions; the broader Abudwak District has a total population of 890,067 residents Air transportation in Abudwak is served by the Cabudwaak Airport. A major renovation of the facility was launched in 2011, funded by Somali expatriates from the province; the new airport's first scheduled flight departed on 11 October 2012. Several health centers exist in the town. Among these is the Abudwak Maternity and Children's Hospital, AL Hayat Hospital, IMC. abudwak Maternity and children hospital was equipped and staffed by the Somali Care Organization in conjunction with the Somali Education and Health Organization. Districts of Somalia'Zoomable' aerial images of Abudwak: here and here. Administrative maps of Abudwak district: here and here