A souvenir, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the traveler as a memento of a visit. While there is no set minimum or maximum cost that one is required to adhere to when purchasing a souvenir, etiquette would suggest to keep it within a monetary amount that the receiver would not feel uncomfortable with when presented the souvenir; the object itself may be a symbol of experience. Without the owner's input, the symbolic meaning can not be articulated; the tourism industry designates tourism souvenirs as commemorative merchandise associated with a location including geographic information and produced in a manner that promotes souvenir collecting. Throughout the world, the souvenir trade is an important part of the tourism industry serving a dual role, first to help improve the local economy, second to allow visitors to take with them a memento of their visit to encourage an opportunity for a return visit, or to promote the locale to other tourists as a form of word-of-mouth marketing.
The most collected souvenirs by tourists are photographs as a medium to document specific events and places for future reference. Souvenirs as objects include mass-produced merchandise such as clothing: hats. Souvenirs include non-mass-produced items like folk art, local artisan handicrafts, objects that represent the traditions and culture of the area, non-commercial, natural objects like sand from a beach, anything else that a person attaches nostalgic value to and collects among his personal belongings. A more grisly form of souvenir in the First World War was displayed by a Pathan soldier to an English Territorial. After studying the Tommy's acquisitions, he produced a cord with the ears of enemy soldiers he claimed to have killed, he was keeping them to take back to India for his wife. Similar to souvenirs, memorabilia are objects treasured for historical interest. Examples include sporting events, historical events and entertainment; such items include: clothing. Memorabilia items are kept in protective covers or display cases to safeguard and preserve their condition.
In Japan, souvenirs are known as omiyage, are selected from meibutsu, or products associated with a particular region. Bringing back omiyage from trips to co-workers and families is a social obligation, can be considered a form of apology for the traveller's absence. Omiyage sales are big business at Japanese tourist sites. Unlike souvenirs, omiyage are special food products, packaged into several small portions to be distributed to all the members of a family or a workplace. Travelers may buy souvenirs as gifts for those. In the Philippines a similar tradition of bringing souvenirs as a gift to family members and coworkers is called pasalubong. Media related to Souvenirs at Wikimedia Commons
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons. Wine was shipped in barrels of 119 litres. Barrel has come into use as a generic term for a wooden cask of any size. Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are either made of French common oak and white oak or from American white oak and have standard sizes: "Bordeaux type" 225 litres, "Burgundy type" 228 litres and "Cognac type" 300 litres. Modern barrels and casks can be made of aluminum, stainless steel, different types of plastic, such as HDPE. Someone who makes barrels is called cooper. Barrels are only one type of cooperage. Other types include, but are not limited to, the making of buckets, tubs, butter churns, firkins, kilderkins, rundlets, pipes, butts and breakers.
Barrels have a variety of uses, including storage of liquids such as water and oil, fermenting wine and sake, maturing beverages such as wine, armagnac, port and beer. Other commodities once stored in wooden casks include gunpowder, fish, paint and tallow. Early casks were bound with wooden hoops and in the 19th century these were replaced by metal hoops that were stronger, more durable and took up less space; the term barrel can refer to cylindrical containers made of modern materials like plastic. An "aging barrel" is used to age wine; when a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in. Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation, a portion known as the "angels' share". In an environment with 100% relative humidity little water evaporates and so most of the loss is alcohol, a useful trick if one has a wine with high proof. Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune and sherry are not.
Beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these compounds depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried, the degree of "toast" applied during manufacture. Barrels used for aging are made of French or American oak, but chestnut and redwood are used; some Asian beverages use Japanese cedar, which imparts an minty-piney flavor. In Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in earthenware; some wines are fermented "on barrel", as opposed to in a neutral container like steel or wine-grade HDPE tanks. Wine can be fermented in large wooden tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called "open-tops". Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, with either elliptical or round heads; the tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas.
To retain the desired measure of oak influence, a winery will replace a certain percentage of its barrels every year, although this can vary from 5 to 100%. Some winemakers use "200% new oak", where the wine is put into new oak barrels twice during the aging process. Bulk wines are sometimes more cheaply flavored by soaking in oak chips or added commercial oak flavoring instead of being aged in a barrel because of the much lower cost. Sherry is stored in 600-litre casks made of North American oak, more porous than French or Spanish oak; the casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving "the space of two fists" empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. Sherry is commonly swapped between barrels of different ages, a process, known as Solera. Laws in several jurisdictions require; the law in the United States requires that "straight whiskey" must be stored for at least two years in new, charred oak containers. Other forms of whiskey aged in used barrels cannot be called "straight".
International laws require any whisky bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled and matured in Scotland for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks. By Canadian law, Canadian whiskies must "be aged in small wood for not less than three years", "small wood" is defined as a wood barrel not exceeding 700 litres capacity. Since the U. S. law requires the use of new barrels for several popular types of whiskey, not considered necessary elsewhere, whiskey made elsewhere is aged in used barrels that contained American whiskey. The typical bourbon barrel is 53 US gallons in size, thus the de facto standard whiskey barrel size worldwide; some distillers transfer their whiskey into different barrels to "finish" or add qualities to the final product. These finishing barrels aged a different spi
The Debut is an independent feature-length film directed and co-written by first-time Filipino American filmmaker Gene Cajayon. It is the first Filipino American film to be released theatrically nationwide, starting in March 2001 in the San Francisco Bay area and ending in November 2002 in New York City, it is one of the first feature films to take place within the Filipino American community, one of the largest Asian ethnic minorities in America. Dante Basco plays Ben Mercado, a talented high school senior who enrolls in a prestigious arts institute in order to realize his dreams of becoming an artist. However, his plans come into conflict with those of his strict immigrant father Roland, a postal worker intent on seeing Ben become a doctor, their long-simmering feud—for Ben, a struggle to be accepted by America and therefore reject his Filipino heritage. However, it is at the party; the celebration emerges as a cultural stew of old world traditions and contemporary urban lifestyle, challenging Ben’s sense of misplaced identity, his choice of friends the way he regards his father.
He finds an unexpected confidante in Rose’s best friend Annabelle. However, the evening’s challenges to Ben are just beginning to surface; the arrival of the Mercado family’s overbearing patriarch exacerbates tensions between father and son, while the temptation to ditch the relatives to be with his friends at a kegger across town tugs at Ben throughout the evening. Worse, his budding romance with Annabelle is complicated by the presence of hot-headed Augusto, a former boyhood friend-turned gangsta wannabe—and Annabelle’s ex. In one night, Ben will face the true nature of his relationships with his family, his friends, himself; the Debut is based on a ten-minute short film Cajayon had made as his thesis project at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, United States. He incorporated themes from Diary of a Gangsta Sucka; the full-length film took eight years to produce and raise funding for, another year to be released in theaters, two years to go on DVD in 2003 and television. In 2012, it was made available on iTunes, Amazon Video, VUDU.
After shooting the first ten minutes of his thesis project, Cajayon sent the movie script to potential private financial backers but was turned down. Cajayon and Castro were rebuffed. Producer Dean Devlin became associated with the project, the film was able to garner a grant from NAATA; the filmmakers were able to set up the film independently. Cajayon tapped Picture Bride producer Lisa Onedera, husband Greg Spence, Celestial Pictures to produce the film. Adult roles in the movie were cast in the Philippines, where casting director Ernest Eschaler held casting sessions in Manila; the filmmakers were able to cast Tirso Cruz III, Gina Alajar, Eddie Garcia, comedian Fe De Los Reyes. Back in the US, the filmmakers put out a casting call for the lead character selecting Dante Basco, who played Rufio in Steven Spielberg's movie, Hook. Actress Joy Bisco was cast as the female lead. Production started on October 21, 1997 at the Cantwell-Sacred Heart of Mary High School in Montebello, California. Reshoots were done a year.
The musical score and licensing of songs for the soundtrack was done in 1999. The film had its world premiere as the Opening Night Attraction of the 15th Annual Los Angeles Asian Pacific Film & Video Festival on May 18, 2000. Prior to the film's theatrical release in 2001, the film was shown at various film festivals around the United States, including the Hawaii International Film Festival in November 2000. American film critic Roger Ebert, in attendance, was given a private screening of the film and gave the film a "thumbs up." The Debut won the 2000 HIFF Audience Award for Best Feature Film, beating out favored Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. The film was awarded Best Feature Film honors by the 2000 San Diego Asian Film Festival; the Debut’s success on the film festival circuit inspired the filmmakers to launch a theatrical self-distribution campaign. For two years, The Debut’s promotional team traveled to fifteen major cities across the United States and promoted the film directly to Asian Pacific American and mainstream communities.
TV commercials were shown on local cable systems. The Debut grossed $1.8 million at the box office and won the 2001 Emmy Award for Best Independent Feature Film. The movie's success in theaters led to a domestic and international distribution deal with Sony Pictures; the film has now been released in theaters, DVD, home video, television in over fifty countries worldwide, iTunes, Amazon Video, VUDU. The film has been given positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes post a 74% "fresh" rating for the film. Film critics like Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun Times, Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times applauded the movie, it won the Best Narrative Feature award at the San Diego Asian Film Festival. In addition to Dante Basco in the lead role, the film features other members of the Basco family, along with Eddie Garcia, Tirso Cruz III, Gina Alajar, as well as
A doll is a model of a human being used as a toy for girls. Dolls have traditionally been used in magic and religious rituals throughout the world, traditional dolls made of materials such as clay and wood are found in the Americas, Asia and Europe; the earliest documented dolls go back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Rome. They have been made as rudimentary playthings as well as elaborate art. Modern doll manufacturing has its roots from the 15th century. With industrialization and new materials such as porcelain and plastic, dolls were mass-produced. During the 20th century, dolls became popular as collectibles; the earliest dolls were made from available materials such as clay, wood, ivory, leather, or wax. Archaeological evidence places dolls as the foremost candidate for the oldest known toy. Wooden paddle dolls have been found in Egyptian tombs dating to as early as the 21st century BC. Dolls with movable limbs and removable clothing date back to at least 200 BC. Archaeologists have discovered Greek dolls articulated at the hips and shoulders.
Rag dolls and stuffed animals were also popular, but no known examples of these have survived to the present day. Stories from ancient Greece around 100 AD show. In ancient Rome, dolls were made of wood or ivory. Dolls have been found in the graves of Roman children. Like children today, the younger members of Roman civilization would have dressed their dolls according to the latest fashions. In Greece and Rome, it was customary for boys to dedicate their toys to the gods when they reached puberty and for girls to dedicate their toys to the goddesses when they married. Rag dolls are traditionally home-made from spare scraps of cloth material. Roman rag dolls have been found dating back to 300 BC. Traditional dolls are sometimes used as children's playthings, but they may have spiritual and ritual value. There is no defined line between spiritual toys. In some cultures dolls, used in rituals were given to children, they were used in children's education and as carriers of cultural heritage. In other cultures dolls were considered too laden with magical powers to allow children to play with them.
African dolls are used to entertain. Their shape and costume vary according to custom. Dolls are handed down from mother to daughter. Akuaba are wooden ritual fertility dolls from nearby areas; the best known akuaba are those of the Ashanti people, whose akuaba have disc-like heads. Other tribes in the region have their own distinctive style of akuaba. There is a rich history of Japanese dolls dating back to the Dogū figures and Haniwa funerary figures. By the eleventh century, dolls were used as playthings as well as for protection and in religious ceremonies. During Hinamatsuri, the doll festival, hina dolls are displayed; these are made of straw and wood and dressed in elaborate, many-layered textiles. Daruma dolls are white faces without pupils, they represent Bodhidharma, the East Indian who founded Zen, are used as good luck charms. Wooden Kokeshi dolls have no arms or legs, but a large head and cylindrical body, representing little girls; the use of an effigy to perform a spell on someone is documented in African, Native American, European cultures.
Examples of such magical devices include the European poppet and the nkisi or bocio of West and Central Africa. In European folk magic and witchcraft, poppet dolls are used to represent a person for casting spells on that person; the intention is that whatever actions are performed upon the effigy will be transferred to the subject through sympathetic magic. The practice of sticking pins in voodoo dolls have been associated with African-American Hoodoo folk magic. Voodoo dolls are not a feature of Haitian Vodou religion, but have been portrayed as such in popular culture, stereotypical voodoo dolls are sold to tourists in Haiti; the voodoo doll concept in popular culture is influenced by the European poppet dolls. A kitchen witch is a poppet originating in Northern Europe, it resembles a stereotypical witch or crone and is displayed in residential kitchens as a means to provide good luck and ward off bad spirits. Hopi Kachina dolls are effigies made of cottonwood that embody the characteristics of the ceremonial Kachina, the masked spirits of the Hopi Native American tribe.
Kachina dolls are objects meant to be treasured and studied in order to learn the characteristics of each Kachina. Inuit dolls are made out of soapstone and bone, materials common to the Inuit people. Many are clothed with animal skin, their clothing articulates the traditional style of dress necessary to survive cold winters and snow. The tea dolls of the Innu people were filled with tea for young girls to carry on long journeys. Apple dolls are traditional North American dolls with a head made from dried apples. In Inca mythology, Sara Mama was the goddess of grain, she was associated with maize that grew in multiples or was strange. These strange plants were sometimes dressed as dolls of Sara Mama. Corn husk dolls are traditional Native American dolls made out of the dried leaves or husk of a corncob. Traditionally, they do not have a face; the making of corn husk dolls was adopted by early European settlers in the United States. Early settlers made rag dolls and carved wooden dolls, called Pennywoods.
La última muñeca, or "the last doll", is a tradition of the Quinceañera, the celebration of a girl's fifteenth birthday in parts of Latin America. During this ritu
Barrel Man (Denver Broncos)
Barrel Man, real name Tim McKernan, was a superfan of the Denver Broncos. In all types of weather for 30 years, he attended every home game at both Mile High Stadium and INVESCO Field at Mile High wearing nothing but an orange barrel that covered his torso and a cowboy hat and boots, his costume was reminiscent of rodeo clowns who serve as a distraction to animals in the rodeo arena in order to protect riders who have been thrown and of the stereotype of the miner who lost his stake and had nothing left to wear but a barrel. He was the first Broncos fan inducted into the VISA Hall of Fans at the Pro Football Hall of Fame. McKernan began attending Broncos games in 1967 missing only four of them, he first wore a barrel in 1977 after making a $10 bet with his brother over whether wearing one would get him on television. He won; the soft drink brand was the nickname for the defensive unit of the orange-jerseyed Broncos who won the American Football Conference Championship that season. McKernan showed up at games for the Denver Gold of the short-lived United States Football League in the mid-1980s, wearing a gold-painted barrel.
McKernan retired his act after the 2007 season at the age of 67, but announced that he would continue attending games in normal dress. McKernan had serious health issues in 2003. After that time he was restricted by doctors to wearing his barrel for one half of play, only when the temperature was above freezing; these health issues were a major reason behind McKernan's deciding to give up the barrel in 2007. Retired after 40 years as a mechanic for United Airlines, McKernan and his wife were based in Gunnison, but spent their offseasons traveling in their recreational vehicle. Due to the space constraints of living in an RV, McKernan sold his Super Bowl XXXII barrel for $30,000; the barrel, autographed by 49 Broncos from their first Super Bowl winning team, was sold to Nicholas Martinez of Las Animas Colorado. McKernan gave 10% of his profits to Jubilee House, battered women's shelter in Gunnison. McKernan died on December 5, 2009, of respiratory failure caused by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis at age 69.
The last Broncos game before his death was a rout of the Giants on Thanksgiving Day. In November 2012, the History Colorado Center honored the Barrel Man as part of an exhibit called Denver A to Z: Adrenaline to Zombies and Everything in Between. A statue of McKernan epitomizes D for Devoted. Bleacher Creatures Fireman Ed Chief Zee Crazy Ray Hogettes License Plate Guy Denver Broncos Official Website
A figurine or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them. Figurines have been made in many media, with clay, wood and today plastic or resin the most significant. Ceramic figurines not made of porcelain are called terracottas in historical contexts. Figures with movable parts, allowing limbs to be posed, are more to be called dolls, mannequins, or action figures. Figurines and miniatures are sometimes used in board games, such as chess, tabletop role playing games. In China, there are extant Neolithic figurines. European prehistoric figurines of women, some appearing pregnant, are called Venus figurines, because of their presumed connection to fertility; the two oldest known examples are made of stone, were found in Africa and Asia, are several hundred thousand years old. Many made of fired clay have been found in Europe that date to 25-30,000 BC, are the oldest ceramics known. Olmec figurines in semi-precious stones and pottery had a wide influence all over Mesoamerica about 1000-500 BC, were usually kept in houses.
These early figurines are among the first signs of human culture. One can not know in some cases, they had religious or ceremonial significance and may have been used in many types of rituals. Many are found in burials; some may have been intended to amuse children. Porcelain and other ceramics are common materials for figurines. Ancient Greek terracotta figurines, made in moulds, were a large industry by the Hellenistic period, ones in bronze very common. In Roman art bronze came to predominate. Most of these were religious, deposited in large numbers in temples as votives, or kept in the home and sometimes buried with their owner, but types such as Tanagra figurines included many purely decorative subjects, such as fashionable ladies. There are many early examples from China religious figures in Dehua porcelain, which drove the experimentation in Europe to replicate the process; the first European porcelain figurines, were produced in Meissen porcelain in a plain glazed white, but soon brightly painted in overglaze "enamels", were soon produced by neally all European porcelain factories.
The initial function of these seems to have been as permanent versions of sugar sculptures which were used to decorate tables on special occasions by European elites, but they soon found a place on mantelpieces and side tables. There was some production of earthenware figures in English delftware and stoneware, for example by John Dwight of the Fulham Pottery in London, after 1720 such figures became more popular. By around 1750 pottery figures were being produced in large numbers all over Europe. Genre figurines of gallant scenes, beggars or figurines of saints are carved from pinewood in Val Gardena, South Tyrol, since the 17th century. Modern figurines those made of plastic, are referred to as figures, they can encompass modern action figures and other model figures as well as Precious Moments and Hummel figurines, Sebastian Miniatures and other kinds of memorabilia. Some companies which produce porcelain figurines are Lladró and Camal Enterprises. Figurines of comic book or sci-fi/fantasy characters without movable parts have been referred to by the terms inaction figures and staction figures.
There is a hobby known as mini war gaming in which players use figurines in table top based games. These figurines are made of plastic and pewter. However, some premium models are made of resin. For more images related for "Figurine", see Category:Figurines on Commons Olmec figurine Psi and phi type figurine Animal figurines Model figure Bric-a-brac
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check