RAK Studios is a recording studio complex with residential facilities located near Regent's Park in central London, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1976 by English record producer Mickie Most. RAK has four recording rooms. Studios 1 and 2 house API desks; the RAK complex was a Victorian church hall. ”Fairytale of New York” – The Pogues "Living Next Door to Alice" – Smokie "Tiger Feet" – Mud "Can The Can" – Suzi Quatro "Kids in America" – Kim Wilde "Dance with the Devil" – Cozy Powell "You Sexy Thing" – Hot Chocolate "Vienna" – Ultravox "When Love Breaks Down" – Prefab Sprout "Hold Me Now" – The Thompson Twins "Some Girls" – Racey "Pretty In Pink" – The Psychedelic Furs "Down In The Tube Station At Midnight" – The Jam "Everyone's a Winner" – Hot Chocolate "Shattered Dreams" – Johnny Hates Jazz Rak Records RAK Studios — official site
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Tim Simenon is an English musician and record producer, known for his work as Bomb the Bass. Simenon has produced and collaborated with a range of artists including Dave Gahan and Martin Gore of Depeche Mode, he is of Malaysian descent. Bomb the Bass – In the Sun 2010 Bomb the Bass – Back to Light 2008 Toob – "Pirate Teeth" w/Bomb the Bass Bomb the Bass – "Black River" w/Mark Lanegan Bomb the Bass – "Butterfingers" w/ Fujiya & Miyagi Bomb the Bass – "So Special" Bomb the Bass – Future Chaos Fangs – "Fangs City Rockers" Fangs – "Panik Attak" 2007 Futon – "Strap It On" Futon – "Love So Strong" Futon – "End of Friend" 2006Primal Scream – "Sometimes I Feel So Lonely" Dot Allison – "Quicksand" Dot Allison – "Paper Rose" Biggi – "Sofdu Med Ljosid A" Biggi – "Reason to Grow" Biggi – "Perfect Sunday" 2002 "Robot Finger" "Ikara" 2001 Bomb the Bass – "Fast" w/Shawn Lee Bomb the Bass – "Clear Cut" w/Lali Puna 1999 Bomb the Bass – "Lost Your Soul" Bomb the Bass – "Disco Bob" w/Justin Warfield 1998Depeche Mode – "Only When I Lose Myself"Curve – "Sweetback" Curve – "Something Familiar" Curve – "Recovery" Curve – "Killer Baby" Curve – "Dirty High" Curve – "Coming Up Roses"Alpha – "Sometime Later" 1997 Depeche Mode – Ultra Depeche Mode – "The Bottom Line" Depeche Mode – "It's No Good" Depeche Mode – "Insight" Depeche Mode – "Home" Depeche Mode – "Barrel of a Gun" 1996One Inch Punch – Secrets of the One Inch Punch 1995David Bowie – "Hearts Filthy Lesson" Gavin Friday – Shag Tobacco Gavin Friday – "Caruso" Gavin Friday – "Angel" 1994 Gavin Friday & Bono – "In the Name of the Father"Sinéad O'Connor – "You Made Me the Thief of Your Heart" Sinéad O'Connor – "Fire on Babylon" Sinéad O'Connor – "Famine" Sinéad O'Connor – "Thank You For Hearing Me"Massive Attack – "Sly" Bomb the Bass – Clear Bomb the Bass – "Empire" w/B Zephaniah & Sinéad O'Connor Bomb the Bass – "Dark Heart" w/Spikey Tee Bomb the Bass – "Bug Powder Dust" w/Justin Warfield Bomb the Bass – "Brain Dead" w/Justin Warfield 1993Björk – "Play Dead" 1992Cheb Khaled – "Didi" 1991 Bomb the Bass – "Winter in July" w/Loretta Heywood Bomb the Bass – Unknown Territory Seal – "Crazy" 1988Neneh Cherry – "Manchild" Neneh Cherry – "Buffalo Stance" Bomb the Bass – Into the Dragon Bomb the Bass – "Megablast" Bomb the Bass – "Beat Dis"
Depeche Mode are an English electronic band formed in Basildon, Essex, in 1980. The group consists of a trio of Dave Gahan, Martin Gore, Andy Fletcher. Depeche Mode released their debut album Speak & Spell in 1981, bringing the band onto the British new wave scene. Founding member Vince Clarke left after the release of the album. Gore took over as primary songwriter and in 1982, Alan Wilder joined to fill Clarke's spot, establishing a lineup that continued for 13 years; the band's last albums of the 1980s, Black Celebration and Music for the Masses, established them as a dominant force within the electronic music scene. A highlight of this era was the band's June 1988 concert at the Pasadena Rose Bowl, where they drew a crowd in excess of 60,000 people. In early 1990, they released an international mainstream success; the following album, Songs of Faith and Devotion in 1993 was a success, though internal struggles within the band during recording and touring resulted in Wilder's departure in 1995.
Depeche Mode has had 17 top 10 albums in the UK chart. Q included the band in the list of the "50 Bands That Changed the World!". Depeche Mode rank number 98 on VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In December 2016, Billboard named Depeche Mode the 10th most successful dance club artist of all time. Depeche Mode's origins date to 1977, when schoolmates Vince Clarke and Andy Fletcher formed a Cure-influenced band called No Romance In China, with Clarke on vocals and guitar and Fletcher on bass guitar. Fletcher would recall, "Why am I in the band? It was accidental right from the beginning. I was forced to be in the band. I played the guitar and I had a bass. In 1979, Clarke played guitar in an "Ultravox rip-off band", The Plan, with friends Robert Marlow and Paul Langwith. In 1978–79, Martin Gore played guitar in an acoustic duo and the Worms, with school friend Phil Burdett on vocals. In 1979, Marlow and friend Paul Redmond formed a band called the French Look, with Marlow on vocals/keyboards, Gore on guitar and Redmond on keyboards.
In March 1980, Clarke and Fletcher formed a band called Composition of Sound, with Clarke on vocals/guitar, Gore on keyboards and Fletcher on bass. Soon after the formation of Composition of Sound, Clarke heard Wirral band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, whose output inspired him to make electronic music. Along with OMD, other early influences included Daniel Miller and Fad Gadget. Clarke and Fletcher switched to synthesisers, working odd jobs in order to buy the instruments, or borrowing them from friends. Dave Gahan joined the band in 1980 after Clarke heard him perform at a local Scout hut jam session, singing a rendition of David Bowie's "Heroes", Depeche Mode were born. Gahan's and Gore's favourite artists included Sparks and the Banshees, Cabaret Voltaire, Talking Heads and Iggy Pop; when explaining the choice for the new name, taken from French fashion magazine Dépêche mode, Gore said, "It means hurried fashion or fashion dispatch. I like the sound of that." However, the magazine's name is "Fashion News" or "Fashion Update".
Gore recalled that the first time the band played as Depeche Mode was a school gig in May 1980. There is a plaque commemorating the gig at the James Hornsby School in Basildon, where Gore and Fletcher were pupils; the band made their recording debut in 1980 on the Some Bizzare Album with the song "Photographic" re-recorded for their debut album Speak & Spell. The band made a demo tape but, instead of mailing the tape to record companies, they would go in and deliver it, they would demand the companies play it. They'd say'leave the tape with us' and we'd say'it's our only one'. We'd say goodbye and go somewhere else."According to Gahan, prior to securing their record contract, they were receiving offers from all the major labels. Phonogram offered them "money you could never have imagined and all sorts of crazy things like clothes allowances". While playing a live gig at the Bridge House in Canning Town, the band were approached by Daniel Miller, an electronic musician and founder of Mute Records, interested in their recording a single for his burgeoning label.
The result of this verbal contract was their first single, "Dreaming of Me", recorded in December 1980 and released in February 1981. It reached number 57 in the UK charts. Encouraged by this, the band recorded their second single, "New Life", which climbed to number 11 in the UK charts and got them an appearance on Top of the Pops; the band went to London by train. The band's next single was "Just Can't Get Enough"; the synth-pop single became the band's first UK top ten hit. The video is the only one of the band's videos to feature Vince Clarke. Depeche Mode's debut album, Speak & Spell, was released in October 1981 and peaked at number ten on the UK album charts. Critical reviews were mixed. Clarke began to voice his discomfort at the direction the band was taking, saying "there was never enough time to do anything. Not with all the interviews and photo sessions". Clarke said he was sick of touring, which G
Mute Records Ltd. is a British independent record label owned and founded in 1978 by Daniel Miller. It has featured several prominent musical acts on its roster, such as Depeche Mode, Fad Gadget, Grinderman, Inspiral Carpets, New Order, Nitzer Ebb, Yeasayer, Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, M83. During 1978, Daniel Miller began recording music using synthesisers under the name The Normal, he recorded the tracks "T. V. O. D." and "Warm Leatherette", distributed them through Rough Trade Shops under the label name Mute Records. The label was formed just to release the one single. "T. V. O. D." / "Warm Leatherette" became. "Warm Leatherette" was covered by Grace Jones and Chicks on Speed as well as Rose McDowell. After meeting Robert Rental, Miller began playing live as Robert Rental & The Normal. In 1979 the band went on tour supporting the punk band Stiff Little Fingers, which had just released an album, being distributed by Rough Trade. In 1980, Miller released the single, "Kebab-Träume", by the German band Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft, who had moved to London.
The band's 1980 album, Die Kleinen und die Bösen, was the first album released by the new label. The album had the catalogue prefix "STUMM", a play on the record label's name, meaning "mute" in German; this prefix would continue to be used through most of the label's album catalogue. In 1980, Miller recorded and released the cover single, "Memphis Tennessee", under the name Silicon Teens; the band was Miller’s realisation of a dream Mute Records group, whose main instruments were synthesisers. In mid-1980, Mute Records released the Silicon Teens' album, titled Music For Parties. Around this time the artist Fad Gadget had begun recording new demos, including the track "Back To Nature"; this was released as a single in 1980, followed by the next single "Ricky's Hand" and the album Fireside Favourites recorded at Blackwing Studios. September 1980 saw the release of the double-holed, multi-speed 7" single by Non & Smegma, one of the first experimental noise releases from the label. Boyd Rice went on to release several more recordings with Mute Records.
After touring with Daniel Miller as Robert Rental & The Normal, Robert Rental released his only Mute Records single, "Double Heart", a rare, remaining trace of this late electronic music pioneer. Miller approached Depeche Mode in 1980, after seeing them perform in London, wanting them to record a single for his label. Emerging out of the British electronic pop scene, Depeche Mode asserted themselves as a radio-friendly pop group, had hits with their next three singles, including the UK top ten single, "Just Can't Get Enough", their loyalty to Mute was reciprocated by the label’s rapid expansion to cope with their success. In defiance of the major record labels predictions of failure, Depeche Mode became a successful charting band worldwide; the band's consistency was unbroken by the departure of principal songwriter Vince Clarke. Martin Gore took over the main songwriting role, opening the band up to different influences and sustaining their creativity as a band. Mute continued to support other experimental artists, such as NON, releasing an album of Boyd Rice's pre-NON recordings, titled Boyd Rice.
1982 began with the release of the 12-inch single, "Rise", by Boyd Rice, released under the name NON. Fad Gadget released his third album for the label, titled Under the Flag, influenced by the current Falklands War and the feeling of being British in the most unseemly of times; the album spawned the singles "For Whom the Bells Toll" and "Life on the Line". Mute Record's big commercial success of 1982 was the band Yazoo, the duo of Vince Clarke and Alison Moyet. After leaving Depeche Mode, Clarke had set up a studio in the Blackwing Studios complex, where he recorded the singles "Only You" and "Don’t Go"; that year, Mute licensed the single, "Fred Vom Jupiter", from the German record label Atatak. The track was recorded by Andreas Dorau and the schoolgirl Marinas. From Germany was the single, "Los Ninos Del Parque", by Liaisons Dangereuses released by Mute. Liaisons Dangereuses included Chrislo Hass, in the German band DAF. After returning from a world tour in 1983, Depeche Mode released the industrial-influenced hit single "Everything Counts".
Bruce Gilbert and Graham Lewis, of the band Wire, teamed up with Daniel Miller to form a project known as Duet Emmo, an anagram of Mute and Dome. They released an album and 12-inch single, both titled Or So It Seems. Miller secured the rights to the back catalogue of the experimental bands Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire and Richard H. KirkDuring 1983, the Australian band The Birthday Party transferred from 4AD to Mute Records; the band broke up after releasing their final 12-inch EP, "Mutiny". Birthday Party's singer, Nick Cave, stayed with Mute and released his debut single as Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds; the single was a cover of the song, "In the Ghetto", by Mac Davis made famous by Elvis Presley. Yazoo disbanded. Vince Clarke began working at Blackwing Studios under the name The Assembly; the project's first single, "Never Never", was a hit. D. A. F. Split up, in 1983, ex-member Robert Görl released the single "Mit Dir" on Mute, he recorded the album, Night Full of Tension, the following year, including the single "Darling Don’t Leave Me", featuring Annie Lennox.
In 1984, Depeche Mode had one of their biggest hits in the UK with the single "People Are People". Their album that year, Some Great
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro